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Printed by NicH«ur> Son, ami BENTUnr, 
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V/OKE (Sir Sdwarp), lord chief-justice of England^ 
and one of the most eminent lawyers this kingdom haa 
produced, was descaided from an ancient family in Nor- 
folk, and born at Mileham, in that county, 1549^ Hb 
father was Robert Coke, esq. of AfUeham; his mother, 
Winifred, daughter and coheire^sa; ii^.^!^4B^n^ Knightley, 
of Margrave Knightley, in No£mll;^irAt:^*i^|iip.years of age 
he was sent to a free-school at ft^Hnic)^; and from thence 
removed to Trinity-college, in yibnUddgie. ^He remained 
in the university about four yeari^yiiQk4^'^^i¥^j^' from thence 
to Ciifford's-inn, in London ; anchuj^ |^^ ^^^ ^^* *'*- 
tered a student of the Inner Temple. We are told that the 
first proof he gave of the quickness of his penetration, and 
the solidity of his judgment, was his stating the cook*s case 
of the Temple, which it seems had puzzled the whole 
house, so clearly and exactly, that it was taken notice of 
and admired by the bench. It is not at all improbable 
that this might promote his being called early to the bar, 
at the end of six years, which in those strict times was 
•held very extraordinary. He himself has informed us that 
the first cause he moved in the King's-bench, was ia 
Trinity-term, 1578, when he was counsel for Mr. Edward 
Denny, vicar of Nortbingham, in Norfolk, in an action of 
scandalum magnatum, brought against him by Henry lord 
Cromwell. About this time he was appointed reader of 
Lyon*s-inn, when his learned lectures were much attended^ 
for three years. His reputation increased so fast, and 
with it his practice^ that when he had been at the bar but 
Vol. X, B 

« C t> K £• 

a few years, he thought himself in a condition to pretend 
to a lady of one of the best families, and at the same time 
of the best fortune in Norfolk, Bridget^ daughter and co« 
heiress of John Preston, esq. whom he soon married, and 
with whom he had in all about 30,000/. 

After this marriage^ by which he became allied to some 
of the' noblest houses in the kingdom, preferments flowed 
in upon him apace. The cities of Coventry and Norwich 
choice him their recorder ; the county of Norfolk,, one of 
their knights in parliament^ and the house of commons^ 
their speaker, in the thirty-fifth year of queen Elizabeth. 
The queen likewise appointed him solicitor-general, in 
1592, and attorney- general the year following. Some 
time after, he lost his wife, by whom he had ten children ; 
and in 1598 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Jord Burleigh, afterwards earl of Exeter, and relict of sir 
William Hatton. As this marriage Was the source of many 
troubles to both parties, so the very celebration of it occa- 
sioned no small noise and disquiet, by an unfortunate cir- 
isnmstance that attended it. There had been the same 
year so much notice taken of irregular marriages, that 
luiihbishop Whitgift had signified to th(B bishops of his pro- 
vince to prosecute strictly all that should either offend in point 
4}f time, place, or form. Whether Coke looked upon his 
own or the lady's quality,^ and their being married with tine 
conient of the family, as placing them above such restrie* 
tions, or whether he did not advert to them, it is certain 
that they were married in a pi-ivate house, without either 
banns or license; upon which he and his new married lady^ 
the minister who officiated, Thomas lord Burleigh, and 
aeveral other persons, were prosecuted in the archUshop'^s 
court; but upon their submission by their proities^were 
absolved from excommunication, and the penalties conse« 
quent upon it, because, says the record, they had offended^ 
xiot out of contumacy, but through ignorance of the l^vf 
in that point. The affair of greatest moment, in which, as 
attorney-general, he had a share in this reign, was the 
prosecution of the earls of Essex and Southampton, who 
were brought to ^the bar in Westminster-hall, before the 
lords commissioned for their trial, Feb. 19, 1600. After 
h% had laid open the nature df the treason, and the many 
obligations the earl of Essex was under to the queen> be 
is satd to have closed with these words, that, <* by the 
just- judgment of God^ he of his earldom should be Ro- 

c OK fi* i, 

bert the last^ that qf . a kiDgdoin thought to h6 Robert the 
first.'' . 

In May I603| he was knighted by kiog. James ; aoid the 
same year managed the trial of sir W. Raleigh, at.Winr 
chester, whither the term was adjourned, on aqcount of 
the plague being at London; but he lessened htm^df 
greatly in the opinion of the world, by his treatment oi 
that unfortunate gentleman ; as he employed a coarse and 
scurrilous language against him hardly to be paralieledL 
I'he resentment of the public was so great upon this occar 
sion, that as has been generally believed, Shakspeare, ia 
bis comedy of the *^ Twelfth Night,'* hints at this strange 
behaviour of sir Edward Coke at Raleigh's triaL He was 
likewise reproached with this indecent behaviour in a letter 
which sir Francis Bacon wrote to him after his own fall ; 
wherein we have the following passage : ^^ As your pleadings 
were wont to insult our misery, an.d inveigh literally 
against the person, so are you still careless in this point 
to praise and disgrace upon slight grounds, and that sud*** 
denly ; so that your reproofs or commendations are for the 
most part neglected and contemned, when the censure of 
a judge, coming slow, but sure, should be a brand to the 
guilty, and a crown to the virtuous. You will jest at any 
man in public, without any respect to the person's dignity^ 
or your own* This disgraces your gravity more than it 
can advance the opinion of your wit ; and so do all yout 
actions, which we see you do directly with a touch of vain-' 
glory. You make the laws too much lean to your opinion ; 
whereby you shew yourself to be a legal tyrant, &c." Ja^ 
Quary.$S7, 1906, at the trial of the gun*powder conspira* 
tors, and March 28 following, at the tpal of the Jesuit 
Garnet, he made two very elaborate speeches, which were 
soon after published in a book entitled <^ A true and per« 
•feet relation of the whole Proceedings against the late most 
barbarous traitors^ Garnet, a Jesuit, and his confederates, 
&c.'' 1606, 4to^ Cecil earl of Salisbury,, observed in bit 
speech upon the latter trial, ^^ that the evidence had been 
SQ ^ell distributed and > opened by the attorney-general^ 
that he bad never heard such a mass of matter better con« 
tracted, nor made more intelligible to the jury." This 
appears to have been really true ; so true, that many to 
this day eateem this last jspeech, especially, his master* 

B 2 

4 C O Ht. 

It was probably in reward for this service, that be w^ 
appointed lord chief justice of the common-pleas the sam^ 
year. The motto he gave upon his rings^ when he wa» 
called to the degree of serjeant^ in order to qualify him for 
this promotion, was, '^ Lex est tutissima cassis ;*' that is, 
^^Tbe law is the safest helmet/* Oct. 25, 1613, he was 
made lord chief justice of the king*s*bench ; and in Nov. 
was sworn of his majesty's p^ivy-council. In 1615 the 
king deliberating upon the choice of a lord- chancellor, 
when that post should become vacant, by the death or re- 
signation of Egerton lord EUesmere, sir Francis Bacon 
wrote to his majesty a letter upon that subject, wherein 
he has the following passage, relating to the lord chief- 
justice : '^ If you take my lord Coke, Uiis will follow: First, 
your majesty shall put an over-ruling nature into an over- 
ruling place, which may breed an extreme. Next, you 
shall blunt his industries in matter of finances, which 
seemeth to aim at another place. And lastly, popular menT 
are no sure mounters for your majesty's saddle.** The 
disputes and animosities between these two great men are 
19 A\ known. They seem to have been personal ; and they 
lasted to the end of their lives. Coke was jealous of Ba- 
con's reputation in many parts of knowledge ; by whobi, 
again, he was envied for the high reputation he had ac- 
quired in one ; each aiming to be admired particularly in 
that in which the other excelled. Coke was the greatest 
lawyer of his time, but could be nothing more. If Bacon 
was not so, we can ascribe it only to his aiming at a more 
exalted character ; not being able^ or at least not willing, 
to confine the universality of his genius within one inferior 
province of learning. 

Sir Thomas Overbury's murder in the Tower now broke 
out, at the distance of two years after ; for Overbury died 
JSept. 16, 1613, and the judicial proceedings against bis 
murderers did not commence till Sept. 1615. In this af- 
fair sir Edward acted with great vigour, and, as some 
think, in a manner highly to be commended ; yet his ene- 
mies, who were numerous, and had formed a desi^^ to 
bumble his pride and insolence, took occasion, from cer- 
tain circumstances, to misrepresent him both to the king 
and people. Many circumstances concurred at this time 
to hasten his fall. He was led to oppose the king in a dis- 
pute relating to his power of granting commendams, and 

J^aines did not cbopse to bave bis prerogative disputed, 

COKE. ff 

even in cases where it might well be questioned. He had 
a contest with the l6rd chancellor Egerton, in which it is 
universally allowed that he wal» much to be blamed. Sir 
Edward, as a certain historian informs us, had heard and 
determined a case at common law ; after which it was re* 
ported that there had been juggling. The defendant, it 
seems, had prevailed with the plaintiff's principal witness 
not to attend, or to give any evidence in the cause, pro* 
vided he could be excused. One of the defendant's agents 
undertakes to excuse him ; and carrying the man to a ta- 
vern, called for a gallon of sack in a vessel, and bid him 
drink. As soon as he had laid his lips to the flaggon, the 
defendant's agent quitted the room. When this witness 
was called, the court was informed that he wias unable to 
come ; to prove which, this agent was produced, who de« 
))osed, <' that he left him in such a condition, that if he 
continued in it but a quarter of an hour, he was a dead 
, jnan." For want of this person's testimony the cause was 
lost, and a verdict given for the defendant. The plaintifls^ 
Ending themselves injured, carried the business into chan- 
cery for relief ; but the defendants, having had judgment 
at common law, refused to obey the orders of that court. 
Upon this, the lord chancellor commits them to prison for 
contempt of the court : they petition against him in the 
star-chamber; the lord chief justice Coke joins with theip^ 
foments the difference, and threatens the lord chancellor 
with a praemunire. The chancellor makes the king ac* 
quaiuted with the business, who, after consulting sir Fran* 
^is Bacon, then his attorney, and some other la^vyers upon 
the affair, justified the lord chancellor, and gave a proper 
rebuke to Coke. 

Roger Coke gives us a different account of the occasion 
of the chief justice's being in disgrace ; and informs us, 
that he was one of the first who felt the effects of the 
power of the rising favourite, Villiers, afterwards duke of 
Buckingham* The author of the notes on Wilson's ^< Life 
of James," published in the second volume of Keunet's 
" Complete History of England," tells us " that sir Ed- 
ward lost the king's favour, and some time after his place, 
for letting fall some words upon one of the trials, import- 
ing his suspicion that Overbury had been poisoned to pre- 
vent the discovery of another crime of the same nature, 
committed upon one of the highest rank, whom he termed 
a sweet prince 5 which was taken to be meant of princt 

« COKE. 

Henry." Whatever were the causes of his disgrace, whicK 
it is probable were many, he was brought upon his knees 
before the council at Whitehall, June 1616; and offences 
were charged upon him by Yelverton, the solicitor^general, 
implying, amongst other things, speeches of high contempt 
uttered in the seat of justice, and uncomely and unduiiful 
carriage in the presence of his majesty, " the privy coun- 
cil, and judges.^' Soon after, he presented himself again 
at the council-table upon his knees, when secretary Win* 
wood informed him, that report had been made to his ma- 
jesty of what had passed there before, together with the 
answer that he had given, and that too in the most favour- 
able manner; that his majesty was no ways satisfied with 
respect to any of the heads ; but that notwithstanding, as 
well out of his own clemency, as in regard to the formei' 
services of his lordship, the king was pleased not to deal 
heavily with him : and therefore had decreed, 1. That he 
be sequestered from the council-table, until his majesty's • 
pleasure be further known. 2. That he forbear to ride his 
summer circuit as justice of assize. 3. That during this 
vacation, while he had time to live privately and dispose 
himself at home, be take into his consideration and revievr 
his books of Reports ; wherein, as his majesty is informed, 
be many extravagant and exorbitant opinions set down and 
published for positive and good law : and if, in reviewing 
aiid reading thereof, he find any thing fit to be altered or 
ameaded, the correction is left to his discretion. Aoiong 
other things, the king was not well pleased with the title or 
those books, wherein he styled himself *^ lord chief justice 
of England,^' whereas he could challenge no more but lord 
chief justice of the King's-bench. And having corrected 
what in bis discretion he found meet in these Reports, his 
mstjesty^s pleasure was, he should bring the same privatefy to 
himself, diat he might consider thereof, as in his princely 
judgment should be found expedient*. Hereunto Mn 
secretary advised him to conform himself in all duty au4 
obedience, as he ought ; whereby he might hope that hi^ 
majesty in time would receive him again to his gracious 
and princely favour. To this the lord chief justice made 


* It does not, however, appear that courts), made some exceptions to Um 

lord Coke thought it necessary to make Reports now extant in print, and to 

any alteration in his Reports ; but it is which lord Coke made some replies, a(| 

observable that lord chancellor Eltes- of which are to be found in the Sloan iaii 

mere (with whom lord Coke had had collection of MSS. in the British VL\k» 

some difference of opinion with respect seom. — ' Bridgman's Legal Bibliogriiir 

ta tbe jurisdiQtioa of theif respective pby. 


iaswer^ tbat te did in all hudiility prostrate bimself to Iria 
majesty 'a good jileasure ; that he acknowledged, that dj^ 
cr^e to be jost^ and proceeded rather from his majesty'^ 
exceeding. mercy than his justice ; gave bumble thank$ ^ 
their lordships for their goodness towards him ; ai^d boped 
that bis behaviour for the future would be such is would 
deserve their lordships^ favours. From which answer of 
sir Edward^s weniay learn that b^ was, as such men alwa^ys 
are^ as dejected and fawning in adversity, as be was insor 
lent and overbearing in prosperity.; the same meannei^s 
and poorness of spirit influencing his behaviour in both 

In October be was called before the chanceUor^ and 
forbid Westminster-hall ; and also ordered to answer seve^ 
ral exceptions against bis Repoi^ts. In November tfae king 
removed him from the office of lord chief justice. Upoti 
his disgrace, sir Francis Bacon wrote him an admonitory 
.letter, in which, he remonstrates to him several . errors in 
his former behaviour and conduct. We have made a cita^ 
tion from this letter already ; we will here give the remain* , 
der of it : for though perhaps it was. not very generous in 
Bacoa to write such a letter at such a season, even to a 
professed adversary, yet it wUl, serve to illustraite the cha>* ^ 
racter and manners of Coke. In this letter Bacon advised 
sir Edward to be humbled for this visitation; and observes^ 
^^ that affliction only Ibvels the molehills of pride in ui^ 
ploughs up the heart, and makes it fit for wisdom to 90^ 
ber seed, and grace to bring forth her increase.'' He 
afterwards points out to him some errors in hia conduct 
^* In discourse," says he, ^^ you delight to speak too muoh^ 
not to hear other men. This, some say, becomes a 
pleader, not a judge, ^or by this sometimes your afiec^ 
tions are entangled with a love of your own arguments, 
though they be the weaker ; and with rejecting of those 
which, when your affections were settled, your own judg>. 
ment would allow for strongest. Thus, While you speak 
in your element, the law, no man ordinarily ecjuals: you ; 
but when you wander, as you often delight to do, .yoiithen 
wander indeed, and never give such satisfaction as the 
curious time requires. This is not caused by any natural 
defect^ but first for want of election ; when you, having a 
large and frnitfiri mind, Aould not so much labour what to 
i^eak, as to find what to leave unspoken. Rich soils are 
«ften to be weeded. S^ondly, you clay your, auditor;^ 

». COKE. 

When yoa would be observed, speech must be eithe? swmt 
or short Thirdly, you converse with books, not men^ 
and books specially humane ; and have no excellent choice 
with men, who are the best books. For a man oi acticMi 
and employment you seldoih converse with, and then but 
with underlings ; not freely, but as a schoolmaster, ever 
to teach, never to learn. But if sometimes you would in 
your familiar discourse hear others, and make election of 
fiuch ias knew what they ,speak, you should know many of 
those tales, which you tell, to be but ordinary ; and many 
other things, which you delight to repeat and serve in for 
novelties, to be but stale. As in your pleadings you were 
wont to insult even misery, and inveigh bitterly against 
the person ; so are you still careless in this point,'' &c. 
'^ Your too much love of the world is too much seen, whea 
having the living of 10,000/. you relieve few or none. The 
hand that hath taken so much, can it give so little ? Herein 
you shew no bowels of compassion, as if you. thought all 
too little for yourself, or that God had given you all that 
you have, only to that end you should still gather more, 
and never be satisfied, but try how much you could gather, 
to account for all at the great and general audit day. We 
desire you to amend this, and let your poor tenants ia 
^orfoft find some comfort, where nothing of your estate 
is spent towards their relief,, but all brought up hither to 
the impoverishing your country.'' He then tells him, 
*^ that in the case of Overbury he used too many delays, till 
the delinquent's hands were loose, and his own bound; 
and that he was too open in his proceedings, and so taught 
them how to defend themselves. But that," continues he, 
-^^ which we commend you for, are those excellent parts. of 
nature and knowledge in the law, which you are endued 
withal. But these are only good in their good use. 
V Wherefore we thank you heartily .for standing stoutly in 
the commonwealth's behalf; hoping, it proceedeth not 
from a disposition to oppose greatness, as your enemies 
say, but to do justice, and deliver truth indifferently with* 
out respect of persons." 

Low as sir Elidward was fallen, he was afterwards restored 
to credit and favour ; the first step to which was, his pro^ 
posing a match between the earl of Buckingham's elder 
brother, sir John Villiers, and his younger daughter by the 
lady Hatton : for he knew no other way of gaining that 
fiivourite. This; however, occasioned a violent disputo^ 

C K fi. « 

inA quarrel between sir Edward and bis wife; wbo, tB" 
senting ber husband^s attempt to dispose of ber daughter 
without asking her leave, carried away the young lady, and 
lodged her at sir Edmund Wttbipole^s bouse near Oatlands. 
Upon this, i»ir Edward wrote immediately to the earl of 
Buclingbam, to procure a warrant from the privy^-council 
to restore bis daughter to him ; but before be received an 
answer, discovering where she was, he went with his sons 
and took bisr by force, which occasioned lady Hatton to 
complain in her turn toih6 privy council. Much confu*- 
flion followed ; and this private match became at length an 
affair ^f ^te. The differences were at length made up» 
in appearance at least, Sept. 1617; sir Edward was re* 
store4 to favour, and reinstated in his place as privy^coun^* 
dllor ; and sir John Villiers was married to Mfs. Frances 
Coke at Hampton-court, with all the splendour imaginable^ 
This wedding, however, cost sir Edward deftr. For besides 
10,000/. paid in money at two payments, he and his son 
sir Robert did, pursuant to articles and directions of the 
lords of the council, assure to sir John Villiers a rent*charge 
of 2000. marks per annum during sir Edward's life, and of 
900L a year during the lady Ration's life, if she survived 
faer husband; and after both their deaths, the manor of 
Stoke in Buckinghamshire, of the value of 900/. per an« 
num, to sir John Villiers and his lady, and to the heirs of 
ber body. The same were settled by good conveyances 
carefully drawn the January following, and certified to his 
majesty under the hands of two seijeants and the attorney* 
general. • All this time the quarrel subsisted between htm 
and bis wife: and many letters are still extant, which 
shew a great deal of beat and resentment in both parties. 
At the time of the marriage lady Hatton was confined at 
the complaint of her husband : for, since her marriage^ 
she had purchased the island and castle of Purbeck, and 
several other estates in different counties ; which made her 
greatly independent of her husband. However, their re* 
conciliation was afterwards effected, but not till July 1621, 
and then by no less a mediator than the king. 

A parliament was summoned, and met January 1621 ; 
and in February there was a great debate in the bouse of 
commons upon several points of importance^ such as li-, 
berty of speech, the increase of popery, and other griev* 
ances. Sir .Edward Coke was a member, and his age, 
fxperi^Qce; and dignity ga?e bim great weight there : bu^ 

10 c o I?: E. 

it very' soon appeared that be resolved to act a diflfereni 
part from what the courts and more especially the giceal 
favourite Buckingham, expected. He spoke very warmly; 
and also took occasion to shew, that proclam^tiona against 
the tenor of acts of parliament were void : fox which he is 
highly commended by Camden. The.bouse^, being ad« 
journed by the king^s command in June, met again in No<r 
vember ; and fell into great heats about the. commitment 
of sir Edwin Sands, soon after their adjournment^ whieh 
bad such unfortunate consequences, that the commoBS 
pro^sted, Dec. 18, against the invasion of their privileges 
The king prorogued the parliament upon the 2ist ; and on 
the 27th, sir Edward Coke wa^ committed u> tbe Tower^ 
his chambers in the Temple broke open, and bis papers 
delivered to sir Robert Cotton and Mr. WiUon to ftxamin& 
January 6, 1622, the parliament was dbsolved; and the 
same day sir Edward was charged before the council with 
having concealed some true examinations in the great 
cause of the earl of Somerset, and obtruding false ones: 
nevertheless, he was soon after released, but not without 
receiving high marks of the king's resentment: for he was 
a second time turned out of the king's privy-coiincil,' the 
king 'giving him this character, that '' he was the fittest 
instrument for a tyrant that ever was in England**' Ancil 
yet, says Wilson, in the house he called the king's pre* 
rogative an overgrown monster. Towards the close of 
1623 he was nominated, with several others, to whom large 
powers were given, to go over to Ireland ; which nominal 
tion, though accompanied with high expressions of kindr 
ness and confidence, was made with no other view but ta 
get him out of the way for fear he should be troublesome^ 
but he remained firm in his opinions, nor does it appear 
that he ever sought to be reconciled to the court ; so that 
he was absolutely out of favour at the death of king James*. 
In the beginning of the next reign, when it was found 
necessary to call a second parliament, he was pricked for -^ 
sheriff of Bucks in 1625, to prevent his being chosen* He 
laboured all he could to avoid it, but in vain ; .so. that, be 
was obliged to serve the office, and to attend the judges at 
the assizes, where he had often presided as lord xbief 
justice. This did not hinder his being elected knight of 
the shire for Bucks in the parliament of 1628, in which he 
distinguished himself more than any man in the house of 
commons, spoke warmly for the redress of |;rievance8> 


Argued boldly in defence of the liberty of the subject, and 
sirequousiy supported the privilege of the house. It was 
he that proposed and framed the petition of rights ; and^ 
June 1628, he made a speech, in which he named the 
duke of Buckingham as the cause of all our mberie% 
though, lord Clarendon tells us, he had before blasphemously 
vtyled him the saviour of the nation ; but although there is 
no great reason to conclude that all this opposition to the 
arbitrary measures of die court flowed from any pr inciplea 
of patriotism, he became for a time the idol of the party 
in opposition to the court, and his conduct at this time is 
still mentioned with' veneration by their historians and ad« 
vocates. Our own' opinion is, that although lord Coke 
^0izs occasionally under the influence of temper or interest^ 
hie was, upon the whole, a more independent character than 
his enemies will admit; After the dissolution of this par^ 
liatnent, which happened the March following, he retired 
ta his house at Stoke Pogeys in Buckinghamshire, where 
he apent the remainder of bis days; and there, Sept» 
5^ 16S4, breathed his last in his eighty-sixth year, ex- 
piring with these words in his mouth, as his monument in- 
ibrma in, <^ Thy kingdom come ! thy will be done !'' 
While he lay upon his death*bed, sir Francis Windebank, 
by an order oiiiouncil, came to search for seditious and 
<ihingerouB papers ; by virtue whereof he took his '^ Com« 
meutary upon Littleton," and the ^' History of his Life'' 
before it, written with his own hand, his ^' Commentary 
upon Magn^ Cbarta, &c.*' the ^' Pleas of the Crown,*' and 
the ^^ Jurisdiction of Courts,** his eleventh and twelfth 
^< Reports*' in MS. and 51 other MS8. with the last will of 
sir Edward, wherein he had been making provision for hia 
younger grand<-children. The books and papers were kept 
till seven years after, when one of his sons in 1641 moved 
the house of commons, that the books and papers taken by 
sir Francis Windebank might be delivered to sir Robert 
Coke, heir of sir Edward ; which the king was pleased to 
grant. Such of them as could be fpund were accordingly 
delivered up, but the Y^ill was never heard of more. 

Sir Edward Coke was in his person well-proportioned, 
and his features regular. He was neat, but not nice, in 
his dress : and is reported to have said, '' that the clean* 
ness of a man's clothes ought to put him in mind oi keep- 
ing tfU clean within." He had' great quickness of parts, 
de0p peaetration^ a faithful memory, and a soUd judg^ 


ment. He was wont to say, that ^^ matter lay iii a littte 
room;'* and in his pleadings ^e was concise, though in 
0et speeches and in his writings too diffuse. He was cer-^ 
tainly a great master of his pr^ession^ as ^ven his enemies 
allow; had studied it regularly, and was perfectly ac* 
quainted with every thing relating to it. Hence he gained 
ao high an esteem in Westminster^hall, and came to enjoy 
so lai^e a share in the favour of the great lord Burleigbb 
He valued himself, and indeed not without reason, upon 
this, that he obtained all his preferments without emfrfoy- 
ing either prayers or pence; and that he became the 
•queen's solicitor, speaker of the house of comAnons, at^ 
tomey-general, chief justice of both benches, high-stew* 
ard of Cambridge, and a member of the privy-council^ 
.without either begging or bribing. As he derived his for« 
4;une, his credit, and his greatness, from the law, so he 
loved it to a degree of intemperance. He . committed 
every thing to writing with an industry beyond examjil^ 
9ind, as w^ shall relate just now, published a great deal. 
•He met with many changes of fortune ; was sometimes ia 
power, and sometimes in disgrace. He was, however, se 
excellent at making the best of a disgracei that king James 
used to compare him to a cat, who always fdli upon lier 
legs. He was upon occasion a friend to the church, and 
clergy : and thus, when he had lost his public employ* 
ments, and a great peer was inclined to question the rights 
of the church of Norwich, he hindered it, by telling him 
plsuiily, that ^' if be proceeded, he would put on his cap 
and gown again, and follow the cause through Westmin* 
ster-ball.V He had many benefices in bis own patronage, 
which he is said to have given freely to men of merit; 
declaring in his law language, that be would have law 
livings pass by livery and seisin, and not by bargain and 

^' His learned and laborious works on the laws,*' says a 
certain author, ^^ will be admired by judicious posterity^ 
while Fame has a trumpet left her, or any breath to. blow 
therein.'* Tt^is is indisputably a just character of his writ* 
ings in general : the particulars of which are as follow* 
About 1600 were published, in folio^ the first part of the 
y' Reports of sir Edward Coke, knt. her majesty's attorney^ 
general, of divers resolutions and judgmentis given^ witii 
great deliberation by the reverend judges and sages of the 
law» of cases and matters in law, which were never resolved 


•r adjudged before : and the xeasons and causes of the said 
resolutions and judgments during the most happy reign of 
the most illustrious and renowned queen Elizabeth, the 
fountain of all justice, and the life of the law.'' The second, 
third, and so on to the eleventh part of the ^* Reports'* 
were all published by himself in the reign of James I. The 
twelfth part of his Reports has a certificate printed before 
it, dated Feb. 2, 1655, and subscribed E. Bulstrod; sig* 
nifyingj that he conceives it to be the genuine woric of sir 
Edward Coke. The title of the thirteenth part is, ** Se<* 
lect cases in law, reported by sir Edward Coke ;" and these 
are asserted to be his in a preface signed witib the initials 

• All these Reports have been uniformly received by our 
courts with the utmost deference; and as a mark of distin- 
guished eminence, they are frequently cited as, 1, 2, 3, &c. 
Rep. without mentioning the author's name, and in his own 
writings they are usually described as Lib. 1, 2, 3, &c« There 
have been many editions of these Reports, the last in 1776, 
in 7 vols. 8vo, by Wilson. They have also been abstractedly 
versified in an Svo volume, 1742, in a very curious manner, 
for the help of the memory, and the method seems to have 
been recommended by the practice of lord Coke himsel£ 

* In 1614 there was published, ^^ A speech and charge at 
Norwich a^iizes," intended to pass for sir Edward Coke's ; 
but he clearly ^disclaims it, in the preface to the seventh 
part of his Reports. He did indeed make a speech at that 
time^ and in some measure to this purpose ; but these notef 
of it were gathered and published without his knowledge 
in a very incorrect and miserable manner, and published 
with a design to prejudice and expose bim. In 1614 was 
published in folio, '< A book of entries, containing perfect 
and approved precedents of courts, declarations^ informal 
tions, plaints, indictments, bars, duplic^ions, rejoinders, 
pleadings, processes, continuances, essoigns, issues, de- 
iaults', departure in despigbt of the court, demurrers, trials, 
judgments, executions, and all other oiatters and proceed- 
ings, in effect, concerning the practic part of the laws of 
England, in actions real, personal, mixed, and in appeals : 
being very necessary to be known, and of excellent use for 
the modem practice of the law, many of them. containing 
matters in law, and points of great learning ; collected afid 
^published for the common good and benefit of all the stu- 
dipi^ md learned professors of the laws of England.^.^ 

1« C OKlt. 



His ^^Institntes" are ^divided into four parls. Tli^ £fa(t 
k the translation and comment upon the '^ Tenures of ^ 
Thomas Littleton/' oneof the judges of the cdmmon*?plea8 
in the reign of Edward I V« It was published in bisr life^ 
time, in 1 628 ; but that edition was very incorrect Tberef 
was a second published in 1629, said to be revised by the 
author, and in which this work is much amended ; yetsevet* 
ral mistakes remained even in that. The second part ,of 
the '^ Institutes'' gives ns magna charta, and other select 
statutes, in the languages in which they were first enacted, 
and much more correct than they were to be had any wbei^ 
.else. He adds to these a cpmmentary full of .eiEcelliept 
learning, wherein he shews how the common law stood be^ 
fore those statbtes we're made, how far they are introdac* 
tbry of new laws, and how far declaratory of the. old ; what 
were the causes of making them, to what ends they were madey 
and in what degree, at the time of his writing, they were 
either altered or repealed. The third part of the ^^ InstU 
lutes'' contains the criminal law or pleas of the crown : 
where, among other things, he shews, in regard to pardons 
and restitutions, how far the king may proceed by his pre* 
rogative, and where the assistance of parliament is neces^ 
sary. The fourth part of the *J Institutes" comprehends 
the jurisdiction of all the courts in this kingdom, from the 
high court of parliament down to the court-baron. This 
part not being published till after his decease, there are 
many inaccuracies and some greater faults in it, which were 
animadverted upon and amended in a book written by 
William Prynne, esq. and published in 1669. The thir- 
teenth,' fourteenth, and fifteenth editions of the '^ Insti-^ 
tutes,'' 1788, 1789, apd 1794, by Hargrave and Butler^ are 
esteemed the best. 

We have besides of his, 1. A treatise of Bail and Main* 
prize, 1687, 4to. 2. Reading on the state of Fines, 27 
£dw. I. French, 1662, 4to. 3. Complete Copyholder, 1640^ 
4to. There was added in another edition of this book 
in 1650, 4to, Calthorpe's reading between a lord of a 
manor and a copyholder his tenant, &c. And in the edi« 
tions in 12mo, 1668 and 1673, there is a supplement ; but 
a more complete specification of the various editions may 
be found in Bridgman's " Legal Bibliography." * 

1 Biog. Brit— Lloyd'B Worthies.— -Fuller's Worthies Lodge's niustrfttioniw 

vol. III. — Seward's Anecdotes, vol. I. and Biographiana, vol. H.-^Archseologiay 
vol. I. p. XX. — Roger Cake's Detection of the Court apd SUte of £B|flandy h9k 
1697, 8vo. He wa» grandson of lord Coke, 


COLARDEAU (Charles Pbter), a French poet^ was 
iiorn at Janvilie in the Orleanois in 1735, and was a rotairy 
of the muses from his very infancy. He made bis first 
appearance in the literary world in 1758, by a poetical 
Iranslation of Pope's Eloisa to Abelard ; in which he was 
said to have retained the warmth of the original, with the 
richness of its images. His trag^i^es of Astarbe and Calisto^ 
the one performed in 1758, and the other in 1760, were successfoL The complexion of them is indeed sor- 
rowfal, and even gloomy, but never tragical. The ^^ Tem- 
ple of Gnidos^'^ and two of the " Nights" of Young, in 
French verse, tlie epistle to M. Duhamel, and the poem of 
Prometheus, which appeared afterwards, slt^ in general 
versified in a soft and harmonious manner. The epistle to 
M. Duharael, which is replete with rural descriptions and 
sentiments of beneficence, has been ranked by many of its 
enthusiastic admirers with the best epistles of Boiieav, 
These several performances excited the attention of the 
French academy towards the author, who elected him m 
member atihe beginning of 1776 ; but before he had pro* 
flounced his inaugural discourse, he was snatched away by 
death, in the flower of his ag^, the 7 th of April in the same 
year, after.hehad risen from his bed in a state of extreme 
weakness, and burnt what he had written of a translation 
of Tasso. This poet, who has so well described the charms 
of nature in his poems, and who even understood the art 
of drawing, yet in all the variety of colours saw only white 
and black, and only the different combinations of light and 
shade. This singular organization, however, di4 not wea« 
ken the charms of his imagination. His works were coU 
lected in two vol$. 8vo^ Paris, 1779, and have been i^nce 
reprinted in l2mo. Among these is a comedy entitled 
'' Les perfidies ^ la mode," in which are some agreeable 
verses, two or three characters well enough drawn, but not 
a single spark of the vis comica. ^ 

COLBERT (John Baptist), marquis of Segnelai, one 
of the greatest statesmen that France ever had, was born 
.at Paris in 1619, and descended from a fomily that lived 
at Rheims in Cbampaigne, originally from Scotland (the 
Cuthberts), but at that time no way considerable for its 
splendour. His grandfather is said to have been a wine** 
merchant, and his father at first followed the same occU'^ 

1 Diet. Hist.-*D'Iftr«eli'a Ct«iositiei^ vol. I. p. 85^ 


patioil ; but afterwards traded in cloth, and at last in sill(^ 
Our Colbert vras instructed in the arts of merchaudizey and 
aftervrards became clerk to a notary^ In 1648 his relation 
John Baptist Colbert, lord of S. Pouange, preferred him to 
thi^ service of Michael le Tellier, secretary of state, whose 
sister he' had married ; and here he discovered such dili- 
gence and exactness in executing all the commissions 
that were entrusted to' his care, that he quickly grew-dis- 
tinguished. One day his master sent him to cardinal Ma- 
zarine, who was then at Sedan, with a letter written by the 
queen mother ; and ordered him to bring it back after that 
minister had seen it. Colbert carried the letter, and would 
not return without it, though the cardinal treated him 
joughly, used several arts to deceive him, and obliged him 
jto wait for it several days. Some time after, the cardinal 
. returning to court, and wanting one to write his agenda or 
memoranda, desired le Tellier to furnish him with a fit per- 
son for that employment ; and Colbert being presented to 
him, the ctardinal had some remembrance of him, and de^ 
sired to know where he had seen him. Colbert was afraid 
of putting him in mind of Sedan, lest the remembrance of 
his behaviour in demanding the queen's letter should re- 
new his anger. But the cardinal was so far frojp disliking 
him for his faithfulness to his late master, that he received 
him on condition that he should serve him with the like zeal 
and fidelity. « 

Colbert applied himself wholly to the advancement of 
his master's interests, and gave him so many marks of his 
diligence and skill that afterwards he made him his inten- 
dant. He accommodated himself so dexterously to the in- 
clinations of that Ininister, by retrenching his superfluous 
expences, that he was entrusted with the sale of benefices 
and governments, and it was by Colbert's counsel that the' 
cardinal obliged the governors of frontier places to main« 
tain their garrbons with the contributions they exacted^ 
He was sent to Rome, to negociate the reconciliation of 
cardinal de Retz, for which the pope had shewed sonke 
concern ; and to persuade his holiness to fulfill the treaty 
concluded with his predecessor Urban VIII. From all these 
services Mazarine conceived so high an opinion of Col- 
bert's abilities, that at his death in 1661, he earnestly 
recommended him to Louis XIV. as the most proper per« 
^ son to regulate the finances, which at that time were ia 
great confasiou. Louis accepted the recoamiendation^ and 


Colbifert being appointed iDtetulaQt of the finances, applied 
' bimself to tbeir regulatton, and succeeded : though it pro* 
cured him many enemies. France is also obliged to this 
fisinister for establishiog at that time her trade with the 
East and West Indies^ from whiqh she once reaped innu- 
merable advantages. 

In 1664 he became superintendant of the buildings ; and 
from that time applied himself earnestly to the enlarging 
apd adorning of the royal edifices^ particularly those 
spleodid works, the palace of theTuilleries, the Louvre^ 
St. Gmraain, Font^nbleau, and Cbombord. Versailles, 
which be found a dogrkennel, where Louis XIII. kept his 
hunting equipage, be rendered a pals^c^ fit for the greatest 
monarch. Colbert also formed several designs for increas- 
ing the beauty and convenience of the capital city, and 
bad the principal hand in the establishment of the academy 
for painting and sculpture in 1664, which originated in 
,ibe fojUowii^ circumstance : the king's painters and 
sculptors, with other skilful professors of those arts, being 
prosecuted at law by the master-painters at Paris, joined 
together in a society, under the name of the Royal Aca- 
demy for sculpture and painting, with a view to hold public 
e^^ercises, for the sake of improving the arts, and advanc- 
ing them to the highest degree of perfection* They put 
then>$elves under the protection of Mazarine, and chose 
chanceUpr Seguier tbeir vice-protector ; and after Maza- 
rine^a daiatb chose Seguier their protector, and Colbert 
theor vice-pJTOtector ; and it was at bis solicitation that they 
were finally established by a patent, containing new pri- 
vilegea^ in 16i4. Colbert, being made protector after the 
deaith of Seguie^) thought fit that an historiographer should 
be appointed, whc^se .business it should be to collect all 
curioua and useful observations made at tbeir conferences. 
His msyesty acquiesced in the appointment of this new 
officer, and settled on him a salary of 300 livres. To Col- 
bert alsO the lovers of naval knowledge are obliged, for the 
erection of the academy of sciences ; and in 1667, for the 
royal observatory at Paris, which was first inhabited by 
Cassint. France aUo owes to him all the advantages she 
receives by the union of the two seM ; a prodigious work^ 
begun in 1666, and finished in 1680. Colbert was besides 
very attentive to. matters which regarded the order, de- 
cency,* and well-being of society* He undertook to reform 
the courts of justice, and to put a stop to the usurpation of 


noble titliss ; which was then veiy common in France. In 
the former of those attempts he £uled/ in the latter ho 

In 1669 he was made secretaxv of state» and entrusted 
with the management of affairs relating to the sea : and his 
performances in this province were answerable to the con^ 
fidence his majesty reposed in him. He suppressed seve- 
ral offices, which were chargeable and useless : and in the 
mean time, perceiving the king^s zeal for the extirpation 
of heresy, he shut up the chamber instituted by the edicts 
of Paris and Roan. He proposed several new regulations 
concerning criminal courts ; and was extremely severe with 
the parliament of Tholouse, for obstructing the measures 
he took to carry the same into execution. ^ His main de- 
sign in reforming the tedious methods of proceeding at 
law, was to give the people more leisure to apply them- 
selves to trading : for the advancement of which he pro- 
cured an edict, to erect a general insurance-office at Paris, 
for merchants, &c« In 1672 he was made minister of state, 
and amidst these multiplied employments, it has been ob^ 
served that he never neglected his own or his family^s inte- 
rest and grandeur, or missed any opportunity of advancing 
either. He had^ been married many years, had sons and 
daughters grown up ; all of whom, as occasion served, he 
took care to marry to great persons, and thus strengthened 
his interest by powerful alliances. Business, however, was 
certainly Colbert's natural turn ; and he not only loved it^ 
but was very impatient of interruption in it A lady of 
great quality was one day urging him, when he was in the 
height of his power, to do her some piece of service -, and 
perceiving him inattentive and inflexible, threw herself at 
his feet, in the presence of above an hundred persons, cry- 
ing, '' I beg your greatness, in the name of God, to grant 
me this favour!** Upon which, Colbert, kneeling down 
over against her, replied, in the same mournful tone, *^ I 
conjure you, madam, in the name of God, not to disturb 
me !** 

This great minister died of the stone, Sept. 6, 1683, in 
his 65th year, leaving behind him six sons and thre^ 
daughters. He was of a middle stature, his mien low and 
dejected, his air gloomy, and his aspect stem. ' He slept 
little, and was extremely temperate. Though naturally 
sour and morose, he knew how to &ct the lover, and had 
^mistresses. He was of a slow conception, but spoke judU 


C O L B £ R t. l9 

tibasly of every, tbin^ after lie bad oncfe comprehended it. 
He understood business perfectly well^ and be pursued it 
witb .unwearied application. Tbis enabled bim to fill tbe 
most important places with high reputation and credit^ 
wbile bis influence diffused itself through every part of the 
govemaient. He restored the finances^ the navy, the com- 
merce of France ; and be erected those various works o£ 
art, which have ever since been monuments of bis tast^ 
and magnificence. He was a lover of learning, though 
not a man of learning himself, and liberally conferred do- 
nations and pensions upon scholars in other countries, wbile 
he established and protected academies in his own. He 
invited into France painters, statuaries, mathematicians^ 
and eminent artists of all kinds, thus giving new life to the 
sciences. Upon the wbole^ be was a wise, active, gene-< 
rous-spirited minister; ever attentive to the interests of 
bis master, the happiness of the people, the progress of 
arts and manufactures, and to every thing that could ad- 
vance the credit and interest of bis country, while bis 
failings were sach as could not injure bim in the opinion of 
his age and country. ^ 

COLBERT, John Baptist. See TORCY. 

COLE (Charles Nalson), an English lawyer, and le^^ 
gal antiquary, was born in the Isle of Ely in 1722, and 
educated at St. John's college, Cambridge, which be left 
after taking bis bachelor's degree in 1743; and having 
studied law in the Inner Temple, was admitted to the bar. 
He became afterwards Registrar to the corporation of Bed-^ 
ford Level, and published ^' A Collection of Laws which 
form the constitution of the Bedford Level Corporation^ 
with an introductory history thereof,'' 1761, 8vo. In 1772 
be was editor of a new edition of Sir William Dugdale^s 
^' History of embanking and drayning of divers fenns and 
marshes, &c." originally printed 1662, fol. This new 
edition was first undertaken by the corporation of Bedford 
Level; but upon application to Richard Geast, esq. of 
Blytbe'Hall, in the county of Warwick, a lineal maternal 
descendant of the author, he desired that it might be en-» 
tirely conducted at bis own expence. Mr. Cole added 
three very useful indexes. Mr. Cole's next appearance in 
the literary world was as editor to Mr. Soame Jenyns's 

. 1 Life of, Cologn, 1695, aad id Eoflish, 1695, 8vo.— 'M«reri.«»P!ct. fiiiU-. 
FerrattU Les Uomraei lilattm. 



#orks, with whom he bad lived in habits of friendship for 
ntBT half a century. Mr. Jenyns, who died in 1787, 
b43K}ueathed to him the copy-right of all his published 
^orks, and consigned to his care all his literary papers, 
with a desire that he would collect together and superin" 
tend the publication of his works. In executing this, Mr. 
Cole made such a selection as shewed his regard for the 
reputation of his friend, and prefixed a life written with 
candour. Mr. Cole, who had long lived a private and re- 
tired life, died Dec. 18, 1804, at his house in Edward- 
street, Cavendish-square, after a tedious and severe illness^ 
in the eighty •second year of his age. ^ 

COLE (Hbnry), a person of considerable learning in 
the sixteenth century, was born at Godsbill in the Isle of 
Wight, and educated in Wykeham^s school near Winches- 
ter. From thence he was chosen to New college, Oxford, 
of which he became perpetual fellow in 1523, and studying 
the civil law, took the degree of bachelor in that faculty, 
March 3, 1529-30. He then travelled into Italy, and im- 
proved himself in his studies at Padua, being a zealous 
Koman catholic, but upon his return to England, he ac- 
knowledged king Henry VIII. to be the supreme liead of 
the church of England. In 1540, he took the degree of 
doctor of the civil law ; and the same year resigned bis fel- 
lowship, being then settled in London, an advocate in the 
court of arches, prebendary of Yatminster Secunda in the 
church of Sarum, and about the same time was made arch- 
deacon of Ely. In September, 1540, he was admitted to 
the rectory of Chelmsford in Essex ; and in October f(^- 
lowing, collated to the prebend of Holborn, which he re- 
signed April 19, 1541; and was the same day collated to 
that of Sneating, which he voiding by cession in March 
ensuing, was collated to the prebend of Wenlakesbaroe. 
In 1542 he was elected warden of New College; and in 
1545 m^e rector of Newton Longville in Buckingham- 
shire. Soon after, when king Edward VI. came to the 
crown, Dr. Cole outwardly embraced, and preached up 
the reformation, but altering hiis mind, he resigned his 
rectory of Chelmsford in 1547; and in 1551 his warden- 
ship of New College ; and the year following, his rectory 
of Newton Longville. After queen Mary's accession to 
the crown, he became again a zealous Koman catholic ; 

* NichoIs*t Bowser. 

COLE. ai 

•Dd in 1554. was Biade provost of Eton college, of which 
be had been fellow. The same year, June 20, he had 
the degree of D. D. conferred on him, and was on^ of 
the divines that disputed publicly at Oxford with arch- 
bishop Cranmer, and bishop Ridley. He also preached 
the funeral sermon before archbishop Cranmer^s execution. 
He was appointed one of the commissioners to Tisit the 
university of Cambridge ; was elected dean of St« Paul's 
the 11th of December, 1556; made (August 8, 1557) vi-> 
car-general of the spiritualities under cardinal Pole, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; and the first of October following, 
official of the arches, and dean of the pecutiars ; and in 
November ensuing, judge of the court of audience. In 
1558 be was appointed one of the overseers of that car- 
dinal's will. In the first year of queen Elizabeth's reign 
he was one of the eight catholic divines who dispute 
publicly at Westminster with the same number of pro* 
testants, and distinguished himself then and afterwards^ 
by bis writings in favour of popery, for which he was de* 
prived of his deanery, fined five hundred marks, and im- 
prisoned. He died in or near Wood -street compter, in 
London, in December, 1579. Leiand has noticed him 
among other leaned men of our nation. He is called bj 
Strype ** a person more earnest than wise," but Ascham 
highly commends him for his learning and humauity. U 
is evident, however, that he accommodated bis changes |of 
opinions to the tiines, although in his heart he was among 
the most bigotted and implacable opponents of the re- 
formed religion. His writings were, 1. ** Disputation with 
archbishop Cranmer and bishop Ridley at Oxford," in 
1554. 2. '' Funeral Sermon at the Burning of Dr. Tbo* 
mas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury." Both tfaese are 
in Fox's Acts and Monuments. 3. ". Letters to John Jewell, 
bishop of Salisbury, upon occasion of a Serooon that the said 
bishop preached before the queen's majesty and her honoorr 
able council, anno 1 560," Lond. 1 560, 8vo, printed afterwards 
among Bishop Jewell's works. 4. ** Letters to bishop 
JeweU, upon occasion of a Sermon of bis preached at Paul's 
Cross on the second Sunday before Easter, in 1560.^ 5. 
<* An Answer to the first proposition of the Protestants, at 
the Disputation before the lords at Westminster." These 
last are in Burnet's History of the Reformation. ^ 

1 Biof-Brit. — ^Ath. Oi. toI. I.— Fox'f A«tt and Bionuaienti.^Baniet*!, CoU 
l\m% s&d Dodd't Ch. UitU 

tt COLE. 

COLE (William), an eminent antiquary and benefactor" 
to the history and antiquities of England, was the son of 
William Cole, a gentleman of landed property, at Baber- 
ham in Cambridgeshire, by his third wife, Catharine, 
daughter of Theophilus Tuer, of Cambridge, merchant, 
but at the time she married Mr. Cole, the widow' of 
Charle^ Apthorp *. He was born at Little Abington, a 
village near Baberham, Aug. 3, 1714, and received the 
early part of his education under the Rev. Mr. Butts at 
Saffron-Walden,.and at other small schools. From these 
he was removed to Eton, where he was placed under Dr. 
Cooke, afterwards provost, but to whom he seems to h^ve 
contracted an implacable aversion. After remaining five 
years on the foundation at this seminary, be was admitted 
a pensioner of Clare hall, Cambridge, Jan. 25, 1733; and 
in April 1734, was admitted to one of Freeman's scholar- 
ships, although not exactly qualified according to that be- 
nefactor^s intention: but in 1735, on the death of his fa- 
ther, froin whom he inherited a handsome estate, he en- 
terefl himself s^ fellow-commoner of Clare Hall, and next 
year removed to King^s college, where he had a younger 
brother, then a fellow, and was accommodated with better 
^partipents. This last circumstance, and the society of 
his old companions of Eton, appear to have been his prin-p 
oipal motives for changing his college. In April 1736, he 
travelled for a short time in French Flanders with his half- 
brother, the late Dr. Stephen Apthorp, «and in October of 
the same year he toolc the degree of B. A. In 1737, in 
consequence of bad health, he went to Lisbon, where he 
remained six mouthy, and-returned to college May 1738. 
The following year be was put into the commissibn of the 
peace for the county of Cambridge, in which capacity he 
acted for many years. In 1740 bis friend lord Mohtfort, 
then lord lieutenant of the county, appointed him one of 
liis deputy lieutenants ; and in the same year be proceeded 
M. A. In 1743, his* health being again impaired, be 
took another trip through Flanders for five or six weeks, 
visiting St. Omei^s, Lisle, Tournay, tic. and other princi- 
pal places of which be has given an account in his M8 
fpoll^ctioiis. In Dec. 1 744 he was ordained deacon in the 

* Mr. Cole's fii|her had a foprth wife, years jarrin;, tber agreed on a aep^« 

a relatian of lord Montfort. '* By ber," ration." She died about a year after 

9ays his son, *' he had no issue, aqd l^er husliaiid. 
twj little ^ui^t. Al^er ibur or .l^re 

COLE. 2$ 

coUegiattt ckureh of Wesuntnstcr, by Dr. Wileocki,. biriiop 
of Rochester, and was in consequence for some time en-* 
rate to Dc. Abraham Oakes, rector of Wethersfield in^ 
Sufiblk. In 1745, aft^r being admitted to priesfs orders, 
he was made chaplain to Thomas earl of Kinnoul, in 
which office he was continued by the succeeding earl, 
George. He was elected a fellow of the Society of An-^ 
tiquaries in 1747 ; and appears to have resided at Hadden* 
ham in the Isle of Ely in 1749, when he was collated by 
bishop Sherlock to the rectory of Homsey in Middlesex, 
which he retained only a very short time.. Speaking of that, 
prelate, he says, *\ He gave me the rectory of Horusey, 
yet his manner was such that I soon resigned it again to 
him« I hav0 not been educated in episcopal trammels^ 
and liked a mofe liberal behaviour; yet he. was a great 
man, and I believe an honest man." The fact, however, 
was, as Mr. Cole elsewhere informs us, that be- was in- 
ducted Nov. 25 ; but finding the house in so ruinous a con-, 
dition as to require rebuilding, and in a situation so near 
the metropolis, which was always his aversion, and under-*- 
standing that the bishop insisted on his residing, he re-* 
signed within a month. This the bishop refused te accept^^ 
because Mr. Cole had made himself liable to dilapidations 
and other expences by accepting of it. Cole continued 
therefore as rector until Jan. 9, 1751, when he resigned it 
into the hands of the bishop in favour of Mr. Territ. Du-. 
ring this time he had never resided, but employed a curate, ' 
the rev. Matthew Iviapletoft. In 1753 he quitted the uni* 
versity on being presented by his early friend and patron, 
Browne Willis, esq. to the rectory of Bletchley, in Buck* 
inghamshire, which be resigned March 20, 1767, in favour 
of his patron's grandson, the rev. Thomas Willis, and this 
very honourably, and merely because he knew it, ^as his 
patron's intention to have bestowed it on his grandsgn had 
he lived to effect an exchange. 

Having been an early and intimate acquaintance of Mr, 
Horace Walpole, the late earl of Orford, they \yent to 
France together in 1165, Mr. Walpole to enjoy the gfdetiea 
of that country, but Mr. Cole to seek a cheaji residence, 
to which he .might retire altogether. From the whole 
tenour of Mr. Cole's sentiments, and a partiality, which 
in his MSS. he takes little pains to disguise, in favour of 
the Roman catholic religion and ceremonies, we suspect 
that cheapness was not the only motive for this intended 

24 COL E. 

r^moTaL He had at this time bifi penenal estate^ which 
he tells UB was a '^ handsopse oney" and he held the Hving 
of Bletchley, both together surely adequate to the wMt» 
of a retired scholar, a man of little fiersooal expeuce, and 
who had determined never to marry. He was, howeve)*^ 
diverted from residing in France by the Iaw9 of that coun- 
try, particularly the Droit d' A ubaine, by which the pro* 
perty of a stranger dying in France becomes the king's,' 
and which had not at that time been revoked; Mr. Oble 
at first supposed this could be no obstacle to hid nettling in- 
Normandy; but his friend Mr. Walpole repretokited to him 
that his MSB. on which he set a high value, wduld infaU* 
libly become the property of the king of France^ and prow 
bably be destroyed. This had a persuasive effect ; and in 
addition to it, we have his own authority that this visit 
impressed his mind so strongly wkh the certainty of an 
impending revolution, that upon that account he preferred 
remaining in England. His expressions on this subject 
are remarkable, but not uncharacteristic : '.' I did not like 
the plan of settling in France at that time, when the Jesuits 
were expelled^ and the philosophic deists weire so powerful 
as to threaten the destruction, .not only of all the religious' 
orders, but of Christianity itself." There is a journal of 
this toiir in vol. XXXIV. of his collections. 

In 1767, after resigning Bletchley, he went into a hired 
bouse at Waterbecbe, and continued there two years,* 
while a house was fitting for him at MiltQn, a small village 
on the Ely road, near Cambridge, where he passed the 
remainder of his days, and from which he became fefcnitiarly 
distinguished as " Cole of Milton." In May 1771, by 
lord Montfort's favour, he was put into the commission of 
the peace for the town of Cambridge. In 1772, bishop 
ICeene, without any solicitation, sent Mr. Cole an offer of 
the vicarage of Maddingley, about seven miles from Milton j 
which, for reasons of convenience, he civilly declinedv 
but has not spoken so civilly of that prelate in his ^^ Atbenae.^^ 
He was, however, instituted by Dr. Green, bishop of Lin- 
coln, to the vicarage of Burnham, in BuckingbamAhre, 
on the presentation of Eton college, June 10, 1774, void 
by the cession of his uterine brother, Dr* Apthorp. He 
stiU, however, resided at Milton, where he died Dec. 16, 
1782^ in his sixty-eighth year, his constitution having 
been shattered and worn down by repeated attacks of the 
gout* .• 

C -O L E. 2S 

lfr« Cde W9B ati antiqiiary almost from die cmdle, and 
bad in iiu boyiidi dajrs^ made himself acquahited with those 
neeepsaary sciences, heraldry and anshitectui'e. He says^ 
the fiivt ^* essay of his antiquarianism** was taking a copy 
both ef die inscription and tomb of Ray, the naturalist, in 
1754 ; hat it appears' that, when he was at Eton school, he 
used during the vacations to copy, in trick, arms from the 
painted wmdbw$ of churches, particularly Baberham in 
Cambridgeshire,; iiiid Moulton in Lincolnshire. Yet^^ al- 
though he dev6ted his whole life' to topography and bio- 
graphy, he did not aspire to any higher honour than that 
of a coHectOfT of information for the use of others, and 
certainly was liberal and communicative to his contempo- 
raries, and so partial to evefy attempt to illustrate our 
£ngiisfa anliqtiities, that he frequently offered his services, 
wiiere delicacy and want of personal knowledge would have 
peflmpa prevented bis being consulted. 

What he contributed was in genera), in itself, original 
and adenrate, and would hav^ done credit to a separate 
piMication, if he had thought proper. Among the works 
whic^h he assisted, either by entire dissertations, or by mi- 
iHite cemmuhications and corrections, we may enumerate 
Grose's « Antiquities ;" Benthani's « Ely ;" Dr. DucarePs 
publiearions ; Pfailips's ** Life of Cardinal Pole ;'• Gough*» 
^ fiffitidi Topogi^phy ;" the ** Memoirs of the Gentlemen's 
Society a« Spalding ;'• Mr. Nichols's ^ Collection of 
PoeoB^'* « Anecdotes of Hogarth," *< History of Hinck** 
ley," and <* Life of Bowyer.** With Grangi&r he corre- 
sponded vety frequently, and most of his corirectibns were 
adopted by diat writer. Mr. Cole himself was a collector 
of poi^aMits at a time when this trade was in few hands, and, 
had a Tery valuable series, in the disposal of which he was 
somewhat unfortiinate, and somewhat caprieious, putting 
a different value on them at different times. When in the 
hope fteat lord Montstoart would purchase them, he valued 
them at a shilling each^ one with another, which he says, 
would have amounted to 160?. His collection must there-' 
fore have amounted to 3200 prints, but among these were 
many topoffrapfaieal articles : ISO/, was offered oh this oc-* 
casioBy whlcb'Mr. Cole declined accepting. This was in 
1774; but pi^evious to this, in 1772, he met with a curious 
acch tent, whtcb had thinned his collectioti of porthiits.' 
This was m visit from ah eminent collector. ^' He had^** 
says Mr. Cole, ^* heard of my collection of prints, and a 

« COLE. 

proposal to see tliem was the consequence ; accordingly, 
he breakfasted here next morning ; and on a slight offer 
of accommodating him with such heads as he had not, he 
absolutely has taken one hundred and ei^ty*seven of my 
roost valuable and favourite heads, such as he had not, and 
most of which had never seen ; and all this with as much 
ease and familiarity as if we had known each other ever so 
long. However, I must do him the justice to say, that I 
really did offer him at Mr. Pemberton^s, that he might take 
such in exchange as he had not ; but this I thought would 
not have exceeded above a dozen, or thereabonts, &c.'* 
In answer to this account of the devastation of his coUec-. 
tion, his correspondent Horace Walpole writes lo him in 
the following style, which is not an unfair specii^en of the- 
manner in which these correspondents treated their con*' 
temporaries: — ^'I have had a relapse (of the gouit),. and/ 
have not been able to use my hand, or I should have la* 
mented with you on the plunder of your prints by that 
jilgcrine hog. I pity you, dear sir, and feel for^our.awk-; 
wardness, that was struck dumb at his rapaciousness. Thei 
beast has no.sort of taste neither, and in a twelvemonth 
will sell them again. This MnJUy Moloch used to buy^ 
]t>ooks, and now sells them. He has hurt his fortune, and* 
ruined himself to have a collection, without any choice o£ 
what it should be composed. It is the most under^brtd 
smnc I ever saw, but I did not know it was so ravenausi t 
wish you may get paid any how.'* — Mr, Cole, ho.wever^ 
after all this epistolary scurrility, acknowledges that he 
was ^^ honourably paid" at the rate of two shillings and 
sixpence each head, and one, on which he and t Walpole 
set an uncommon value, and demanded back^ was a^scord^ 
ingly returned. 

Mr. Cole^s. MS Collections bad two principal, olijects,, 
first, the compilation of a work in imitation of Anthony 
Wood's AthensEt, containing the lives of the Cambridge 
scholars ; and secondly, a county history of Cambridge ; 
and he appears to have done something to each ^ early as 
1742. They now amount to an hundred vo),uine9, smaU 
folio, into which he appears to have transcribed some do- 
cument or other almost every day of bis life, with very 
little intermission. He began with fifteen of these voIuin<»9 
while at college, which he used to keep in a lock-up cas^ 
in the universi^ library, until he had examined every book 
in th&t collection firom which he could derive apy. in|6r|n|i-» 

COLE. 27 

tiOQ suitable to his purpose^ ' and transcribed many MS 
lists, records, &c/ The grand interval from this labour 
was from 1752 to 1767, while he resided at Bletchley; 
but even there, from his own collection of books^ and such 
as he could borrow, he went on with his undertaking, and 
during frequent journies, was adding to his topographical 
drawings and descriptions. He had some turn for drawing, 
as his works every where demonstrate, just enough to give 
an acourat^ but coarse outline. But it was at Cambridge 
and Milton where his biographical researches were pursued 
with most effect, and where he carefully registered every 
anecdote he could f>ick up in conversation ; and, in charac-r 
terising his contemporaries, may literally be said to have 
spared neither friend nor foe. He continued to fill his 
volumes in this way, almost to the end of his life, the last 
letter he transcribed being dated Nov. 25, 1782. Besides 
his topography and biography, he has transcribed the whole 
of })is literary correspondence. Among bis correspondentS| 
Horace Walpole must be distinguished as apparently en« 
joying bis utmost confidence; but their letters add very 
litde to the character of either, as men of sincerity or can- 
dour. Both were capable of writing polite, and even flat-* 
tering letters to gentlemen, whom in their mutual corre- 
spondence, perhaps by the ^me post, tbey treated witU 
the utmost contempt and derision. 

Throughout the whole of Mr. Cole^s MSS. his attachment 
to the Roman catholic religion is clearly to be deduced, 
and is often almost avowed. He never can conceal his 
hatred to the eminent prelates and martyrs who were the 
promoters of the Reformation. In this respect at least he 
resembled Anthony Wood, whose friends bad some diffi** 
culty in. proving -that he died in communion with the church 
of Englatid^ and Ct)le yet more closely resembled him in liis 
hatred of the puritans and dissenters. When in 1767 an 
order was issued from the bishops for a return of all papists or 
reputed papists in their dioceses. Cole laments that in some 
places none were returned, and in other places few^ and 
assigns as a reason for this regret, that '< their principles 
are much more conducive to a peaceful and quiet subordi- 
nation in government, and they might be a proper balance, 
in time of need, 'not only to the tottering state of Chris- 
tianity in general, but to this church of England in parti-, 
cular, pecked against by every fanatic sect, whose good 
fellies the infidels are well known to be ; but hardly safe 

• V 

2s e O L E- 

f^m its own lukewarm members ; and whose safety depen^ir 
solely oil a political balance/' The *^ lukewarm members/* 
he elsewhere characterizes as latitudinarmns, including 
Clarke, Hoadly, and their successors, who held prefer*-* 
ments in a church whose doctrines they opposed* 

As late as 1778 we find Mr. Cole perplexed as to the 
disposal of his manuscripts ; to gite them to one college 
which be mentions, would, he says, ^< be to throw thetfi 
into a horse-pond," for " in that college they are so con- 
ceited of their Greek and Latin, that with them all other 
studies are mere barbarism." He once thought of Eton 
college; but, the MSS. relating principally to Cambridge 
university and county, he inclined to deposit them in one 
of the libraries there ; not in the public library, because 
too public, but in Emanuel, with the then master of which^ 
Dr. Farmer, he was Very intimate. Dr. Farmer, however, 
happening to suggest that he might find a better place for 
them, Mr. Cole, who was become peevish, and wanted te 
be courted, thought proper to consider this ^ eoohiess and 
indifference*' as a refusaL In this dilemma he at length 
resolved to bequeath them to the Irtish Musemii, with 
this condition, that they should not be opened for twentv 
years after his death. For such a condition, some have 
assigned as a reason that the characters of many living 
persons being drawn in them, and that in no very favour* 
able colours, it might be his wish to spare their delicacy ; 
but, perhaps with equal reason, it has been objected that 
euch persons would thereby iae deprived of alt opportunity 
of refuting his assertions, or defending themselves. Upoa 
a careful inspection, however, of the whole of these vo- 
lumes, we are not of opinion that the quantum of injury 
inflicted is very great, most of Cole's unfavourable anec* 
dotes being of that gossiping kind, on which a judictotis 
biographer will not rely, unless corroborated by other au- 
thority. Knowing that be wore his pen at his ear, there 
were probably many who amused themselves with his pre- 
judices. His collections however, upon the whole, are 
truly valuable ; and bis biographical references, in parti- 
cular, while they display extensive reading and industry, 
cannot lail to assist the future labours of writers interested 
in the history of the Cambridge scholars. ' 

COLE (William), an English botanist, was the son of 
a clergyman, and bom at Adderbury, in Oxfordshire, 

1 Gathered hwn bis MS$. pttiivu— Set aiso NicfaoU'i Bowyer, aad D'IiJraeIi> 
CaUautits of Aathort. 

COLE; 29 

ibout 16£6* After he bad been wdl-imtracted in grain- 
inaD-learning and the claasios, he was entered in 1643 of 
Merton-college^ in Oxford. In. 1650 he took a de^ee in 
arts; after which he left the university, and retired to 
Piitney, near London ; where be lived several vearS| and 
became the most ftmaous simpler or botanist of his time. 
In 1656 be pttblfshed ** The art of simpiing^ or an intro- 
duction to the knowledge of gathering plants, wherein the 
definitions, divisions, places, descriptions, and the like^ 
are compendiously discoursed of;** with which was also 
printed ^' Perspicilhun microcosnaologicum, or, a prospec* 
tive for the discovery of the lesser world, wherein man is a 
compendium^ ^c.'* And in 1657 he published '* Adam 
in Eden, or Nature^s paradise : wherein is contained the 
history of plants, herbs^ flowers, .with their several original 
names/' Upon the restoration of Charles II. in 1660, he 
uras nsade secretary to Duppa, bishop of Winchester, in 
whose service he died in 1662.^ 

COLES (Eush'a), author of a Dictionary once in much 
reputation, was bom in Northamptonshire about 1640, 
^ow>ards the end of 1658, he was entered of Magdalen>- ' 
college, in Oxford, but left it without taking a degree ; 
and retiring to London, taught Latin there to youths, and 
English to foreigners, about 1663, with good success in 
Russel-stre^ near Covent-garden, and at length became 
one of the ushers in merchant-taylors* schooL But being 
there guilty of some offence, he was forced to withdrair 
into Ireland, ftiom whence he never returned. He wa% 
sayk Wobd, a carious and critical person in the English 
and Latin tongues, did much good in his profession, and 
wrote several useful and necessary books for the instruc- 
tion of beginners. The titles of them are as follows : 1. 
'^ The Complete English Schoolmaster : or, the most na«> 
tural and easy method of spelling and reading English, ac<* 
cording to the present proper pronunciation of the language 
in Oxford and London, &c.'' Lond. 1674, 8vo. d. '< The 
newest, plainest, and shortest Short-hand ; containing, 
first, a brief account of the sbort*hand already ex- 
tant, with their alphabets and fundamental rulesT Se- 
condly, a plain and '.easy method for beginners, less 
burdensome to the memory than any other. Thirdly, a 
•new invention for contracting words, with special* rules for 
coQtractiog sentences, and other ingenious fancies, &c.'* 

1 Atfa. Ox, TOl. II. 

so COLES. 

Lo^d. 1674, 8vo. 3. << Nolens Volens:. or, yon .riiall 
make Latin, whether you will or no; containing die plainest 
directions that have been yet given upon that subject/.* 
Lond- 1 C75, ivo. With it is printed : 4. " The Youth's 
visible Bible, being an alphabetical collection (from the 
whole Bible) of such general beads as were judged most 
capable of Hieroglyphics ; illustrated with twenty-four 
€opper-plate9| &:c/* 5. ** An English Dictionary, ex- 
pluintng the difficult terms that are used in divinity, hus^ 
bandry, physic, philosophy, law, navigation, mathematics^ 
and other arts and sciences,'' Lond. 1676, 8vo, reprinted 
several times since.* 6. '< A Dictionary, English- Latin, 
and Latin* English ; containing all things necessary for the 
translating of either language into the other," Lond. 1677, 
4to, reprinted several times in 8vo ; the .12th edition was 
in 1730. 7. ^< The most natural and easy Method of 
learning Latin, by comparing it with English : Together 
with the Holy History of Scripture-War, or the sacred art 
military, &c." Lond. 1677, 8vo. 8. " The^Harmony of 
the Four Evangelists, in a metrical paraphrase on the his- 
tory of bur Lord anc| Saviour Jesus Christ," Lond. 1679, 
8vo, reprinted afterwards. 9. ** The Young Scholar's best 
Companion : or an exact guide or directory for children 
and youth, from the A B C, to the Latin Grammar, com- 
prehending the whole body of the English learning, &c." 
Lond. 12mo. Cole's Dictionary continued to be a school- 
book in very general use, for some time after the publica- 
tion of Ainsworth's Thesaurus; But it has fallen almost 
into total neglect, since other abridgments of Ainsworth 
have appeared, by Young, Thomas, and other persons. 
The men, however, who have been benefactors to the cause 
of learning, ought to be remembered with gratitude, though 
their writings may happen to be superseded by more per- 
fect productions. It is no small point of honour to be the 
means of paving the way for superior works. ^ 

COLES (Elisha), uncle to the preceding, was also a 
native of Northamptonshire, but became a trader in Lon- 
don, and probably an unsuccessful one, as during the time 
that Oxford was in possession of the parliamentary forces, 
we find him promoted to the office of steward to Magdalen 
college, by Dr. Thomas (jk)odwin, the famous independent 
president of that college. On the. restoration, he was obliged 

t Ath. Ox. Tol. II.— Biof. Brit. 

C O L E S. 31 

to quit this situatibiiy but acqliired the preferable appoint* 
ment of clerk to the East* India company^ which he pro- 
bably held to his death, at London, in October 1688, 
upwards of eighty years old» He is known to this day by 
his *^ Practical Discourse of God*8 Sovereignty,** London, 
1678, 4to, and often reprinted in 8vo. The object of it* 
is to refute the Arminians in those points concerning which 
they differ most ^roo) the Cal?inists. ^ 

COLET (Dr. Job^), a learned English divine, and the 
founder of St PauPs school, was bom in the parish of St. 
Antbolin, London, in 1466, and was the eldest son of sir 
Henry Colet, knt. twice lord-mayor, who had besides him 
twenty-one children. In 1483 he was sent to Magdalen 
college in Oxford, where he spent seven years in the study 
of logic and philosophy, and took the degrees in arts* He 
was perfectly acquainted with Cicero*s works, and no 
stranger to Plato and Plotinus, 'whom he read together, 
that they might illustrate each other. He could, however, 
read them only in the Latin translations ; for neither at 
school nor university had he any opportunity of learning 
the Greek, that language being then thought unnecessary, 
and even discouraged. Hence the proverb, <* Cave k Gra^- 
cis, .ne fias heereticus,'* that is, ^Beware of Greek, lest 
you become an heretic ;^' and it is well known, that when 
Linacer, Grocyn, and others, afterwards professed to teach 
it at Oxford, they were opposed by a set of men ^who 
called themselves Trojans. Colet, however, was well skilled 
in mathematics ; and having thus laid a good foundatiop of 
learning at home, he travelled abroad for farther improve- 
ment ; first to France, and then to Italy ; and seems to 
have continued in those two countries from 1493 to 1497^ 
But before his departure, and indeed when be was of but 
two years standing in the university, he was instituted to 
the rectory of Denington in Suffolk, to which he was pre^ 
aented by a relation of his mother, and which he held to 
4be d&y of his death. This practice of taking livings, while 
thus under age, generally prevailed in the church of Rome ; 
and Colet, being then an acolytbe, which is one of their 
seven orders, was qualified for it. He was also presented 
by his own father, Sept. 30, 1485, to the rectory of Thyr- 
ning in Huntingdonshire, but he resigned it about the lat«* 
ter end qf 1493, probably before he set out on his travels^ 

1 Ath. Ox. ToL 11. 

32 COLE T. 

Being arrived at Paris, he sqoq 1;>ecame acquainted with 
the learned there, with the celebrated . Budaeaa ip parti- 
cular; and was afterwards introduced to. Erasmus. In 
Italy be contracted a friendship* with several eminent per« 
sons, especially with his own couotrymen, Grocyn, Lina- 
' cer, Lilly, and Latimer; who were leaning the Greek 
tongue, then but little known in England, under those 
great masters Demetrius, Angelus Politiaous, Hermolatis 
Baii>arus, and Pomponius Sabious. He took this oppor-^ 
tunity of improving himself in this language; and having 
devoted himself to divinity, he r^^ad, while abroad, the 
best of the imtient fathers, particularly Origen, Cypriat, 
Ambrose, and Jerome, bul^ it is said, very much under* 
valued St. Augustine. He> looked sometimes akno into Sco- 
tos and Aquinas, studied the civjl and canon law, made 
himself acquainted with the history and constitution of 
church and state ; and with a view to refinement, not very 
common at that time, did not neglect to read such English 
poets, and other authors of the belles lettres, as weie then 
extant. During; his absence from England he waa n^de a 
prebendary of York, and installed by proxy upon March 
5, 1494, and was also made canon of St. Martinis Le Grand, 
London, ^nd prebendary of Good Easter, in the same 
church. Upon his return in 1497 he was ordained deacon 
in December, and priest in July foUowii^* He bad, in- 
deed, before he entered into orders, great temptations 
from his natural disposition to lay aside study, and give 
himself up to the gaiety of the court, for he was rather 
luxuriously inclined ; but he curbed his passions by great 
temperance and circumspection, and after staying a few 
months with his father and mother at London, retired to 

Here he read public lectures on St. Paurs epistles, withf- 
out stipend or reward ; which, being a new thing, drew a 
vast crowd of hearers, who admired him greatly. And here 
he strengthened his memorable friendship with Erasmus, 
who came to Oxford in 1497, which remained unshaken 
and inviolable to the day of their deaths. He continued 
these lectures three years; and in 1501 was admitted to 

{proceed in divinity, or to the reading of. the sentencesr 
n 1502 he became prebendary of Dumes£brd, in the 
church of Sarum, and in Jan. 1504, resigned bis prebend 
of Good Easter. In the same year he commenced D. D. 
4nd in May 1505^ was instituted to the prebend of Mora 

C L E T. 33 


b St. Pant's^ London. The same year and tnotith he wan 
inade dean of that church, without the- least application of 
his own ; and being raised to this high station, he began 
to reform the decayed discipline of his cathedral. He in* 
troduced a new practice of preaching himself upon Sun* 
days and great festivals, and called to his assistance other 
learned persons, such as Grocyn, and Sowle, whom he 
appointed to read divinity^lectures. These lecture? raised 
in the nation a spirit of inquiry after th^ holy scriptures, 
wiiich had long been laid aside for the school divinity; and 
eventually prepared for the reformation, which soon after 
ensued* Colet was unquestionably in some measure in* 
strumehtal towards it, though he did not live to see it 
effected ; for he expressed a great contempt of religious 
houses, exposed the abuses that prevailed in them, and 
set forth the danger of imposing celibacy yon the clergy. 
This way of thinking, together with his free and public 
manner of communicating his thoughts, which were then 
looked upon as impious and heretical, made him obnoxiouii 
to the clergy, and exposed him to persecution from the 
bishop of London, Dr. Fitzjames ; who, being a rigid bigot, 
could not bear to have the corruptions in his church spoken 
against, and therefore accused him to archbishop Warham 
as a dangerous man, preferring at the same time some ar- 
ticles against him. But Warham, well knowing the worth 
and integrity of Colet, dismissed him, without giving him 
the trouble of puttitig in any formal answer. The bishop, 
however, not satisfied with that fruitless attempt, endea- 
voured afterwards to stir up the king and the court against 
him ; nay, we are told in bishop Latimer^s sermons, that 
he was not only in trouble, ^^^ would have been burnt, if 
God had not turned the king's heart to the contrary.' 

These troubles and persecutions made hitii weary of the 
world, so that he began to think of disposing of his effects, 
and of retidng. Having therefore a very plentiful estate 
without any near relations (for, numerous as his brethren 
were, he had outlived them all), he resolved, in the midst 
of life and health, to consecrate the whole property of it 
to some standing and perpetual benefaction. And this he 
performed by founding St. Paul's school, in London, of 
which he appointed WiUiam Lilly first master in 1512. He 
ordained, that there should be in this school an high master, 
asurmaster, and a chaplain, who should teach gratis U3 
children, divided into eight classes ; apd he endowed it 


U C O L E T. 

with lands and houses, amounting .th^n to 122/. '4^. 7^cL 
p^r annum, of which endowment he made. the company of 
mercers trustees. To further his scheme of retiring, he 
built a convenient ai^d handsome house near Richmond pa-^ 
lace in Surrey, in which he intended to reside, but having 
be^n seized by the siyeating sickness twice, and relapsing 
into it a third time, a consumption ensued, which proved 
fatal September 16, 1519, in his fifty ^third year. He was 
buried in St PauPs choir, with an humble monument pre- 
pared for him several years before, and only inscribed with 
bis bare name. Afterwards a nobler was erected to his 
honour by the company of mercers, which was destroyed 
with the cathedral in 1666; bult the representation of it 
is preserved in sir William Dugdale's ^^ History of St« 
Paul's ^," and in Knight's life of the dean. On the two 
sides of the bust was this inscription : ^^ John Colet, doctov 
of divinity, dean of Paul's, and the only founder of Paul's* 
school, departed this life, anno 1519, the son of sir Hen- 
ny Colet, knt. twise mayor of the cyty of London, and 
free of the company and mistery of mercers." Lpwer^ 
there were other inscriptions in Latin. About 1680, whea 
the church was taking down in order to be rebuilt, his 
leaden cofB.n was found inclosed in the wall, about two feet 
and a half above the floor. At the top of it was a leaden 
plate fastened, whereon was engraved the dean's name, 
his dignity, his benefactions, &c. Besides his dignities 
and prefermettts already mentioned, he was rector of the 
fraternity or gild of Jesus in St. Paul's church, for which 
he procured new statutes ; and was chaplain and preacher 
in ordinary to Henry VHI; and, if Erasmus is not mis^ 
taken, one of the privy-council.. 

Of his writings, those which be published himself, or 
which have been published since his death, are as follow : 
1. '^ Oratio habita a doctore Johanne Cplet, decano sancti 
Paiili, ad clerum in convocatione, anno 151 1." This be-» 
ing hardly to be met with, except in the Bodleian library 
at Oxford, among archbishop Laud's MS8. was reprinted 
by Knight in his appendix to the life of Colet ; where also 
is reprinted an old English translation of it, supposed to 
have been done by the author himself. 2. *^ Rudimenta 
grammatices a Joanne Coleto, decano ecclesise sancti Pauli 

* The skeleton part of this fine old the care of Mr. Gould, the deputy Sttr« 
monaitient was discovered in 1782 to %'eyQr and principal rerger. 
liQ stiU eiustiDgy'an4waa pUoid under 

O O L E T; 35 

Loiidin. in tisum scholfle ab ipso institute :*' commonly 
called "Paul's Accidence, 1589," 8to. 3. " The con- 
struction of the eight parts of speech, entitled Absolutissi- 
mus de octo orationis partium constrnctione libellus:** 
which, with some alterations, and great additions, makes 
up the syntax in Lilly's grammar, Antwerp, 1530, 8vo. 4. 
^ Daily Devotions : oi^ the Christian's morning and even- 
ing sacrifice." This is said not to be all of his composition. 
5. « Monition to a godly Life," 1534, 1563, &c, 6. " Epis- 
tol» ad Erasmum." Many of them are printed among 
Erasmus's epistles, and some at the end of Knight's Life of ^ 

Colet There are still remaining in MS. others of his 
pieces, enumerated in the account of his Life by Knight, 
It is probable that he had no intention of publishing any 
thing himself; for he had an inaccuracy and incorrectness 
in his way of writing, which was likely to expose him to 
the censures of critics ;/ and besides, was no perfect master 
of the Greek tongue, without which he thought a man was 
nothing. The pieces above mentioned were found after his 
death in a very obscure corner of his study, as if he had 
designed they should lie buried in oblivion ; and were writ- 
ten in such a manner as if intended to be understood by 
nobody but himself. With regard to sermons, he wrote 
but few ; for he generally preached without notes. 

The descriptions which are given of his person and cha- 
racter are much to his advantage. He was a tall, comely, 
graceful, well-bred man ; and of uncoromcJ^ learning and 
piety. In his wiritings his style was plain and unaffected ; 
and for rhetoric he had rather a contempt, than a want of 
it. He cuuld not bear that the standard of good writing 
should be taken from the exact rules of gv'ammar ; which, 
he often said, was apt to obstruct a purity of language, 
not to be obtained but by reading the best authors. This 
contempt of grammar, though making him sometimes in- 
accurate, and, as we have observed, laying him open to 
the critics, did not hinder him from attaining a very mas- 
terly style; so that his preaching, though popular, and 
adapted to mean capacities, was agreeable to men of wit 
and learning, and in particular was much admired by sir 
Thomas More. With regard to some of his notions, he 
was an eminent forejrunner of the reformation; and he 
and Erasmus jointly promoted it, not only by pulling down 
those strong holds of ignorance and corruption, the scho- 
lastic divinity, and entirely routing both the Scotists and 

P 2 

36 G O L E T. 

Thotnists, who bad divided the Cliristian world be(:Ween 
them, but also by discovering the shameful abuses of mo* 
nasteries, and the folly and danger of imposing celibacy 
upon the clergy; to which places he gave little or nothing 
Wnile he lived, and left nothing when he died. Colet 
thought immorality in a priest more excusable than pride 
and avarice ; and was with no sort of men more angry than 
with those bishops who, instead erf shepherds, acted the 
part of wolves, and who, under tne pretence of devotipns, 
ceremonies, benedictions, and indulgences, recommended 
themselves to the veneration of the people, while in their 
hearts they were slaves to 61thy luci*e. He condemned 
auricular confession ; and was content to. say mass only 
upon Sundays and great festivals, or at least upon very 
few days besides. He had gathered up several authorities 
from the ancient fathers against the current tenets and 
customs of the church ; and though he did not openly op- 
pose the established religion, yet he shewed a particular 
kindness and favour to those who disliked the worshiping 
of images. As to his moral qualides, he was a man of 
exemplary temperance, and all other virtues : and is so rer 
presented by his intimate friend Erasmus, in an epistle to^ 
Jodocus Jonas, where the life, manners, and qualifica- 
tions of Colet are professedly described. ^ 

COLIGNI (Gaspard de), the second of the name, of an 
ancient family, admiral of France, was born the 16th of Fe- 
bhiary 1516, fit Chatillon-sur*Loing. He bore arms from 
bis very infancy. He signalized himself under Francis I. at 
the battle of Cerisoles, and'under Henry IL who made him 
colonel-general of the French infantry, and afterwards ad- 
miral t)f France, 'in 1552; favpurs which he obtained by 
the brilliant actions he performed at the battle of Renti, by 
his zeal for military discipline, by his victories over the 
Spaniards, and especially by the defence of St. Quintin, 
The admiral threw himself into that place, and exhibited 
prodigies^ of valour ; but the town being forced, he was 
made prisoner of war. After the death of Henry U. he 
put himself at the head of the protestants against the 
Guises, and formed so powerful a party as to threaten ruin 
to the Romish religion in France. We* are told by a con- 

* Life by Knight. — Erasmus's Life of, in "Phcnix, vol. II. — ^Jortin's Life of 
£rasmus.— Biog. Brit-~Birch*8 Tillotson, p. 19. — ^Strype's Life of Parker, p. 64. 
.— Warton's Hist, of Ptfetry,— Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Mor«> lif^p of flir T. Mow, p. 
19,20. , 

i. ' • 

C O t I 9 N I. 37 

temporary historian^ that the court had not a more formida- 
ble enemy, next to Cond^, who had joined with him. The 
latter was more ambitious, more enterprising, more active. 
Coligni was of a sedater temper, more cautious, and fitter to 
be the leader of a party; as unfortunate, indeed, in war as 
Cond^, but often repairing by his ability what bad seemed 
irreparable ; more dangerous after a defeat, than his enemies 
after a victory ; and moreover adorned with as many virtues 
as such tempestuous times and the spirit of party would 
allow. He seemed to set no value on his life. Being 
wounded, and his friends lamenting around him, he said 
to them with incredible constancy, '^ The business we fol* 
I low should make us as familiar with death as with life.*' 

I The first pitcht battle that happened between the protestants 

I and the catholics, was that of Dreux, in 1562. The ad- 

miral fought bravely, lost it, but saved the army. The 
duke of Guise having been murdered by treachery, a short 
time afterwards, at the siege of Orleans, he was accused 
of having connived at this base assassin^ition ; but he cleared 
himself of the charge by oath. The civil wars ceased for 
some time, but only to recommence with gi*eater fury in' 
1567. Coligni and Cond^ fought the battle of St. Denys 
against the constable of Montmorenci. This indecisive 
day was followed by that of Jarnac, in 1569, fatal to the 
protestants. Cond6 having been killed in a shocking man- 
ner, Coligni had to sustain the whole weight of the party, 
and alone supported that unhappy cause, ^nd was again 
defeated at the affair of Mentcontour,- in Poitou, without 
suffering bis courage to be shaken for a moment. An ad- 
vantageous peace seemed shortly after to terminate these 
bloody conflicts, in 1571. Coligni appeared at court, 
where he was loaded with caresses, in common with all the 
rest of bis party. Charles IX. ordered him to be'^paid a 
hundred thousand frincs as a reparation of the losses he 
had sustained, and restored to him his place in the council. 
On all hands, however, he was exhorted to distrust these 
perfidious caresses. A captain of the protestants, who was 
retiring into the country, came to take leave of him : Co- 
ligni asked him the reason of so sudden a retreat : ^^ It is,*' 
said the soldier, ^^ because they shew us too many kind- 
nesses here : I had rather escape with the fools, than perish 
with such as are over-wise," A horrid conspiracy soon 
broke out. One Friday the admiral coming to the Louvre^ 
was fired at by a musquet from a window^ aud dangerously 

3« C O L I G N I. 

wounded in the right hand and in the left arm, by Maure* 
vert, who had been employed by the duke de Guise, who 
had proposed the scheme to Charles IX. The king of Na- 
varre and the prince of Cond6 complained of this villainous 
act. Charles IX. trained to the arts of dissimulation by his 
ibother, pretended to be extremely afflicted at the event, 
ordered strict inquiry to be made after the author of it, and 
called Coligni by the tender name of father. This was at 
the very time when he was meditating the approaching 
massacre of the protestants. The carnage began, as is well 
known, the 24th of August, St. Bartholomew's day, 1572. 
The duke de Guise, under a strong escort, marched to the 
Ibouse of the admiral, A crew of assassins, headed by one 
Besme, a domestic of the house of Guise, entered sword 
in hand, and found him sitting in an elbow-chair. " Young 
man,^' said he to their leader in a calm and tranquil manner, 
^ thou shouldst have respected my gray hairs : but, do 
what thou wilt ; thou canst only shorten my life by a few 
days." This miscreant, after having stabbed him in seve- 
ral places, threw him out at the window into the court-yard 
pf the house, where the duke of Guise stood waiting; 
Coligni fell at the feet of his base and implacable ^nemy, 
and said, according to some writers, as he was just ex- 
piring : ^^ If at least I had died by the hand of a gentle- 
man, and not by that of a turnspit !" Besme, having 
trampled on the corpse, said to his companions : ^^ A good 
beginning ! let us go and continue our work !" His body 
was exposed for three days to the fury of the populace, 
and then hung up by the feet on the gallows of Montfau- 
con. Montmorenci, his cousin, had it taken down, in order 
to bury it secretly in the chapel of the chateau de Chan- 
tilli. An Italian, halving cut off the head of the admiral, 
carried it to Catherine de Mediqis ; and this princess 
caused it to be embalmed, and sent it to Rome. Coligni 
was in the habit of keeping a journal, which, after his 
death, was put into the hands of Charles IX. In this was 
remarked a piece of advice whiqh he gave that prince, to 
take care of what he did in assigiring the appanage, lest 
by so doing he left them too great an authority. Catherine 
caused this article to be read before the duke of Alengon, 
whom she knew to be afflicted at the death of the admiral : 
** There is your good friend!" said she, " observe the ad- 
vice he gives the king !'* — *' I cannot say,'* returned the 
duke, " whether he was very fond of me ; but I know that 


such advice could have been given only by a man of strict 
fidelity to his majesty, and zealous for the good of hi^ 
country." Charles IX. thought this journal worth being 
printed; but the marshal de Retz prevailed on him toi 
throw it into the'fire. We shall conclude tliis article with 
the parallel drawn by the abb^ de Mably of the admiral de 
Coligni, and of Frangois de Lorraine, due de Guise* ^* Co- 
ligni was the greatest general of his time ; as courageous 
as the duke of Guise, but less impetuous, because he had 
always been less successful. He was fitter fqr forming 
grand projects, and more prudent in the particulars of theiv 
f^xecution. Guise, by a more brilliant courage, which, 
astonished his enemies, reduced conjunctures to the pro- 
vince of his genius,^ and thus rendered himself in some sott) 
master of them. Coligni obeyed them, but like a com* 
mander superior to them. In the same circumstances or- 
dinary men would have observed only courage in the con-^ 
duct of the one, and only prudence in that of the other, 
though both of them had these two qualities, but variously 
subordinated. Guise, more successful, had fewer oppor- 
tunities for displaying the resources of his genius : his deK- 
ferous ambition, and, like that of Pompey, apparently 
founded on the very interests of the princes it was endea- 
vouring to ruin, while it pretended to serve them, was 
supported on the authority of his name till it had acquired 
strength enough to stand by itself. Coligni, less criminal, 
though he appeared to be more so, openly, like Csesar; 
declared war upon his prince and the whole kingdom of 
France. Guise had the art 6f conquering, and of profiting 
by the victory. Coligni lost four battles, and was. always 
the terror of his victors, whom he seemed to have van- 
quished. It is not easy to say what the former would have 
been in the disasters that befell Coligni; but we may 
boldly conjecture that the latter would have appeared still 
greater, if fortune had favoured him as much. He was 
seen carried in a litter, and we may add in the very jaws of 
death, to order and conduct the longest and most difficult 
marches, traversing France in the midst of his enemies, 
rendering by his counsels the youthful courage of the 
prince of Navarre more formidable, and training hini to 
those great qualities which were to make him a good king, 
generous, popular, and capal)le of managing the affairs 
of Europe, after having made him a hero, sagacious, 
terrible, and clement iu the conduct of wan The good 

40 C O L I G N I. 


understanding be kept up between the French and tbe 
Germans of his army, whom the interests of religion alone 
Were ineffectual to unite ; the prudence with which he con- 
trived to draw succours from England, where all was not 
quiet; his art in giving a spur to the tardiness of the, 
princes of Germany, who, not having so much genius as 
himself, were more apt to despair of saving the protes- 
tantsof France, and deferred to send auxiliaries, who were 
no longer hastened in their march by the expectation of 
plunder in^a country already ravaged ; are master-pieces of 
bis policy. Coligni was an honest man. Guise wore the 
mask of a greater number of virtues ; but all were infected 
by his ambition. He had all the qualities that win the 
heart of the multitude. Coligni, more collected in him-^ 
self, was more esteemed by his enemies, and respected by 
his own people. He was a lover of order and of his coun- 
try. Ambition might bear him up, but it never first set 
him in motion. Hearty alike in the cause of protestantisda 
and of his country, he was never able, by too great aus- 
terity, to make his doctrine tally with the duties of a sub* 
ject> With the qualities of a hero, he was endowed with a 
gentle soul. Had he been less of the great man, he would 
have been a fanatic ; he was aii apostle and a zealot. His 
life was first published in 1575, 8vo, and translated and 
published in English in .1576, by Arthur Golding. There 
is also a life by Courtilz, 1686, 12mo, and one in the 
" Hommes lUustres de France." * . 
COLIGNI (Henrietta), countess de la Suze, a French 

{>oetess, whose works have been printed with those of Pel- 
ison and others in 1695, and 1725 in 2 volumes 12mo^ was 
the daughter of Gaspar de Coligni, thie third of that name^ 
marshal of France, and colonel-general of infantry. She 
was very early married, in 1643, when she could not be 
more^than seventeen, to Thopias Hamilton, earl of Had-> 
dington, according to Moreri, but we find no mention of 
this in the Scotch peerage. After his death she espoused 
the count de la S\ize, of an illustrious house in Champaigne* 
But this second match proved unfortunate, owing to the 
furious }ealousy of the count her husband, whose severities 
towards her made her abjure protestantism, and profess the 
qatholic faith, which occasioned queen Christina of Sweden 
to say, ^Hhat she had changed her religion, that she might not 

^ Moreri.— Diet. Hist. editioQ 1789.— Clement Bibl. Cari^use, 

C O L I G N I • .41 

see her husband, neither in this world nor the next.*^ Their 
antipathy became «o great that the countess at last dis^ 
aimuUed the marriage; and to induce the count to accede 
to it, she offered 25,000 crowns, which he accepted. She 
dien gave herself up to the study of poetry, and became 
much admired by the geniuses of her l)ime, who made her 
the subject of their eulogjums. Her fort lay in the ele- 
giac strain, and those works of hers which have come down 
to us have at least a delicate turn of sentiment. Her other 
poems are songs, madrigals, and odes. The wits of her 
time gave her the majesty of Juno with Minerva^s wit and 
Venus^s beauty In some verses, attributed to Bouhours : 
but her character in other respects appears not to have 
been of the most correct kind. She died at Paris, March 
10, 1673.'. 

COLLADO (Diego), a Spanish Dominican of the six* 
teenth century, went as a missionary to Japan m 1621, but 
hid endeavours being obstructed, he made a second at* 
tempt in 1635, which was also unsuccessful, and he was 
recalled by the king to Spain : in his voyage home he was 
shipwrecked, and lost his life at Manilla in 1638, leaving 
behind him many works ; of these the principal are^ a 
" Japonese Grammar and Dictionary in Latin ;" " A con- 
tinuation of Hyacinth Orfanels Hist Ecclesiastica Japon. ;** 
^' Dictionarium Linguse Sinensis, cum explicatione Latina 
et Hispanica, cbaractere Sinensi et Latino.^' ' 

COLLAERT (Adrian), an engraver ai^ print-seller of 
Antwerp, of the sixteenth century, is said to have received , 
the first instructions in his art, in the place of his nativity ; 
after which he repaired to Italy to complete his studies* 
He contributed not a little, by his assiduity, and the faci^ 
lity of his graver, to the numberless sets of prints of sacred 
stories, huntings, landscapes, flowers, fish, &c. with which 
the states of Germany and Flanders were at that time inun- 
dated. Many of these are apparently from his own de<- 
sigus, and others from Martin de Vos, Theodore. Bernard, 
P. Breughel, John Stradanus, Hans Bol, and other masters. 
His style of engraving is at the same time niasterly and 
neat, and his knowledge of drawing appears to have been 
considerable ; but his prints partake of the defects of his 
contemporaries, his masses of light and shade being too 
much scattered, and too equally powerful. The following 

! Diet. Hitt— Moreii^-Biog. Oallica. * Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

4» . C O L L A E R T. 

ar^ amongst his numerous performances. The '^ Life of 
Christ in 36 small prints/' '^ The - twel\re months, small 
cifcies from H. BoL'* ^* The women of Israel chanting 
the pss^lm of praise, after the destruction of the Egyptians 
in the Red Sea.'* This artist flourished according to Strutt 
und Heinecken about 1530^-'1550. His son, Hans or 
John, was an excellent draughtsman and engraver. He 
studied some time in Rome, and afterwards settled in his 
native place,. Antwerp, where he assisted his father in most 
of bis great works ; and afterwards published a prodigious 
Dumber of prints ' of his own, nowise inferior to those of 
Adrian. The works attributed by some to one Herman 
Cobleot, are, by Heinecken, supposed to be by this master. 
Hi^ prints,. according to Strutt, Jare dated from 1555 to 
1622, so that he must have lived to a great age. ' We shdll 
only notice the following amongst his numerous perform- 
ances : *^ The Life of St. Francis in 1 6 prints lengthways, 
surrounded by grotesque borders.'* ^ Time and Truth," a 
small upright printl>eautifully engraved, from J. Stradanus ; 
f' The Last Judgment," a large print, encompassed with 
small stories of the life of Christ. M. Heinecken mentions 
^ print by an artist, who signs himself William CoUaert, 
and supposes him the son of John Coliaert. * 

COLLANGE (Gabriel de), bom at Tours in Auvergne, 
in 1524, was valet-de-chambre to Charles IX. Though a 
true catholic, he was taken for a protestant, and assassi- 
nated as such in the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. 
He translated and augmented the polygraphy and the ca« 
balistic writing of Trithemius, Paris, 1561, in 4to, which a 
Frispn, named Dominique de Hottinga, published under 
his own name, without making any mention either of Tri- 
themius or of Collange, at Embden, 1620, 4to. Col- 
lange had also some skill in the mathematics and in cosmo- 
graphy, and left a great many learned manuscripts de- 
scribed in- our authorities. ^ 

COLLE (Charles), secretary and reader to the duke 
of Orleans, was bom at Paris in 1709, and died in the same 
city Nov. 2, 1783, at the age of 75. In his character were 
united a singular disposition to gaiety, and an uncommon ^ 
degree of sensibility ; the death of a beloved wife acce<^ 
lerated his own. Without affecting the qualfties of bene-* 

>' Strutt — Heinecken. — ^Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

* Moreri.— Du Msine Bibl. Francoise.— Nicem* 

C O L L E. 43 

ficence and humanity, he was huohane and beneficent 
Having a propensity to the drama from his in&ncy^ he 
cultivated it with success. His ^^ Partie-de-Chasse <ie 
Henri IV.*' (from which our ** Miller of Mansfibld'' is 
taken) exhibits a very faithful picture of that good king* 
His comedy of ^^ Dupuis and Desronais/* in die manner of 
Terence^ may perhaps be destitute of the vis comica ; but 
the sentiments are just, the characters well> supported, and 
the situations pathetic. Another comedy, entitled '^ Truth 
in wine, or the Disasters of Gallantry,'* has more of sa- 
tire and broad humour. There are several more pieces of 
his, in which he paints, with no less liveliness than truths 
the manners of his time ; but his pencil is frequently aiS 
licentious as those manners. His talent at song-writing 
procured him the appellation of the Auacreoa of the age, 
but here too he was deficient in delicacy. His song on 
Ibe capture of Portmahon was the means of procuring him 
a pension from the court of 600 livres, perhaps the first 
favour of the kind ever bestowed. He was one of ^ the last 
survivers of a society of wits who met under the name of 
the Caveau, and is in as much honourable remembrance 
as the Kit-Kat club in London. This assembly, says a journal'!' 
ist, was of as much consequence to literature as an aca- 
demy. C0II6 frequently used to regret those good old 
times, when this constellation of wits were wont to meet 
together; as men of letters, free and independent. The 
works of this writer are collected in 3 volumes, 12mo, 
under the title of ** Theatre de Society." Co\\6 was a 
cousin of the poet Regnard, whom he likewise .resembled 
in his originality of genius. ' 

COLLET (Peter), a voluminous French divine, was a 
native of Ternay in Vendomois, doctor of divinity, and 
priest of the mission of St. Lazare. He was born Sept. 6, 
1693, and died at Paris Oct. 6, 1770, at the seminary des 
Bons Enfans, where he resided. M. Collet published '^^ A 
System of Moral Theology," 15 tom. which make 17 vols; 
8vo, in Latin, because tom. 1, and tom. 13, are divided 
each into two, 1744 etseqq. An abridgment of this work> 
S vols. 12mo ; a scholastic work in 2 vols. ; *^ Tr. des Dis- 
penses," 3 vols. ; "Tr. des Saints Mysteres," 3 vols.; "Tr. 
des Indulgences^ et du Jubil^," 2 vols. 12mo; and some 

I Diet Hist. 


books of devotion, which ar« very superficial ; *' Sermons,*' 
2 vols. 12tno, an abridgment of Pontas, 2 vols. 4to, &c. ^ 

COLLET (Phiubert), a learned advocate of parlia- 
ment of Dombes, was born February 15, 1643, at Cbatilon- 
les-D(xnbes, where he died March 31, 1718, aged seventy* 
six. He left " Traits des Excommunications,'' 1689, 
12mo; " Tn de I'Usure,'' 1690, 8vo; Notes on the cus- 
tom of Bresse, 1698, fol. and several other works contain- 
ing singular sentiments, more free than his church per- 

COLLETET (Wiluam), one of the members of the' 
French academy, was born at Paris in 1598, and died in 
the same city February 10, 1659, ^ged sixty-one, leaving- 
scarcely enough to bury him. Cardinal Richelieu ap- 
pointed him, one of the five authors whom he selected to 
write for the theatre. Colletet'alone composed " Cyminde,'* 
and had a part in the two comedies, the ** Blindman oC 
Smyrna,'* and the " Tuilleries," Reading the monologue 
in this latter piece to the cardinal, he was so struck with 
six bad lines in it, t&t he made him a present of 600 
livres ; saying at. the same time, that this was only for the 
six verses, which he found so beautiful, that the king was 
not rich enough to recompense him for the' rest. How- 
ever^ to shew his right as a patron, and at the same time 
his judgment as a connoisseur, he insisted on the altera- 
tion of one word for another. CoUetet refused to comply 
with his criticism ; and^ not content with defending his 
verse to the cardinal's face, on returning home he wrote to 
kun on the subject The cardinal had just read his letter, 
wlien some courtiers came to compliment him on the suc- 
cess of the king's arms, adding, that nothing could with- 
stand his eminence! — ^^ You are much mistaken," answered 
be smiling ; ^' for even at Paris I meet with persons who 
withstand me." They asked who these insolent peryyns 
could be ? " It is Colietet," replied he ;'" for, after having 
contended with me yesterday about a word, he will not 
yet submit, as you may see here by this long letter he 
has been writing to me." This obstinacy, however, 
did not so far irritate the minister as to deprive the poet 
of his patronage. CoUetet had also other benefactors* 
Harlay, archbishop of Paris, gave him a handsome reward 

1 Diet Histk t Morerl 



C O L L E T E T. 4S 

for his fajmn on the immaculate conception ; by sending 
him an ApoUo of solid silver. — CoUetet took for his se« 
cond wife, Claudine his maid servant ; and, in oi^r to 
justify his choice, published occasionally pieces of poetry 
in h^ name ; but, this little artifice being presently dis* 
covered, both the supposititious Sappho, and the inspirer 
of her lays, became the objects of continual satire. This 
marriage, in addition to two subsequent ofies, to the losses 
he suifered in the civil wars, and to his turn for dissipa- 
tion, reduced him to the extreme of poverty. His works 
appeared in 1653, in i2mo. ^ 

COLLIER (Jeremy), an eminent English divine, was 
born at Stow Qui in Cambridgeshire, Sept. 23, 1650. His 
father Jeremy-Collier was a divine and a considerable lin- 
guist ; and some time master of the iree*scho6l at Ipswich, 
in Suffolk. He was educated under bis father at Ipswich, 
whence he was sent to Cambridge, and admitted a poor 
scholar of Caius college under the tuition of John EUys, 
in April 1669. He took the degree of B. A. in 1673, and 
that of M. A. in 1676 ; being ordained deacon the same 
year by Gunning, bishop of Ely, and priest the year after 
by Compton bishop of London. He officiated for some 
time at the countess dowager of Dorset's at Knowle in 
Kent, whence he removed to a small rectory at Aiiipton 
near St. Edmi^id's Bury in Suffolk, to which he was pre- 
sented by James Calthorpe, esq. in 1679. After he had 
held this benefice six years, he resigned it, came to Lon- 
don in 1685, and was some little time after made lec- 
turer of Gray's Inn. But the revolution coming on, the 
public exercise of bis function became impracticable. 
* Collier, however, was of too active a spirit to remain 
supine, and therefore began the attack upqp the revolution : 
for bis pamphlet is said to have been the first written on 
that side the questio^n after the prince of Orange's arrival, 
with a piece entitled ^* The Desertion discussed in a letter 
to a country gentleman, 1/688," 4to. This was written in 
answer to a pamphlet of Dr. Gilbert Burnet, afterwards 
bishop of Salisbury, called <^ An Enquiry into the present 
State of Affairs, &c." wherein king James is treated as a 
deserter from his crown ; and it gave such offence, that, 
after the government was settled. Collier was sent to New- 
gate, where be continued a close prisoner for some months, 

1 Morcrl— BailUt JTuf emess.^Dict. Hist. 


Ibut was at length diischarged without being brought io i 
trial. He afterwards published the following pieces: 1. 
A truslation of: the 9tb, lOth, lltb^ and 12th books of 
Sleid^'s Commentaries^ 1689y 4to. 2. ^^ Vindicise juris, 
regii, or remarks upon a paper entitled An Enquiry into 
the measures of submission to the Supreme Authority,'* 
1689, 4to. The author of this inquiry was also Dr. Bur- 
Bet. 3. ^^ Animadversions upon the modern explanation 
of 2 Hen. YIL damp. i. or a king de facto," 1639, 4to. 4« 
^ A Caution, against Inconsistency, or the connection be-^ 
tween praying and swearing, in relation to th^ Civil Pow-* 
ers^'' 1690, 4to. This discourse is a dissuasive from join- 
ing in public assemblies. 5. ^^ A Dialogue concerning the 
Times, between Philobelgus and Sempronius, 1690, 4to : 
to the right honourable the lords, and to the gentlemen 
convened at Westminster, Oct. 1690." This is a petition 
for an inquiry into the birth of the prince of Wales, and 
printed upon a half sheet 6. "Dr. Sherlock's Case of 
Allegiance considered, with some remarks upon his Vin-» 
dication," 1691, 4to. 7. " A brief essay concerning thd 
independency of Church Power," 1692, 4to. The design 
of this essay is to prove the pubUc assemblies guilty of 
schism, upon account of their being held under such 
bishops as had assumed, or owned such as had assumed, 
the sees of those who were deprived for not taking the 
oaths of the new government. 

Thus did Collier, by such ways and means as were in 
his power, continue to oppose with great vigour and spirit 
the revolution and all its abettors : and thus he became 
obnoxious to the men in power, who only waited for an 
occasion to seize him. That occasion at length came ; for 
information being given to the eatl of Nottingham, then 
secretary of state, that Collier, with one Newton, another 
nonjuring clergyman, was gone to Romney marsh, with a 
view of sending to, or receiving intelligence from the other 
side of the water, messengers were sent to apprehend 
them. They were brought to London, and, after a short 
examination by the earl, committed to the Gate-house. 
This was in the latter end of 1692, but as no evidence of 
their being concerned in any such design could be founds 
they were admitted to bail, and released. Newton, as faf 
as appears, availed himself of this ; but Collier refused to 
remain upon bail, because he conceived that an acknow- 
ledgment of the jurisdiction of the court in which thQ bail 


was taken, and consequently of the power from whence 
the authority of the court was derived, and therefore sur- 
rendered in discharge of his bail before chief justice^olt, 
and was committed to the king^s^bench prison. He was 
released again at the intercession of friends, in a very 
few days ; but still attempted to support his principles and 
justify his conduct by the following pieces, of which, it is 
said, there were only five copies printed: 8. "The case 
of giving Bail to a pretended authority examined, dated 
from the King's-bench, Nov. 23, 1692," with a preface, 
dated Dec. 1692; and, 9. " A Letter to sir John Holt,** 
dated Nov. 30, 1692; and also, 10. ''A Reply to some 
Remarks upon the* case of giving bail, &c. dated Aprfl, 
1693." He wrote soon after this, 11, " A Persuasive to 
consideration, tendered to the Royalists, partieularly chose 
of the Church of England," 1693, 4to. It was afterwards 
reprinted in 8vo, together with his vindication of it, against 
a piece entitled "The Layman's Apology." He wrote 
also, 12. *' Remarks upon the Loudon Gazette, relating 
to the Streights' fleet, and the Battle of Landen in Flan- 
ders," 1693, 4to. 

We bear no more of Collier till 1696 ; and then we find 
him acting a very extraordinary part, in regard to sir John 
Friend and sir William Perkins, who were convicted of 
being concerned in the assassination plot. Collier, with 
Cook and Snatt, two clergymen of his own way of think*- 
ing, attended those unhappy persons at the place of their 
execution, upon April 3 ; where Collier solemnly absolved 
the former, as Cook did the latter, and all three joined in 
the imposition of hands upon them both. This, as might 
well be expected, was looked upon as an high insult oa 
the civil and ecclesiastical government ; for which reason 
there was a declaration, signed by the two archbishops 
and the bishops of London, Durham, Winchester, Coven- 
try and Litchfield, Rochester, Hereford, Norwich, Pe- 
terborough, Gloucester, Chichester, and, St. Asaph, in which 
they signified their abhorrence of this scandalous, irregular, 
schismatic, and seditious proceeding. This "Declaration," 
which may be seen in the Appendix to the third vol. of the 
State Tracts in the time of king William, did not only 
bring upon them eccledastical censiare ; they were prose- 
cuted also in the secular courts, as enemies to the govern- 
ment In coiisequence of this Cook and Snatt were eom^- 
mitted to Newgate, but afterwards released without being 


brought to a tria) ; but Collier having still his old scruple 
about putting in bail, and absconding, was outlawed, and 
so continued to the time of his death. He did not fail, 
however, to have recourse to his pen as usual, in order to 
justify his conduct upon this occasion; and therefore piib* 
jished, 13. ^^ A Defence of the Absolution given to sir Wil- 
.liam Perkins at the place of execution ; with a farther vin«> 
dication thereof, occasioned by a paper entitled, A De« 
claration of the sense of the archbishops and bishops, &g. 
the first dated April 9, 1696, the other April 21, 1696;'* 
to which is added, ^^ A Postscript in relation to a paper 
called An Answer to his Defence, &c. dated April 25." 
Also, ** A Reply to the Absolution of a Penitent according 
to the directions of the church of England, &c.'* dated 
May 20,1696: abd ^' An Answer to the Animadversions 
on two pamphlets lately published by Mr. Collier, &ci" 
dated July 1, 1696, 4to. 

When this affair was over. Collier employed himself in 
reviewing and finishing several miscellaneous pieces, which 
he published under the title of *^ Essays upon several Mo- 
ral Subjects." They consist of 3 vols. 8vo; the first of 
.which was printed in 1697, and its success encouraged the 
author to publish a second in 1705, and a third in 1709* 
These were written with such a mixture of learning and 
wit, and in a style so easy and flowing, that notwithstand* 
ing the prejudice of party, which ran strong against "him, 
they were in general well received, and have passed through 
many editions since. In 1698 he entered on his celebrated 
attempt to reform the stage, by publishing his '^ Short 
View of the immorality and profaneness of the English 
Stage, together with the sense of antiquity upon this ar- 
gument," 8 vo. This engaged him in a controversy with 
the wits ; and Congreve and Vanbrugb^ whom, with many 
others, he had taken to task very severely, appeared openly 
against him« The pieces he wrote in this conflict, besides 
the first already mentioned, were, 2. " A Defence- of the 
^Short View, being a reply to Mr. Congreve*s amendments, 
&c. and to the vindication of the author of the Relapse," 
1699, 8vo. 3. "A Second Defence of the Short View, 
being a reply to a book entitled The ancient and modern 
Stages surveyed, &c." 1700, 8vo : the book here replied 
to was written by Mr. Drake. 4. ^' Mr. CoUier^s dissuasive 
from the Play-house : in a letter to a person of quality, 
occasioned by the late calamity of the tempest^" 1703^ 8yo. 


S. ^ A fartber Vifidication of tbe Short Vie^, k'c. hi whick 
the objections of a late book, enlitled A Defence of Phy% 
wt^ considered," 1708, 8vo. ** The Defence of Playa** 
has Dir. Filmer for its author* In this controversy \^h the 
mtagBj Collier exerted' himself to the utmost advantage; 
and shewed that a clergyman might have wit as well as 
learning and reason on his side. It is remarkable, that his 
labours here were attended with success, and actually pro- 
duced repentance and amendnient ; for it is allowed on all 
hands, that the decorum which has been for the most part 
observed by the later writers of dramatic poetry, is entirely 
owing to the animadversions of Collier. What Dryden 
said upon this occasion in the preface to his Fables does 
much credit to his candour and good sense. *^ I shall say 
the less of Mr. Collier, because in many things he has 
taxed me justly ; and I have pleaded guilty to all thoughts 
* and expressions of mine which can be truly arraigned of 
obscenity, profaneness, or. immorality, and retracr them. 
If he be my enemy, let him triumph ;^ if he be my friend, as 
I have given him no personal occasion to be otherwise, he 
will be glad of my repentance. It becomes me not to draw 
my pen in the defence of a bad cause, when I have so often 
drawn it for a good one,'* If Congreve andVanbrugh had 
taken the same method with Dryden, and made an ingenuous 
confession of their faults, they would have retired with a 
better grace than they did : for it is certain that, with all 
the wit which they have shewn in their respective vindica- 
tions, they make but a very indifferent figure. " Congreve 
and Vanbrugh, says Dr. Johnson, attempted answers. Con- 
greve, a very young man, eUted with success, and im- 
patient of censure, assumed an air of confidence and se-. 
curity. His chief artifice of controversy is to retort upon 
his adversary his own words : he is very angry, and hoping 
to conquer Collier with his own weapons, allows himself 
in the use of every term of contumely and contempt : but 
he has the sword without the arm of Scanderbeg ; he has 
his antagonist's coarseness, but not his strength. Collier 
replied; for contest was his delight: he was not to be 
frighted from his purpose, or his prey. The cause of Con- 
greve was not tenable : whatever glosses he might use fgr 
the defence or palliation of single passages, the general te-> 
nourand tendency of his plays must always be condemned. 
It is acknowledged, with universaLconviction, that the pe- 
rusal of bis works will make no man better ; and that their 
Vol. X. E 


C O t L I £ It 

ultimaie elfte^ is to reprfsent pleasure in alliapce with vice, ^ 
and to relax those obligations by which life ought to be 
regulated. The suge found other advocates, and. the, 
dispute was protracted through ten years : but at last co^ 
medv grew moremodest, and Collier lived to see the re- 
ward of his labour in the reformation of the theatre.*' 

The next thing Collier undertook was a work of consi- 
derable industry, that of translating Moreri's great ** His-r 
torical, geographical, genealogical, and poetical Dictionr 
ary.** The two first volumes were printed in 1701, the 
third, under the title of a '* Supplement,** in 1 705, and the 
fourth, which is called *' An Appendix,** in 1721. This 
was a worir of ereat utility at the time it was published. It . 
Was the first of its kind in the English language, and many 
articles of biography in the Appendices may yet be con* 
suited with advantage, as containing particulars which are 
not to be found elsewhere. About 1701, he published* 
also, ^< An English translation of Antoninus*s Meditations, 
&c. to which is added, the Mythological Picture of Cebes, 
lic;*' In the reig^ of queen Anne, some overtures were . 
made to engage him to a compliance, and he was promised 
preferment, if he would acknowledge and submit to the • 
government; but as he became a nonjuror upon a prin- 
eiple of conscience, he could not be prevailed upon to 
listen to any terms. Afterwards he publbhed, in 2 vols. 
foIio» ** An Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain, chiefly 
of England, from the first planting of Christianity, to the 
end of the reign of Charles 11. with a brief account of the 
affairs of religion in Ireland^ collected from the best an- 
cient historians, councils, and records.** The first volume, 
which comes down to Henry VII. was published in 1709, 
the second in 1714. ^ This history, which contains, besides 
a relation of facts, many curious discourses upon eccle-* 
^iastical and religious subjects, was. censured by bishop . 
^!0urnet, bishop Nicolson, and doctor Kennet, afterwards . 
{liihop of Peterborough; but was defended by Collier in^ 
two pieces. The first was entitled *^ An Answer to some 
exceptions in bishop Bumet*s third part of the History of ^ 
the Reformation, &c. against Mr. Co11ier*s Ecclesiastical His* . 
tory ; together with a reply to some remarks in bishop Nicol- 
son*s English Historical Library, &Ck upon the same sub-, 
ject, 1715;'* the* second, ''Some Remarks on Dr. Ken- 
net*s second and third Letters; wherein his misrepresenta- , 
tiotis of Kr. ColUer*s Ecclesiastical History are laid open, ; 

COL t lER/ sX 

dttd bis'Calnmnies dispiroved, niif.^^ 0o1iiet*^, preju^icesj^ 
however, in favour of the popish estaAlishitieiii, aii4'ai^in((t . 
the -reformers, render it necessary '^ to read this work with; 
intich caution : on the other hand, we Cannot biit obserti^s. 
to Collier's credit, an instance Of iii^ gr6at impartiality ini 
the second volume of his history ; which' is, that in disciiU 
pating the presbyterians from the imputation of their being, 
consenting to the murder of Charles I. he has shewn, that, 
as they only had it in their power to ptotest, so they 4id^ 
protest against that bloody act, both before and aift^r it wa^, 
committed. * : 

In 1713, Collier, as is confidently related, was conse.-; 
crated a bishop by Dr. George Hjckes, wh6 had himseli^. 
been consecrated suffragan of Thetford by the deprive^ . 
bishops of Norwich, Ely, and Peterborough, Feb. 23, \69^,\ 
As he grew in years, his health became impaired by freqyeni. 
attacks of the stone, to which his sedentary life probably ' 
contributed : so that he published nothing more but a vo-^ 
lume of ^* Practical Discourses*' in 1725, and an additional; 
sermon '< upon God not the origin of Evil," in 1726. £(er\ 
sides what has been mentioned, he wrote some prefaces, 
to other men's works ; and published also an advertiser^! 
ment against bishop Burnet's '* History of his own 'fames :" J 
this was printed on a slip of paper, and dispersed in all > 
the coffee-houses in 1724, and is to be seen in the 'VEven- • 
ing-post. No. 2254." He died of the stone, April 26, 1726, 
aged seventy -six ; and was interred three days after iu the 
CDurch-yard of St. Pancras near London. He was a very 
ingenious, learned, moral, and religious man ; and though 
stiff in hils opinions, is said to have had nothing stiff op: ' 
pedantic in his behaviour, but a great deal of life, spirit,., 
and innocent freedom. It ought neviMr to be forgot, that 
Collier was a man of strict principle, Alid great sincerity, 
for to th&t he sacrificed all the most flattering prospects 
that could have beea presented to him, and died at an 
advanced age in the profession and belief in which he had 
lived. lie will long be remembered as the reformer of the 
stage, an attempt made, and in which be S^as 
tilccessful, single-handed, against a confederacy of dra-^ 
matic talents the inost brilliant that ever appeared on the. 
British stage. His repMtfttion as a man of letters was not . 
confined to bis own country: for the learned father Cour- 
beville^ who translated into French " The Hero of Bal- 
diazar Gratian;" irf his pre&ce to that work, speaks in 

5i C t t f E R. 

high tent)s of bis << MtsceHatieouft Essays;'' which, ha 
gays^ set him upon a Wei with Montaigne, St. Evremondy 
La Bruyferc, &c. The same person translated into French 
his ^* Short View of the English Stage ;" where he speaks 
^f hitn ^gain iii strong ejcpressions of admiration and 
esteem. ' 

CALLINGS (John), an eminent nonconfotmist dirine, 
and a Voltiminotid writer, was born at Boxstead, in Essex, 
in 1623, and educated at Eniantiel college, Cambridge, 
where he took his degrees, probably during tht usurpation, 
as we find him D. D. at the restoration. He had the living 
of St Stephen's Norwich, from which he was riected for 
non-conformity in 1662. His epitaph says he discharged 
the work of the ministry in that city for forty- four years„ 
which is impossible, unless he continued to preach as a 
dissenter after his ejection. He was one of the comtnis- 
idoners at the Savoy conference in the reign of Charles IL 
He particularly excelled as a textuary and critic. He Was 
a man of various learning, and much esteemed for his 
great industry, humanity, and exemplary life. He wrote 
many books of controversy and practical divinity, the most 
singular of which is his " Weaver*s Pocket-book,'or Weav- 
ing spiritualized," 8vo. This book was particularly adapted 
to the pkce of his residence, which had been long fatuous 
for the 'manufacture' of sfilks. Granger remarks that Mr. 
; Boyle, in his ** Occasional Reflections on several subjects,," 
published in 1665, seems to have led the way to spiri- 
tualizing the coo^mon objects, business, and occurrencet 
of life. This was much practised by Mr. Flavel, and by 
Mr. Hervey; it is generally a very popular method of 
conveying religious sentiments, although it is apt to de- 
generate into vulgar familiarity ; but we know not if the 
practice may not^e traced to bishop Hall, who published 
his " OccasioUal Meditations" in 1633. Calamy has given 
a very long list of Dr. Collings's publications, to which we 
refer. In Poole's ** Annotatiotis on the Bible" he wrote 
those on the last six chapters of Isaiah, the whole of Jere* 
miah. Lamentations, the four Evangelists, the epistles to 
the Corinthians, Galatians, Timothy and Philemon, and 
the Revelations. He dfed at Norwich Jan. 17, 1690.* 

COLLING WOOD (Cuthbert, Lord), a brave and 
ezceltent English admiral, the. son of Cuthbert CoUing- 

> Bi»f. BrIt.<^Dr. JMttioii't Works; 9 Calany.<**€br»nf«r^ 


wood, of Neivcastle upon Tyne^ majrobniit (who died in 
1775) and of Milcha, davgJit^ and coheir of Raginild 
DobspD, of Barwesty in WeitmorelaiM], esq. (who died in 
1798) was bora at Newca$Uei Sept. 36, 1748. After be- 
ing educated under the care of the r^v. A|n Moisef , along 
with the present lord chancellor Eldon, he entered into the 
naval service in 176 1» under the protection and patronage 
of his maternal uncle^ capt« (afterwards admiral) Braith* 
waite, and with him he served for some years. In 1766 
we find him a midshipman in the Gibraltar, and from 1767 
to 1772, master's mate in the Liverpool, when he was 
taken into the Lenox^ under cagt (now admiral) Roddam^ 
by whom he was recommeiidea to vice<admiral Graves, 
and afterwards to vice-admkal sir Peter Parker. In Feb. 
1774, be went in the Preston, under the command of vice- 
admiral Graves, to America, and the following year was 
promoted to the rank of fourth lieutenant in the Somerset, 
ou the day of the battle at Bunker's Hill, where he was sent 
with a party of seamen to supply^ the army with what was 
necessary in that line of service. The vice-admiral being 
recalled, and succeeded upon that station by vice*adroiral 
Sbuldham^ sailed for England on the 1st of February, 1776. 
In the same year lieutenant CoUingwood was sent to Ja- 
maica in the Hornet sloop, and soon after the l4>westoffe 
came to the same station, of which lord Nelson was at that 
time second lieutenant, and with whom he had been before- 
in habits of great friendship. His friend Nelson had en- 
tered the service soma years later than himself, but was 
made lieft tenant in the Lowestoffe, captain Locker, in 1777. 
Here their frietndship was renewed ; and upon the ar/ival 
of vice-admiral ^r Peter Parker to take the command upon 
that Nation, they found in him a common patron, who, 
while his country was receiving the benefit of his own ser- 
prices, wa^ laying the foundation for those future benefits 
which were to bie derived from such promising objects of 
>patronage and pn>tec|uoD : and here be^an that succession 
of fortune which seems to have continued to the last ; when 
be, whom the subject of our present memoir had so often 
succeeded in the early stages of bis promotion, resigned 
the coK^^piand of his victorious fleet into the hands of a 
well«tried friend, whom he knew to be a fit successor in 
this last and triumphant stage of his glory, as he had been 
before in the earlier stages of his fortune. For it is de«- 
serving of remask, that whenever the one got a step in 

«* C O L L I N G W O O D, 

rank, the ofher succeeded to the station wbicli his friend 
/ had left ; first in the Lowestoffe,. in which, upon the pro- 
motion, of lieutenant Nelson intd the admiral's own ship, 
the Bristol, lieutenant Collingwood succeeded to the Lowes* 
.toffe;'and when the former was advanced in 1778, from 
the Badger to the rank of post captain in tlie Hinchin* 
brooke, the latter was made master and commander in the 
Badger;. and again upon his promotion to a larger ship, 
capt. Collingwood was made post in the Hinchinbrooke. 

In this dhip capt. Collingwood was employed in the 
spring of 17 SO, upon an expedition to the Spanish main, 
which, from the unwholesomeness of the climate, proved 
fatal to most of his ship's company. In August 1780 he. 
quitted this station, and in the following December was 
appointed to the command of the Pelican of 24 guns ; but 
on the 1st of August 1781, in the hurricane so fatal to the 
West India islands, she was wrecked upon the Morant 
Quay I but the captain and orew happily got on shore. 
He was next appointed to the command of the Sampson, of 
64 guns, in which ship he served to the peace of 1783^ 
when she was paid off, :and he was appointed to the Me- 
diator, and sent to the West Indies, upon which station be 
remained until the latter end of 1786, Upon his return to 
England^ when the ship wi|s paid off, . he visited his native 
country,' and remained there until 1790, when on the ex- 
pected rupture with ^ Spain, on account of the seizure of 
oar ships at Nootfca Sound, he was appointed, to the Mer- 
maid of .32 guns, under the command of admiral Cpmisb, 
in the West. Indies ; bat the dispute with Spain being ad- 
justed without bosUiities, he once more returned to bi4 
native country, where in June 1791 he Biarried Sarah,, the 
' eldest of the two daughters of John Erasmus Blackett, esq|. 
of Newcastle, by whom he left issue two daughters; 

: On the beeakmg out of the war widi France in 1793, he. 
was: called to the command of the Prince, rear-admiral 
Bower's flagTship, with whom he served in this ship, and 
afterwards in the Barfieur, until the engagement of June 1, 
17^4/ - In this, action he distinguished himself with great, 
bravery, and the ship which he commanded is known to have . 
JmA its full share in the glory of the day ; though it has been 
tbf subject of conversation with the public, and was probably 
the source of some painful feelings at the moment in the 
caj^tain's awn mind, that no notice w^ taken of his seiy . 

"^ihtB upon tUs occasioQ/ nor his naoie once mentioned in 
the oflfeial dispatches of lord Howe to the admiralty; 

Rear-admiral Bowyer^s flag, in consequence of his ho- 
nourable wound in this day^s action^ no longer flying on- 
board the Barfleiir, captain CoUingwood was appointra to: 
the coounand of the-Hector^ on the 7th of August^ 1794^ 
and afterwards to the Excellent, in which he was employed* 
in the blockade of Toulon, and in this ship he had the ho-^ 
uour to acquire fresh laurels in the brilliant victory off the 
Gape of St. Vincent^s, on the 14th of February, 1797. In 
this day's most memorable engagement, the Excellent took 
a distinguished part, and. so well did Ndson know his va» 
lue, that when the ship which captain Collingwood com- 
aaanded was sent to reinforce this sqiiadron, he exclaimed 
with great joy and confidence in the talenu and bravery of 
her captain, *< See here comes the Excellent, which is aa 
good as two added to our number/' And the support 
which he in particular this day received from this slap, be 
gratefully acknowledged in the following laconi&note of 
thanks : . •  

^< Dear C<dlingwood ! A friend in need is a friend in* 
deed." . 

It dad not fall to his lot to have zj^y share in the subse- 
quent battle of the Nile, nor had he the good fortune to 
be placed in a station where, any further <q»portttnity was 
afforded to display his talents during the remainder of the 
war. He continual in the command of the Excellent, 
under the flag of lord St. Vincent, till January 1799, when 
his ship was paid off:, and on the 14th of February, in tfai^ 
same year, on the promotion of flag officen, he was raised 
to the rank of reav-admiral of the white; and on'the 12th 
of May following, hoisted his flag on board the Triumpby 
one of the ships under the command of lord Bridport on 
the Channel station. In the month of June laoo be shifted 
his flag to the Barfleur, on the same station ; and in ISOl 
^ VMS promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of &e red, in 
which ship, and upon the same service, he continued to 
the end 6f the war, without any op(^ortuntty of doing mote 
than eflbctually blockading the enemy'fi fleet in their own 
port% while they were proudly vaunting of their prepara« 
tions for invading us : a service not less important to the 
honour, the interest, and the security of the natbn, than 
those more brilliaDlt achievemenu which dazale the public 
«ye; . 


On th6 re-comineQcaneht of bostiiities, however, id- 
miral Coilingwood was again called iato set^rice, and oa 
^e promotion of admirals on the 23d of April, 1604, was 
made vice-admiral of the blue, and resumed hit fomier 
station off Brest. The close blockade which admiral Com* 
wallis kept up requiring a constant succession of sh^is, tte 
vice*admiral shifted his flag from ship to ship as oecasioa 
required, by which he was always upon his station in a diip 
fit for service, without the necessity of quitting his station, 
and returning to port for victualling or repairs. But frofli 
this station he was called in May 1805, to a more active 
service, having been detached with a reinforcement of shipa 
to the blockading fleet at Ferrol and Cadiz. Perhaps it 
would be difficult to fix upon a period, or a p«rt oi like 
character of lord Coilingwood, which called for powers of a 
more peculiar kind, or displayed his talents to move advau*- 
tage, than the period and the service in which he was now 
employed. Left with only four ships of the line, to keep 
in nearly four times the number, it seems almost impoesi« 
ble so to have divided bis little force as to deceive the 
enemy, and effect the object of his service; bat^tfaishe 
certainly accomplished. With two of his ships close in ^ 
usual to watch the motions of the enemy, and make signals 
to the other two, which were so disposed, and at a distance 
from one another, as to repeat those signals from one to 
the other, and again to other ships that were supposed to 
receive and answer them, he continued to delude the ene* 
my, and led them to conclude that these were only part of 
a larger force that was not in sight, and thus he not only 
secured his own ships, but effected an important service to 
his country^ by preventing the execution of any plan that 
the enemy might have had in contemplation. 

On the return of lord Nelson in the month of SeptemAwr 
he resumed the command, and vice-admiral Coilingwood 
was his second. Arrangements were now made, and such 
a dispasition of the force under his command as might draw 
the combined fleets' out, and bring them to action. In a 
letter to a friend, dated the 8d of October, lord Nelson 
wrote that the enemy were still in port, and that something 
must be done to bring them to battle. ^' In less than a 
fortnight,'* he adds, ^^ expect to^bear from me, or of me, 
for who can foresee the fate of battle?" 

At length the opportunity offered. The plan that was 
laid to lure them out succeeded. Admiral Louis having 

C O L H N O W O O ]>• 57 

haea detacfaecl wkh four hIA of the line to attend a convoj 

to » cenoia distaoce up the Mediter ranean, aad the rest of 

ike fleet oo dUpoied as to lead the enemy to believe it to 

be not 8o, otrong as it was, adoiiiial Villeoeuve was teinipted 

to veotare out with 33 ships under his oocnmaud (18 French 

and 15 Spanish)^ in the hope of doing sooiethingto retrieve 

tbe honour of their flag. On the 1 9th of October lord 

Nelson received tbe jojful intelligence from the ships that 

wem left to watch th^r motions, that the combiiied fleet 

bad p«t to seat ^>^d as they sailed with light westerly 

winds, his lordship concluding their destination to be tbe 

Mectiterranean, made ail sail for the Straits with the Beet 

aader his oommand, consisting of 27 ships, three of which 

were sixty-feurs. Here be learnt from capt. Blackwood 

that they had not yet passed the. Strain, and on tbe 2 1 st, 

at day^ligbt, had the satisfaction to discover them six or 

seven miles to t^e eastward, and imaaediately made the 

signal for the fleet to bear up in two cdnasos. It fell to 

the lot of vice-admiral CoUingwood, in the Royal Sove« 

reign, to lead his column into action, and first to t>reak 

through tbe enemy's line, which he did in a manner that 

oommanded the admiration of both fleets, and drew from 

lord Nelson tbe enthusiastic expression, ^ Look at that 

noble fellow ! Observe tbe style in which he carries his 

ship into action !'' while the vice-^admiral, mth equal jus« 

tice to the spirit and valour of his friend, was eijoying tho 

proud honour of bis situation, and saying to tliose about 

hiaSy *< What would Nelson give to be in our situation !'' 

Of this memorable engagement, which wili occur again 
in our life of Nelson, we shall only notice in this place, 
iiM it began at twelve o'clock : at a quarter past one, lord 
Nelson received tbe fatal wound ; and at three, P. M. many 
of the ships, having struck their colours, gave way. Tbe 
British fleet was left with nineteen ships of tbe enemy, as 
the trophies of their victory ; two of them first rates, with 
three flag officers, of which the commander in chief ( Ville^ 
aeuve) was one. On the death of lord Nelson, the com^ 
mand of his conquering fleet, and the completion of the 
victory, devolved upon vice-admiral CoUingwood, who, as 
he bad so often done in the early part of has Hfe, now for 
the last time succeeded him, in an arduous moment, and 
mast difficult service. Succeeding high gales of wind en<* 
dangeiod tbe fleet, and particularly threatened the destrnc« 
tion ofibe- captured ships -, but by the extmordinary exer^ 




tions that were made for their preservation, four 74 gurh* 
ships (three of the;m Spanish and one Freiich) were savieA 
and sent into Gibraltar. Of the remainder, nine were* 
wrecl^ed, three burnt, and three sunk. Two others were 
taken, but got into Cadiz in the gale. Four others which 
had got off to the southward were afterwards taken by the 
squadron under sir Richard Strachan. So that outt>f the 
thirty-three ships, of which the combined fleet consisted^ 
there were only ten left, and many of these in such a shat* 
tered state, as to be little likely to be further serviceable. ■•- 

Were we disposed, in our esteem of tlus distinguished' 
character, to pay a compliment to the vice-admirars merits 
that might be considered as more exclusive, it would be 
the pious gratitude of his feelings, and his confidence ia 
God^ that we should hold up as a discriminating feature. 
We have seldom found the man who can lay aside the pride 
of the conqueror, and ascribe his successes to God. This 
in a most eminent degree lord CoUingwood did. Scarce 
was the battle over, when the arrangement was made for a 
day of thanksgiving throughout the fleet, to that Provi* 
dence to whom he felt himself indebted for the brilliant 
success with which the day had terminated. So much to 
the honour of this illustrious and Virtuous character is the 
general order that he issued on this occasion, that it ought 
to be recorded as one of the traits which must ever redound 
to his praise. 

^' The Almighty God^ whose arm is strength, having of 
his' great mercy been pleased to crown the exertions of his- 
majesty's fleet with success, in giving them a complete 
victory over their enemies on the 21st of this month ; and 
that all praise and thanksgiving may be offered up to the 
throne of grace, for the great benefit to our country and to 
mankind, I have thought proper that a day should be ap-- 
pointed of general humiliation before God, and thanks- 
giving for his merciful goodness, imploring forgiveness 
of sins, a continuation of his divine mercy, and his con- 
stant aid to us in the defence of our country's liberties and 
laws, and without which the utmost efforts of man are' 
nought; and direct therefore that be' 

appointed for this holy purpose. 

<< Given on board the Euryalus, off Cape TraMgar, 
October 22, 1805* C. COLUN€Wdofl>."' 

Oh the i^th of November, 1805, when the rank of rekr- 
admiral of the red was restored in the navy, he was ad«- 


▼anced from tbeblae to the rank of vice-admiral of the red. 
On the same day his majesty was graciously pleased to 
confer upon him and his heirs mala^ the title of baron Ccl» 
linwood, of Caldbume and Hethpoole, in the county of 
Northiimberland : and the two houses of parliament, in 
addition to their vote of tbiuks, concurred in a grant of 
two thousand pounds a year for his own life, and the lives 
of his two succeeding male heirs, which upon finding that 
he had only two daughters, was afterwards changed into 
pensions upon them. 

Lord CoUingwood was also confirmed in the command 
of the Mediterranean fleet, to which he succeeded by se- 
niority, and in the opinion of lord Hood wanted only an 
opportunity to prove himself another Nelson. The bad 
state of bis health had required his return home, but he 
vTemained on his station in hopes that the French fleet 
would come out from Toulon. His last active service was 
the direction of the preparations which ended in the de-* 
struction of two French ships of the line on their own coast 
He had not seen any of his relatives for a considerable' 
period before his death, yet he appears to have been sen-' 
sible that his illness would prove fatal. He even ordered 
a quantity of lead on board at Minorca, for the purpose of 
making a coffin for his conveyance to England. He died 
off Minorca, March 7, 1810, on board the Viliede Paris. 
His death is supposed to have been occasioned by a large 
stone in the passage to the bladder ; and for some time 
before bis death he was incapable of taking any sustenance. 
His body having been brought to England was interred. 
May 1 1 , in St. PauPs cathedral, with great funeral solem«- 
nity. Lord CoUingwood was a man of amiable temper and 
manners, dignified as an officer and commander, yet with- 
out any pride ; and social among his friends even to a 
degree of playfulness. His mind was impressed by a 
strong sense of religion, which he reverenced and enjoined 
to those under him. He had no enemies' but those of his 
country, and while he cherished all the Old English pre* 
judices against those, he displayed, in the most trying mo«- 
ments, a spirit of humanity which gained their affections. 
Of this an instance occurred after the great battle of Tra* 
falgar which must not be passed oyer superficially. In 
clearing the captured ships of the prisoners, he found so 
many wounded men, that, as he says in his dispatches, ^< to 

alleviate. bttfoan miseiy as muoh as was in bis power,'' he 


semi to the marquis de SoIatiOi governor*general of Anda* 
lusini to offer him the wounded to the care of their comitry, 
on receipts being giyeo ; a proposal vf hicb was received 
with the greatest thankfulness^ not only by the governor^ 
but by the whole eountry, which resounded with expres* 
iions of gratitude. Two French frigiues were sent out to 
receive them, with a proper officer to give receipts, bring-^ 
ing with them all the Eoglish who bad been wrecked in 
several of the ships, and an offer from the marquis de So* 
Jano of the use of their hospitals for our wounded, pledge 
log the honour of Spain for their being carefully attended.^ 

COLLINS (At^THOjEVY), an eminent, writer on the side 
of infidelity, was the sou of Henry Collins, esq. a gentle- 
man of considerable fortune; and born at Heston near 
Hounslow,' in Middlesex, June 2I| 1676^. He was edu-^ 
eaied in ejassteal learning at Eton school, and removed 
thence to Ktng^s college in Cambridge, where he bad for 
bis tutor Francis Hare, afterwards bishop of Chicbesten 
UpoB leaving college be went to London, and was entered 
a student in the Temple; but not relishing the study of 
the law, he abandoned it, and applied himself to letters 
in general In 1 700 be published a tract entitled *^ Se-* 
▼eral of the London Cases considered.*' He cultivated an 
acquaintance and maintained a correspondence with Locke 
in 1703 and 1704 ; and that Locke bad a great esteem for 
<him, appears from some letters to him published by Des 
Maiseaux in his collection of *^ Several pieces of John Locke^ 
never before printed, or not extant in his works,'' Locke, 
who died Oct 28, 1704, left also a letter dated the 23d, 
to be ddivered to Collins after bis decease, full of con* 
£dence and the warmest affection ; which letter is to be 
found in the collection above mentioned, it is plain from 
these meomarials, that Collins at that time appeared tq 
Locke to be ail impartial and disinterested inquirer after 
truth, and not, as he afterwards proved, disingenuous, art- 
ful, and impious* 

In 1707 he publt^ed ** An essay concerning the us^ of 
reason in propositions, the evidence whereof depends upon 
human testimony :'* reprinted in 1709, and, as is the case 
in all his other writings, without his name. The same 
year, 1707, he engaged in the controversy between Dod* 

* Mr. Lysons renarks that he was .baptized at Islewortb, and therefore pro- 
hal^ly born in that parish. BnTirons, rot. IIL 

} NsTsl Chrtnidc for 1806 and I810.-4lsnt. M^. 1910. 


welt and ClMke, eoncertiing the natural immortality of 
die son)) and wrote, respecting it, 1. <* A letter to the 
learned Mr. Henry Dodwell, containing some remarks on 
a pretended demonstration of the immateriality and natn-* 
ra immortality of the soul, in Mr. Clarke's answer to his 
late epistolary discourse,'* Ac. 1707: reprinted in 1709. 

2. " A reply to Mr. Clarke's defence of his letter to Mr. 
^dwell I with a postscript to Mr«. Milles's answer to Mr. 
Dodwell's epistolary discourse,'* l*l6l : reprinted in 1709. 

3. '^ Reflections on Mr. Clarke's second defence of hia 
letter to Mr. Dodwell," 1707 : reprinted in 171 1. 4. "An 
answer to Mr. Clarke's third defence of his letter to Mr. 
Dodwell," 1708: reprinted in 1711. 

Dec. 1709, came out a pamphlet, entitled, ^* Priest«> 
craft in perfection ; or, a detection of the fraud of insert* 
ing and continuing tliat clause, < The church hath power 
to decree rites and ceremonies, and authority in controver* 
sies of faith,' in the twentieth article of the Articles of the 
Church of England.** And, Feb. the year following, ano* 
ther called ^ Reflections on a late pamphlet, entitled. 
Priestcraft in perfection, &c." both written by our author. 
The second and third editions of his " Priestcraft in per-*^ 
fection** were printed, with corrections, in 1710, 8vo. 
This book occasioned great and diligent inquiries into the 
subject, and was reflected on in Tarious pamphlets, ser* 
mons, and treatises* These were answered by Collins, 
but not till 1724, in a work entitled, ** An historical and 
critical essay on the 39 Articles of the Church of England : 
wherein it is demonstrated, that this clause, * The Church, 
tec* inserted in the tOth article, is not a part of the arti- 
cle, as they were established by act of parliament in the 
ISth of Elizabeth, or agreed on by the convocations of 
1562 and'l 57 1.** This ^ssay, however, was principally de- 
signed as an answer to '^ The vindication of the Church of 
England from the aspersions of a late libel, entitled. Priest- 
craft in perfection, wherein th6 controverted clause of the 
church*8 power in the !20th article is shewn to be of equal 
authority with all the rest of the articles, in 1710," and to 
** An essay on the 39 Articles by Dr. Thomas Bennet,** 
published in 1715: '* two chief works," says Collins, 
•* which seem written by those champions who have been 
supplied with materials from all quarters, and have taken 
great pains themselves to put their materials into the most 
artful light»*^ In the preface he tella us, that he under* 


took this work at the solidtations of a woftbjr minister of 
the .gospel, who knew that he had made some inquiries 
into the <^ Modern Ecclesiastical History of England ;^' and, 
particularly, that he was preparing ''An history of the 
variations of the church of Efigland and its clergy from the 
reformation down to this time, with an answer to the 
cavils of the papists, made on occasion of the said varia- 
tions :^' but this work never appeared. The reader may 
see the whole state of this controversy in Collier's '' Ec- 
clesiastical History," where particular notice is taken of 
our author. 

In 1710 he published '' A vindication of the Divine At- 
tributes, in some remarks on the archbishop of Dublin's 
(Dr. King) sermon, entitled. Divine predestination and 
foreknowledge consisting with the freedom of man's will." 
March 1711, he went over to Holland, where he became 
acquainted with Le Clerc, and other learned men ; and 
returned to London the November following, to take care/ 
of his private affairs, with a promise to his friends in Hol- 
land, that he would pay them a second visit in a short 
time. In 1713 he published his '' Discourse of Free- 
thinking, occasioned by the rise and growth of a sect cal- 
led Free-thinkers;'* which was attacked by several writers^ 
particularly b^Hoadly, afterwards bishop of Winchester, 
in sogie ''Queries recommended to the authors of the late 
discourse of Free-thinking," printed in his collection of 
tracts in 17]5,sSvo; and by Phileleittberus Lipsiensis, in 
"Remarks upon a late Discourse of Free-thinking, in a let- 
ter to F. H. D. D." This Pbileleutherus Lipsiensis was the 
learned Bentley ; and tl^ persoq to whom this performance 
is -addressed. Hare, afterwards bishop <|f Chichester. The • 
first parti>f these remarks gave birth to a pamphlet said to h^ • 
written by Hare, entitled, *' The clergyman's thanks to 
Phildeutberus for bis remarks on the laiie Discourse of Free- 
thinking : in a letter to Dr. Bentley, 1713.*' The late- 
Mr. Cumberland, in his ^ Life of himself," informs us, that ' 
when Collins had fallen into decay of circumstances, ' 
which, however, we find no where else mentioned. Dr. ' 
Bentley, suspecting he had written him out of credit by ^ 
his " Pbileleutherus Lipsiensist" secretly contrived to ad- 
minister to the necessities of his bafBed opponent in a mari^ 
ner that did no less credit to his delicacy than: his iibe- ' 
rality. Of all this Dr. Bentley we believe was capable, ' 
but it is certain that Collins lived and died in opulences 

C O L L I N Si 6* 


Soon after the poblicatiop of this wotk, C<^iii naade a 
second trip to Holland ; which was ascribed to the general 
alarm caused by the ^^ Discourse of Free-thinking," and 
himself being discovered by . his printer. This is taken 
notice of by Hare : who, having observed that the least ap* 
peatance of danger is able to damp in a moment all the 
zeal oif the free-thinkers, tells us, that *' a bare inquiry. 
uAer the printer of their wicked book has frightened theoiy 
aud obliged the reputed author to take a second trip into 
Holland ; so great is his courage to defend upon the first 
appearance of an opposition. And are not these rare 
champions for free-thinking ? Is not their book a demon- 
stration that we are in possession of the liberty they pre- 
tend to plead for, whi<ih otherwise they durst ne^er have 
writ ? And that they would have been as mute as fishes^ 
had they not thought they could have opened with impun 
nity ?^* Hare afterwards tells us, that ^' the reputed au- 
thor of. free-thinking is,; for all he ever heard, a sober man, 
thanks to his natural aversion to intemperance ; and that,'* 
he observed^ ^* is more than can be said of some others of 
the club :" that is, t^e club of free-thinkers, which were 
supposed to meet and plan schemes in concert, for under- 
mining the foundations of revealed religion. The ^' Ois* 
course of free-thinking^* wa,s reprinted at the Hagpue, with 
some considerable' additions, in 1713, 12mo, though in 
the title-page it if said tp, be printed at London. In this 
edition tbe,.translations in 8^.yepra| places are corrected from - 
Bentley>^ remarkis ;. an4 ;s0^me r^erences are made to those 
remarks, and to Hare's \^ Clefgy^nan's thanks.'' 

While; this book w^ .circulating in England, and aU 
parties were exertiijig .(h^ir .a(e^l, .either, by writing, jor - 
preaching agaipst it, .th<^'fiuji^ said to have received 
gre^t civilities abroad., ^ Frp^i Holland, be went to Fian«» 
ders, and intended tp )iave.. visited-.. Paris ; but the death 
of,a neaf ^lation pll^Iiged hini tp^retiirn t^/ London, where - 
he arrived Pet. , l-8>^ 1.7l?,\ gr^fttly : disappointed in jiot ^ 
having seen Francjq, Italy, &^c. . . I|^. J 7 1 5 , be retived inty 
the. county of Esse:9r,/a^4.^^64..^:^Ju^tice of, the peacie 
ai\d*deputy-lieutenant for the.saipA.coiiinty, as he.had done 
before in the .county . of Middle^;^ .and liberty oif Westmin- 
Iter. The. same year he pij|l)U^ ^^;A philosophical iu;- 
qoiry concerning Human Lib^yty:" which was reprinted 
with sonie corrections in> 17 17., Qr. Sji.muel Clarke wrote - 
remarks upon thisinqniry, • which are subjoined to the coU : 


lection of papers between him and Leibnitz ; bnt CoHilnt 
did not publish any reply on 'this subject, beeanse, as wd 
are told, though he did not think the doctor had the ad« 
▼Mintage over him in the dispute, yet, as he had reprer* 
seated bis opinions as dangerous in their con^qneneesly 
and iijiproper to be insisted or), Collins affected to say tha^ 
after such an insinuation, be could not proceed in the dis-< 
pute upon equal terms. The inquiry was translated into 
French by the rev. Mr. D. and printed in the first Volume 
of Des Maizeaux^s ** Recueil de divei'ses pieces sur la phi* 
losophie, la religion naturelle, &c. par M. Leibnitz, Clarke, 
Newton, &c.'* published at Amsterdam 1720, 2 vols. ISnno. 
In 1718 he was chosen treasurer for the county of Esseat, 
to the great joy, it is said, of several tradesmen and othem, 
who bad large sums of money due to them from the said 
county ; but could not get i); paid them, it having been 
embezzled or spent by their former treasurer. We are 
told that he supported the poorest of them with liis own 
private cash, and promised interest to others till it could 
be raised to pay them : and that in 1722. all the debts were 
by his integrity, care, and management discharged. 

It has already been observed, that he published, in 1724, 
his ^' Historical and critical essay upon the 39 Articles, 
&c.'* The same year he published his famous book, called 
** A discourse of the grounds and reasons of the Christian 
religion," in two parts ; the first, containing some consider- 
ations on the quotations made from the Old in the New 
Testament, and particularly on the prophecies cited from 
the former, and said to be fulfilled in the latter. The se* 
cond, containing an examination of the scheme advanced 
by Whiston in his essay towards restoring the true text of 
the Old Testament, and for vindicating the citations thence 
made in the New Testament. To which is prefixed, ** An 
apology for free debate and liberty of writing." This dis- 
course was immediately attacked by a great number of 
books ; of which Collins has given a complete list, at the 
end of the preface to his ** Scheme of liberal Prophecy." 
The most considerable were : 1 . " A list of suppositions or 
assertions in the late Discourse of the grounds, &c. which 
are not therein supported by any real or authentic evi- 
dence ; for which some such evidence is expected to be 
produced. By William Whiston, M. A." 1724, 8Vo. In 
this piece Whiston treats Collins, together with Toland, 
in very severe terms^ as guilty of impious frauds and lay- 


craft. 2. ^ The literal AccomplishmeQt of teriplure-proT 
pbecies, being a full iaiMwer to a late DiiKM^urse of the 
grounds^ &c. By William Whiston.^ 3* '* .A defence of 
Christianity from the prophecies of the ^ Old Testament^ 
wherein are considered all the objections against this kind 
of proof, advanced in a late Discourse of the grounds, S(c»" 
By Edward Chandler, then bishop of Lichfield and Co^ 
veatry, afterwards of Durham. 4. ^^ A discourse of thei 
Connection of the Prophecies in the Old Testament, and 
applioation of them to Christ*' By Samuel Clarice, D. D* 
rector of St. Jahies's, Westminster. This however wa9 
not intended for a direct answer to Collinses book, but as 
a supplement, occasioned by it, to a proposition in Clarke-a 
*^ Demonstrajtion of the principles of natural aT)d revealed 
rtligion ;'* with which it has since been constantly printed. 
5. *^ An essay upon the Truth of the Christian religion, 
wherein its real foundation upon the Old Testament is 
shewn, occasioned by the Discourse of the grounds,"' &c. 
By Arthur Ashley Sykes. Collins gives it as bis opinion, 
that of all the writers against the '* Grounds," &^c, Sykes. 
alone has advanced a consistent scheme of things, which 
be has proposed with great clearness, politeness, and 
moderatioii. 6. ^* The use and intent of Prophecy in the 
several ages of the church. In six discourses delivered at 
the Temple church in 1724.'* By Thomas Sherlock, D.D. 
Thb was not designed as an answer to the ^^ Grounds," 
&c. but only to throw light upon the argument from pro- 
phecy attacked by our author. The reader will find the 
rest of the pieces written against the '^ Grounds,'' &c. 
enumerated by Collins in the place referred to above; 
among which are Sermons, London Journals, Woolston's 
Moderator between an infidel and an apostate, &c. amount- 
ing in number to no less than thirty-five, including those 
already fnentioned. Perhaps there seldom has been a 
book to which so many answers have been made in so short 
a time, that is, within th^ small compass of two years* 

In 1726 appeared his ^^ Scheme of Literal Prophecy con- 
tideved ) in a view of the controversy occasioned by a late 
book, entitled, A Discourse of the Grounds, &c." It was 
printed at the Hague in t vols. 12me, and reprinted at 
^London witli corrections in 1727, 8vo. In this woric he 
mentions a dissertation he had written, but never pubi» 
liflhed, against Whiston's ^^ Vindicatioii of the Sibylline 
orack»;** in which he endeavours to shew, that those 

VOL.X- . E 


oracles were forged t>y the ptimitive Christians, who were 
thence called Sibyllists by the pagans. He also meations 
a Ml^ discourse of his gpon the miracles recorded in the 
Old and New Testament. The " Scheme of Literal Pro- 
phecy'* had several answers made to it: the most con^ 
siderable of which are, 1. ^^ A vindication of the* defence 
of Christianity, from the prophecies of the Old Testa* 
ment." By Edward Chandler, D. D.; with a Letter from 
the rev. Mr. Masson, concerning the religion of Macrobius^ 
and his testimony touching the slaughter of the infants ait 
Bethlehem, with a postscript upon Yirgil^s fourth eclogue, 
1728, in 2 vols. 8vo. 2. " The necessity of Divine RevQr 
lation, and the truth of the Christian Revelation asserted, 
in eight sermons. To which is prefixed a preface, with 
some remarks on a late book entitled The Scheme of Li*^ 
tcral Prophecy considered, &c. By John Rogers, D. D.!! 
1727, 8vo. 3. *^ A letter to the author of the Londoa 
Journal, April 1, 1727,V written by Dr, Arthur Ashley 
Sykes. Collins replied to the twp last pieces, in ^^ A Letr 
ter to Rogers, on occasion of hi^ Eight Sermons, &c. tQ 
which is added, a Letter printed in the London Journal, 
April I, 1727 ; with an answer to? the same, 1727.'\ la 
his ^^ Letter to Rogers" be observes, that. the. doctor had 
invited him to martyrdom in these words: ^^ A confessor 
Of two would be a mighty ornament to his cause. If he 
expects to convince us that he is in earnest, and believes 
himself, he should not decline giving us this proof of his 
sincerity. What will not abide this trial, we shall aspect 
to have but a poor foundation.'^ These sentiments. Col* 
lins tells us, are in bis opinion false, wicked, inhuman, irr 
religious, inconsistent with the peace of* society, and perr 
sonally injurious to the author of the " Scheme, &c.'* 
He remarks, that it is a degree of virtue to speak what a 
hian thinks, though he may do it in such a way as to avoid 
destruction of life and fortune, &c.*' He declares, that 
the cause of liberty, which he defends, is , ^^ the cause of 
virtue, learning, truth, God, religion, and Christiz^nity ; 
that it is the political interest, of all coun>tri€»s; that the 
degree of it we enjoy in £nglaod is the streiigth, orna* 
xnent, and glory of pur own ; that, if he can contribute to 
the defence of so excellent a cause, he shall think he hasA 
acted a good part in life : in short, it is a causa," says he 
to Dr. Rogers, <^ in which, ifyouj influence jand interest 
were equal to your inclination to procure martyrdom fo^ 
me, I would rather suffer; than in any cause whatsoever ; 

CO L L I N S. 67 

though I should be sorry that Christians should be so weak 
ftod inconsisTent with themselves^ as to be your iostrii* 
ments in taking my life from me.*' 

His health began to decline several years before his 
death : and he was extremely afflicted with the stone, which 
at last put an end to his life, Dec. 13, 1729; he was in- 
terred in Oxford chapel. It is remarkable that notwitb** 
standing the accusation of being an enemy to religion, he 
declared, just before his last minutes, ** That as he had 
always endeavoured, to the best of his abilities, to serve 
God, bis king, and his country, so he was persuaded he 
ivas going to that place which God had designed for them 
that love him.^' Presently after, h^ said, that ^< the ca*' 
tholic religion is to love God, and to love man ;** and he 
advised such as were about him to have a constant regard 
to those principles. His library, which was very large and 
curious, was sold by T. Ballard in 1730-1. The cata- 
logue was drawn up by Dr. Sykes. We are told, that 
^the corruption among Christians, and the persecuting 
spirit of ^e clergy, had given him a prejudice against tjie 
Christian religion ; and at last induced him to think, that, 
upon the foot on which it is at present, it is pernicious to 
mankind.^' He has indeed given us himself an unequivocal 
iDtimation, that he had actuailly renounced Christianity, 
Thus, in answer to Rogers, who bad supposed that it was 
inen*s lusts and passions, and not their reason, which 
made them depart from the gospel, he acknowledges, that 
^ it may be, and is undoubtedly, the case of many, who 
reject the gospel, to be influenced therein by their vices 
and immoralities. It would be very strange,^' says he, ** if 
Christianity, which teaches so much good morality, and 
A) justly condemns divers vices, to which inen are prone, 
was not rejected by some libertines on that account ; as 
the several pretended revelations^ which are established 
throughout the world, are by libertines on that very ac« 
count also. But this cannot be the case of all who re- 
ject the gospel. Some of them who reject the gospel 
lead as good lives as those who receive it. And I suppose 
diere is no difference to the advantage of Christians, 
in point of morality, between them and the Jews, Ma- 
hometans, heathens, or others, who reject Christianity.'? 
But we ought not to conclude this article without remark* 
log, that whatever Mr. Collinses character in private life, 
^ was, at the same time, a laost unfair writer* Hn 


€8 G O L L I N a 

seemed, with all bis morality, to have very little conscience 
in his quotations, — adapting them, without sCruple^ to his 
own purposes, however contrary they might be to the ge-* 
nuine meaning of the authors cited, or to the connection 
in which the passages referred to stood. So many facta of 
this kind were undeniably proved against him by his ad"? 
versartes, that he must ever be recorded as a flagrant in* 
stance of literary dising^iuity. Let these facts, which are 
clearly proved by Leland, be compared with his dying de^ 
darations. In addition to the answerers, of Collins, we 
may mention dean Swift, in an excellent piece pf irony, 
entitled <^Mr. CoUins's Discourse of Freethinkiogy put 
into plain English, by way of abstract, for the use of th^ 
poor," 1713, reprinted in Mr. Nicholses edition of hi9 
Works, vol. X» The twelfth chapter also of the ^' Me- 
moirs of Martinus Scriblerus," in Pope's Works, is ao 
inimitable ridicule on CoUins's arguments against Clarke^ 
to prove the soul to be only a quality. 

In July 1698, when he was just entered into kis 23d 
year, he married Martha, the daughter of sir Fraacis Child^ 
who: was the year following lord mayor of London ; and by 
her he had two sons and two daughters. The elder of )m 
sons died in his infancy. Anthony, the younger, was born 
Oct, 1701, and was a gentleman of great sweetness of teniT 
per, a fine understanding, and of good learning. He was 
educated at Bene't college in Cambridge, and died unif 
versally lamented by all that knew him, Dec. 20, 1723« 
The year after, Collins married a second wife, namely £ii« 
zabeth, the daughter of sir Walter Wrottesley, hart, but 
had no children by her. His daughters survived him, and 
wef e .unmarried at his death. ' » 

COLLINS (Arthur), a laborious antiquary, whose 
name is familiar a3 the compiler of peerages and banonet^ 
ages> was*born in. 1682. He was the son of William Col-» 
lins, esq. gentleman to queen Catherine in 1669, but, as 
he. himself informs us, the son of misfortune, his fitthet 
having run through more than 30,000/. He received, how<^ 
ever, a liberal education, and from a very early age culti"* 
vated that branch of antiquities, to which he dedicated the 
remainder of a laborious life. The first edition of his Peer« 
age was published as early as 1708, and we have seen ano^ 

1 Biog. Brit.>rr-|>Uud's l>eistical Writer8.-'-Wbiston*s Life.-*-<9u^i^i^, 87« 
edit. 1S06, voU I. 15; 11. 954.— Cnmberland'i tAft, 4tOy p. U,— Ciirll'ft Col* 
Uctioa of XeUen, -&c« t«I. IV. p. 29« 


iher edition of 1715, 4 vols. 8t6. It afterwards by various 
additionsi aiM under other editors, was extended to seven 
voiumes, and with a supplement to nine. The last and 
roost improved of all was published in IS 12, under the 
care of sir Egerton Brydges, whose attention to the c^rrors 
of the preceding editions cannot be too highly praised, 
and the additional articles more iihmediately fronv his pen ' 
are marked by elegance of style and sentiment and a just 
discrimination of character. Mr. Cdiins's << Baronetage'* 
was first published in 17^0 in two volumes, extended in 
1741 to fiv^ volumes, since when there has been no c6n- 
tinuation under his name, but the loss is amply supplied 
by Mr. Betham's very enlarged work. Mr. Collips's othei^ 
publications are, 1. " The Life of Cecil, Lord Burleigh," 
1732, 8vo. 2. f< Life of Edward the Black Prince," 114% 
Svo, 3. << Letters and Memorialt of State, collected by 
Sir Heniy Sidney and others," 1 746, f vols, folio. 4. " His- 
torical Collections of the Noble Families of Cavendish, 
Holies, Vere, Harley, and Ogle," 175«, folio.. We know- 
little of Mr. Collinses private life, unless what is painful to 
record, that he seldom received any substantial encourage- 
ment from the noble fiimilies on whose history he employed 
his time, that he frequently laboured under pecuniary em-** 
barrassment^, and as frequently experienced the nullity of 
promises from his patrons among the great, until at length ' 
his majesty George II. granted him a pension of 400/, a 
year, wbicb^ however, be enjoyed but a few years. He 
died March 16, 1760, at Battersea, where he was buried 
on the 24th. He was father of major-general Arthur 
Tooker Collins, who died Jan. 4, 1793, leaving issue JDiivid 
Collins, esq. the subject of the next article. * 

COLLINS (David), judge advocate and historian of the 
ncfw settlement in South Wales, the son of gen. A. T. CoW 
lins, and of Harriet Frazer, of Pack, in the kin^s county, 
Ireland, was born March 3, 1756, and received a liberal 
education at the grammar-school of Exeter, where his 
fiither then resided. In 1770 he was appointed lieutenant 
in the marines; and, in 1772, was with the late admiral 
M'Bride, in the Southampton frigate, when the unfortu- 
nate Matilda, queen of Denmark, was rescued from the 
tiangers that awaited her by the energy of the British go* 

1 NtdMliTi BowvOT.-^^flut. Abg. Tolf . LXUL aad JLXXXIU. Psrt L«-Xy* 


Vernment, and' conveyed to a place of safety in the king 
her brotber^s Hanoverian dominions. On that occasion be 
commanded the guard that received her majesty, and bad 
the honour of kissing her band. In 177^, he was at the 
battle of Bunker^s-bill ; in which the first battalion of ma- 
rine3^ to which be belonged, so signally distinguished it- . 
self, having its commanding ofEcer, the gallant major Pit- 
c:aime, and a great many officers and men, killed in storm- 
ing the redoubt, besides a very large proportion of wound- 
ed. In 1777, he was adjutant of the Chatham division ; 
and, in 1782, captain of marines on-lA)ard the Courageux, 
of 74 guns, commanded by the late lord Mulgrave, and 
participated in the partial action that took place with the 
enemy's fleet, when lord Howe relieved Gibraltar. Re- 
duced to half-pay at the peace of 1782, he resided at Ro- 
chester in Kent (having previously married an American 
l^dy, who survives him, but without issue); and on its 
being determined to found a colony, by sending convicts 
to Botany Bay, he was appointed judge advocate to the in- 
tended settlement, and in that capacity sailed with governor 
Philip in May 1787 (who also appointed him his secretary), 
which situation he filled with the greatest credit to himself 
and advantage to the colony, until his return to England in 
3797. The Histoiy of the Settlement, which he soon after 
published, followed by a second volume, is a work abound- 
ing with information, highly interesting, and written with 
the utmost simplicity. The appointment of judge advo- 
cate, however, proved eventually injurious to his real in- 
terests. While absent, he had been passed over when it 
eame to his turn to be put on full pay ; nor was he per- 
mitted to return to England to reclaim his rank in the corps : 
nor could he ever obtain any effectual redress; but was 
afterwards compelled to come in as junior captain of the 
corps, though with his proper rank in the army, and died 
a captain instead of a colonel*commandant, his rank in the 
army being merely brevet. He had then the mortification 
of finding that, after ten years^ distinguished service in the 
infancy of a colony, and the sacrifice of every real com- 
fort, his only reward had been the loss of many years^ rank, 
a vital injury to an officer. A remark which his wounded 
feelings wrung from him at the close of the second volume^ 
of his History of the Settlement, appears to have awakened 
the sympathy of those in power ; and be was, alonost im- 
mediately after its publication^ offered the government of 


tke projected seitlemetit on Van Diemeu's land, which he 
accepted, and sailed once more for that quarter of th€ 
globe, where he founded his new colony ; struggled wkh 
great difficukies, which he overcame ; and, after remain- 
ing there eight years, was enjoying the flourishing state 
his exertions had produced, when he died suddenly, after 
a few days* conBuement from a slight cold, on the 24th of 
March, 1810.* 

COLLINS (John), an eminent accomptant and mathe^ 
matician, was the son of a nonconformist divine, and born 
at Wood Eaton near Oxford in March 1624. At sixteen 
years of age he was put apprentice to a bookseller in Ox- 
ford ; but soon left that trade, and was employed as clerk 
under Mr, John Mar, one of the clerks of the kitchen to 
prince Charles, afterwards Charles IL This Mar was emi- 
nent for bis mathematical knowledge, and constructed those 
excellent dials with which.the gardens of Charles L were 
adorned ; and under him Collins made no small progress in 
the mathematics. .The intestine troubles increasing, he 
left that employment and went to sea, where he spent the 
greatest part of seven years in an Engltsh merchantman^ 
which became a man of war in the Venetian service against 
the Turks. Here having leisure^ he applied himself to 
merchants accompts^ and some , parts of the matbematicsy 
for which he had a natural turn ; and on coming home, he 
took to the profession of an accomptant, and composed 
several useful treatises upon practical subjects. In 1652 
he published a work in folio, entitled ^^An Introduction 
to MerchantsV Accoippts,*^ which was reprinted in 1665, 
,with an additional part, entitled ^^ Supplements to accomp- 
tantship and arithmetic.^' A part of this work, relating to 
interest, was reprinted ii^ 1685, in a small 8vo volume. In 
1658 he published in 4to, a treatise called '^The Sector 
on a Quadrant ; containing the description and use of four 
several quadrants, each, accommodated for the making of 
sun-dials, &c« with an appendix concerning reflected dial- 
ling, from a glass placed at any reclination.^' In 1659, 
4to, he published his ^' Geometrical dialling ;'' and also 
the same year, his '^ Mariuer^s plain Scale ne.w plained/* 
In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, of 
which he was now become a member, he fully explained 
and demonstrated the. rule given by the Jesuit De Billy, 

» Gent. Mag. 1810. Part II. 


for'^'^tJinding the number of the Julian period for any year 
assLgned, the cycles of the sun and moon, with the Booiaa 
inAction for the years being given.'' To this he has 
ad%d some very neatly-contrived rules for .the ready find- 
ing on what day of the week any day of the month falls for 
ever ; and other useful and necessary kalendar rules^ In 
the same Transactions he has a curious dissertation con* 
cerning the resolution of equations in numbers* In No. 
69 for March 167 1, he has given a most elegant construe^ 
tion of that chorographical problem, namely : '^ The dis- 
tances of three oQects in the same plane, and the angles 
made at a fourth place in that plane, by observing each 
object, being given ; to find the distances of those objects 
frpm- the place of observation?" In 1680 be publisb^d a 
small treatise in 4to, entitled *^ A Plea for the bringing in 
of Irish cattle, and keeping out the fish caught by fc»reign- 
ers ; together with an address to the members of parlia- 
ment of the counties of Cornwall and Devon, about the 
advancement of tin, fishery, and divers manufactures." In 
1682 he published in 4tQ, '<A discourse of Salt and 
Fishery ;" and in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 159, 
for May 1684, is published a letter of his to Dr. John Wallis, 
on some defects in algebra. Besides these productions of bis 

' pwn, he was the chief promoter of many other valuable 
publications in his time. It is to him that the world is in- 
debted for the publication of Barrow's *' Optical and geome- 
trical lectures;" bis abridgment of ^* Arcbimedes's works,'* 
and of ^^ Apollonius's Conies ;" Branker's translation of 
** Rbonius's Algebra,- with l^ell's additions ;" " Kersey's 
Algebra ;" Wallis's History of Algebra ;" " Strode of Com- 
binations ;" and many other excellent works, which were 
procured by bis unwearied solicitations. 

While AnthoDy earl of Shaftesbury was lord chancellor^ 
he nominated Collins, in divers references concerning suits 
depending in chancery about intricate accounts, to assist 
in the stating thereof. From this time his talents were in 
request in other places, and by o^ier persons ; by which 
he acquired, says Wood, some wealth and much fame, and 
became accounted, in matters of that nature, the most 
nseful and necessary person of his time ; and in the latter 
part of his life, be was made accomptant to the royal fishery 
company. In 1682, after the act at Oxford was finished^' 
he rode from thence to Malmesbury in Wiltshire, in order 
to view the ground to be cut for a river between the Isis 


and the Atoii ; but driniuiig too freely of cycler, when 
o?er-heated, be Ml into a consumption, of which be died 
Nov« lO, 1683. About twenty-five years after his^ d^th, 
all bis papers and most of bis books came into the hands of 
the learned and ingenious William Jones, esq. f^ow of die 
Royal Society, and father to the more celebrated sir Wm* 
Jonea ; among which were found manuscripts upon mathe* 
matical subjects of Briggs, Ougbtred, Pell, Scarborough, 
Barrow, and Newton, with a multitude of letters receiTed 
from, and copies of letters sent to, many learned persons, 
particularly PeU, WaUis, Barrow, Newton, James Gregory, 
Fiamstead, Townley, Baker, j^rker, Branker, Bemaid, 
Slasius, Leibnitz, Iscbirphaus, fiather Bertet, and others* 
From these papers it is evident, that Collins held a con« 
stant correspondence for many years with all the eminent 
mathematiciana of his time, and spared neither pains nor 
cost to procure wbat was requisite to promote real science. 
Many of the late discoveriea in physical knowledge, if not 
actusdly made, were yet brought about by his endeavours* 
Thus, in 1666, be had under consideration the manner of 
dividing the meridian line on the true nautical chart; a 
problem of the utmost consequeiKe in navigation: and 
sometime after he- engaged Mercator, Gregory, Barrow, 
Newton, and Wallis, severally, to explain and find an easy 
practical method" of doing it; which excited Leibnits^ 
Halley, Bernoulli, and all who had capacity to think upon 
such a subject, to give their solutions of it : and by this 
means the practice of that most useful proposition is re* 
duced to the greatest simplicity imaginable. He employed 
some of the same persons upon the shortening and iacili* 
tating the method of computations by logarithms^ till at 
last that whole affair was completed by Halley. It waa 
Collins who engaged all that were able to makis any ad* 
vances in the sciences, in a strict inquiry into the several 
parts of learning, for which each had a peculiar talent ; and 
assisted them by shewing where the defect was in any 
useful branch of knowledge ; by pointing out the difficult 
ties attending such an inquiry ; by setting forth the ad* 
vantages of completing that subject; and lastly, by keep* 
ing up the spirit of research and improvement 

Collins was likewise the register of all the new improve- 
ments made in the mathematical science ; the magazine^ 
to which all the curious had recourse ; and the common 
repository, where every part of useful knowledge was to 

1% ' COLLINS. 

be found. It was upon thi» account that tbe learned siyled 
him *^ the English Mersenus.'* Ifsome of his correspond* 
ents bad not obliged him to conceal their communications, 
there could have been no dispute about the priority of the 
invention of a method of atialyas^ the honour of which evi- 
dently belongs to the great Newton. This appears unde- 
niably from the papers printed in the ^^ Commercimn epis- 
tolicum D. Joannis Collins & aliorum de analysi promota : 
jussu societatts regiae inlucem editum, 1712/' in 4to.^ 

COLLINS (William), an unfortunate but excellent 
English poet, was bom at Cbichester,«Dec. 25, about 1720, 
the son of a reputable hatter in that city. In 1733 he was 
admitted scholar of Winchester college under Dr. Burton, 
and at nineteen was elected upon the foundation to New- 
college in Oxford. He was first upon the list; and, in 
order to wait for a vacancy in that society,^ was admitted a 
commoner of Queen's college in the same university; but 
no such vacancy occurring, his tutor, very sensible of his ^ 
desert, recommended him to the society of Magdalen ; and 
this recommendation, backed by an uncommon display. of 
genius and learning in the exercises performed on the oc- 
casion, procured hini to be elected a demy of that college 
in July 1741. During his residence in this place, which 
was till he had taken a bachelor^s degree, he applied him- 
self to poetry, and published an epistle to«ir Thomas Han- 
nier on his edition of Shakspeare, and the ^ Persian/' or, as 
they have been since entitled, ^^ Oriental Eclogues/' which, 
notwithstanding their merit, were not attended with any 
great success ; and it was objected to them, that though 
the scenery and subjects are oriental, the style and colour- 
ing are purely European. Of the force of this objection, 
Mr. Collins himself became sensible in the latter part of 
his life. Yet their poetical merit is very great ; and Dr. 
Langhorne has not scrupled to assert, ^^ that in simplicity 
of description and expression, in delicacy and softness of. 
numbers, and in natural and unaffected tend^ness, they 
are not to be equalled by any thing of the pastoral kind in 
the English language." 

About 1744 he suddenly left the university, and came 
to London, a literary adventurer, with many projects ia 
his head, and very little money in his pocket. He design- 

' Biog, Brit— "Ward's Gresham Professors. — Martinis Bipg, Philos.-^Ath* 

Ox. Toi. ir. 


ed many works, but either had not perseverance in him« 
self, or the frequent calls of immediate necessity broke hit 
schemes, and suffered him to pursue no settled purpose. 
Among other designs he published propqials for a *^ His« 
tory of the Revival of Learning ;'^ and Dr. Johnson has 
heard him speak with great kindness of Leo X. and with 
keen resentment of bis tasteless successor. But probably 
not a page of the history was ever written. He also 
planned several tragedies, but he only planned them. Yet 
there were times when his poetical genius triumphed over 
his indolefice ; and produced in 1746, his ^^ Odes descrip- 
tive and allegorical." The success of this pi^blication was 
inferior to that of the Oriental Eclogues. Mr. Millar, the 
bookseller, gave the author a handsome price, as poems 
were then estimated, for the copy, but the sale of them 
was not sufficient to pay the expence of printing. Mr. 
Collins, justly offended at the bad taste of the public, as 
soon as it was in his power, returned Mr Millar the copy- 
money, indemnifieid him for the loss he had 8^stained, and 
consigned the unsold part of the impression to the flames. 
Highly as Mr. Collinses Odes deserved a superior fate, it is 
not surprising that they were not popular at their first ap- 
pei^rance. Allegorical and abstracted poetry is not suited 
to the bulk of readers. 

About this Ume Dr. Johnson fell into his com|iany, who 
tells us, that ^'the appearance of Collins was decent and 
manly ; his knowledge considerable, his views extensive, 
his conversation elegant, and his disposition cheerfuL By 
degrees,'* adds the doctor, ^^ I gained his confidence ; and 
one day was admitted to him when he was immured by a 
bailiff, that was prowling in the street. On this occasion 
recourse was had to the booksellers, who, on the crecjit of 
a translation of < Aristotle's Poetics,' which he engaged to 
write with a large commentary, advanced as much money 
as enabled him to escape into the country. He shewed 
me the guineas safe in his hand. Soon afterwards his'uncle, 
Mr. Martin, a liaatenant-colonel, left him about 2000/. a 
sum which Collins could scarcely think exhaustible, and 
which he did not live to exhaust. The guineas were then 
repaid ; and the translation neglected. But man is not 
bprn for happiness : Collins, who, while he studied to live, 
felt no evil but poverty, no sooner liv^d to study, than his 
life was assailed by more dreadful calamities, disease and 


Dr. j6bnson^s character of hfin, while it was dbtinettjr 
impreifsed upon that excellent writer^s memory, is here at 
large inserted : '< Mr. Collins was a man of extensive li^ 
terature, and of vigorous faculties. He was acquainted, 
not only with the learned tongues, but with the Italian, 
French, and Spanish languages. He had employed his 
^nd chiefly upon works of fiction, and subjects of fancy ; 
And by indulging some peculiar habits of thought, wasi 
eminently delighted with those flights of imagination whidk 
]>ass the bounds of nature, and to which the mind is re« 
conciled only by a passive acquiescence in popular tra* 
ditxons. He loved feiries, genii, giants^ and monsters; 
lie delighted to rove through the meanders of enchant- 
ment, to gaze on the magnificence of golden palaces, to 
repose by the water-falls of Eiysian gardens. This was, 
however, the character rather of his inclination than his 
genius; the grandeur of wildness, and the novelty of ex- 
travagance, were always desired by him, but were not 
always attained. Yet as diligence is never wholly lost ; if 
his efforts sometimes caused harshness and obscurity, they 
likewise produced in happier moments sublimity atid splen- 
dour. This idea which he had formed of excellence, led 
him to Oriental fictions and allegorical imagery; and, 
perhaps, while he was intent upon description, he did not 
sufficiently Cultivate sentiment. His poems are the pro- 
ductions of a mind not deficient in fire, nor unfurnished 
with knowledge either of books or life, but somewhat ob- 
structed in its progress by deviation in quest of mistaken 
beauties. His morals were pure, and his opinions pious : 
in a long continuance of poverty, and long habits of dissi- 

fation, it cannot be expected that any character should 
e exactly uniform. There is a degree of want by which 
the freedom of agency is almost destroyed ; and long as- 
sociation with fortuitous companions will at last relax the 
strictness of truth, and abate the fervour of sincerity. , 
That this man, wise and virtuous as he was, passed always 
tinentangled through the snares of life, it would be pre- 
judice and temerity to afiirm ; but it may be daid that at 
least he preserved the sourde of action unpolluted, that 
hi9 principles were never shaken, that his distinctions of 
right and wrong were never confounded, and that his faults 
had nothing of malignity or design, but proceeded from 
some unexpected pressure, or casual temptation. The 
latter part of his life cannot be remembered but with pity ' 


and sadness. He langaished some years under that de- 
pression of mind which enchains the faculties without de* 
stroying them, and leaves reason the knowledge of right 
without the power of pursuing it. These clouds which 
he perceived gathering on his intellects, he endeavoured 
to disperse by travel, and passed into France ; but found 
himself constrained to yield to his malady, and returned. 
He was for some time confined in a house oC lunatics, and 
afterwards retired to the care of his sister in Chichester *, 
where death, in 1756, came to bis relief. After his return, 
irom France, the writer of this character paid him a visit 
at Islington, where he was waiting for his sister, whom 
he had directed to meet him : there was then nothing of 
disorder discernible in his mind by any but himself; but 
he had withdrawn from study, and travelled with no otiier 
book than an English Testaosent, such as children carry 
to the school : when' his friend took it into his hand out 
of curiority, to see what companion a man of letters bad 
diosen : ' I have but one bbok,* says CoUins, ^ but that. 
is the best.' Such was the fate of CoUius, with whom I 
ooce delighted to converse, and whom I yet remember with 
tenderness. He was visited at Chichester in his last illness 
by his learned friends Dr. Warton and his brother ; to whom 
he spoke with disapprobation of his ^ Oriental Eclogues,* 
as not sufficiently expressive of Asiatic manners, and called 
them his ^ Irish Eclogues.' He shewed them, at the 
same "time, an ode inscribed to Mr. John Hume, ^ On 
the Superstitions of the Highlands ;' which they thought 
superior*, to his other works, but which no search has 
yet found. His disorder was not alienation of mind, but 
general laxity, and feebleness, a deficiency rather of his 
vital than intellectual powers. What he spoke wanted nei- 
ther judgment oor spirit; but 'a few minutes exhausted htm, 
so that he was fdrced to restupon the couch, till a short ces* 
sation restored his powers, and he was again able to talk with 
his former vigour, ^fae approaches of this dreadful malady 
he began to feel soon- after his uncle's death; aud with 
the usual weakness of men so diseiased, eagerly snatched 
that temponury relief with which the table and the bottle 
flatter and seduce. But his health continually declined^ 
andvhe grew more and more burthensome to himself. 

* Mn. DaraAird, wife of Dr. Dvnifordlr Hs ei^irei in iwr •»». This lidf 


'* To what I have formerly said of his writings may b# 
. added) that bis diction was often harsh, unskilfully laboured^ 
and injudiciously selected. He affected the obsolet,e wheti: 
it was not worthy of revival ; and he puts bis words out of 
the common order, seeming to think, with some later can-i 
didates for fame, that not to write prose is certainly to 
write poetry. His lines commonly are of slow motion, 
clogged and impeded with clusters of consonants. As 
men are often esteemed who cannot be loved, so the poe- 
^ try of Collins may sometimes extort praise when it. gives 
little pleasure *•'* 

From this opinion of Collinses genius many critics 6ave 
differed, whose more favourable sentiments appear to have* 
revived his reputation of late years ; and Mrs. Barbauld^s 
. prefatory Essay to an elegant edition of his works, pub-^ 
lisbed in 1797, has contributed not a little to the same 
effect. It is necessary, however to add, tbat the Ode on 
the '^ Superstitions of the .Highlands,*' mentioned in Drv 
Johnson^s account as having been lost, has been recovered.^ 
The manuscript, in Mr. CoUins's ban d« writing, fell into 
the hands of Dr. Alexander Carlyle, among the papers of 
a friend of his and Mr. John Home's, who died in 1754. 
Soon after Dr. Carlyle found the poem, he shewed it to. 
Mr. Home, who told him that it bad been addressed to bim 
by Mr. Collins, on bis leaving London in the year 1749, 
and that it was hastily composed and incorrect. This i& 
apparent from the ode itself. It is evidently the jin^na cura^. 
of the poem, as will easily be perceived from the altera^ 
tions made in the manuscript, by the blotting out of many 
lines and words, and the substitution of others. In parti- 
cular, the greatest part of the twelfth stanza is modelled in 
that manner. The poem, which is entitled ^^ An Ode on 
^e Popular Superstitions of the Highlands of Scotland^ 
considered as the subject of Poetry," was first published in 
the first volume of the ^^ Transactions of the Royal Society* 
of Edinburgh," with the fifth stanza and part of the sixths 
which were lost, supplied by Mr. Mackenzie. Though> 
there are evident proofs that it was hastily composed, it 
evinces, at the same time, the vigour of the author's ima- 
gination, and the ready command be possessed of harmo- 
nious numbers. The construction of the stanza i$ different. 

« By two letters from Dr. JohoMhi, in WooU's Life of Warton, p. 219. SdSt 
it appears tkat he had a great regard for CoUinSi and was deeply affected by his 


from what Mr. Collins has used ou any former occasion, 
not perfectly pleasing, and too operose and formal. That 
the poem is highly beautiful, every man of taste must 
strongly feel ; l>ut still there will probably be found per- 
sons who will giv^ the preference to the ^* Ode upon the ' 

In 1795 a liionument of exquisite workmanship was 
erected by public subscription to the memory of Collins, 
the whole executed by Fiaxman^ with an epitaph by Mr, 
Hayley. * 

COLLINSON (Peteb), was an ingenious botanist, 
whose family is of ancient standing in the north. Peter 
and James were the great grandsons of Peter CoUinson, 
who lived on his paternal estate called Hugal-Hall, or 
Height of Hugal, near Windermere Lake, in the parish of 
Stavely, about ten miles from Kendal in Westmoreland* 
Peter^ who was born Jan. 14, 1693-4, whilst a youth, dis- 
covered bis attachment to natural history. He began early 
to make a colleetion of dried specimens of plants ; had ac* 
cess to the best gardens, at that time in the neighbourhood' 
of London ; and became early acquainted with the most 
eminent naturalists of his time; the doctors Derham, 
Woodward, Dale, Lloyd, and Sloane, were amongst his 
frieuds. Among the great variety of articles, which form 
that superb collection, now (by the wise disposition of sir 
Hans Sloane and the JOQunificence of parliament) the British 
Museum, small was the number of those with whose history 
ColUnsoa was not well acquainted, he being one of those 
few whojfisijted sir Hans at all times familiarly ; their incli- 
nations and pursuits in respect to natural history being the 
same, a firm friendship had early been established between 
them. Peter CoUinson was elected F. R. S. Dec. 12, 1728 1 
and perhaps was one. of the most diligent and useful mem- 
bers, 9ot only in supplying them with many curious ob- 
servations, but in promoting and preserving a most exten- 
sive correspondence with learned and ingenious foreigners, 
in all countries, and on every useful subject Besides his 
attention to natural history, he minuted every striking hint 

* It may b«. accessary to guard the . the first time^althoughthe genuine Ode 
Reader against a spurious edition of the had appeared in the. Transactions of 
*' Ode on the Superstitions," published the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

ia London in 1788, 4to, pretendedly for 

* Biog. Brit — Johnson's Lives of the Poets.— Censura Lit. vol. I. and VL-* 
Seward's Anecdotes, vol. U. p. 383,— Traus. of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
vol. L-Gent. Mag. LXV. "^ 

90 COLtlNSON* 

that occurred either in reading or conyersiaition ; and from 
this source he derived much information, as there were 
▼ery few men of learning and ingenuity, who were not of 
bis acquaintance at home ; and most foreigners of emi^ 
nence in natural history, or in arts and sciences, were re<» 
commended to his notice and friendship. His diligence 
and economy of time was such, that though he never ap- 
peared to be in a hurry, he maintained an extensive cor* 
respondence with great punctuality; acquainting the 
learned and ingenious in distant parts of the globe, with 
the discoveries ^nd improvements in natural history in this 
country^ and receiving the like information from the most 
emineht persons in almost every other. His correspond* 
ence with the ingenious Cadwallader Golden, esq. of New* 
Yofk, and the celebrated Dr. Franklin of Philadelphia, 
furnish instances of the benefit resulting from his attention 
to all improvements. The latter of these gentlemen com^ 
munioated his first essays on electricity to Collinson, in a 
series of letters, which were then pubMshed, and have 
been reprinted in a late edition of the doctor's works. Per<» 
baps, at the present period, the account procured of the 
management of sheep in Spain, published in the Gentle- 
nan's Magazine for May and June 1764, may not be con- 
fiidered among the, least of the benefits accruing from his 
extensive and inquisitive correspondence. His conversa- 
tion, cheerful and usefully entei*taining, rendered his ac- 
quaintance much desired by • those who had a relii^ for 
natural history, or were studious in cultivating rural im- 
provements ; and secured him the intimate friqpdship of 
some of the most eminent personages in this kingdom, as 
distinguished by their taste in planting and horticulture^ 
as by their rank and dignky. He was the first who intro- 
di2ced the great variety of trees and ^hrubs, which are now 
the principal ornaments of every garden ; and it waif owing 
to his indefatigable industry, that so many persons of the 
first distinction are how enabled to behold groves trans- 
planted from the Western continent ftourishing so luxu- 
riantly in their several domains, as if they were already 
become indigenous to Britain. He had some correspond- 
ents in almost every nation in Europe ; some in Asia, and 
even at Pekin, who all transmitted to him the most valua- 
ble seeds they could collect, in return for the treasures of 
America. Linnseus, during his residence in England, con- 
tracted an intimate friendship with Mr. CoUiasoui which^ 

C O L L I N S O N. 81 

was reciprocally increased by a multitude* of good ofSceS| 
and continued to the last. Besides his attachment to na* 
tural history, he was very conversant in the antiquities of 
our own country, having been elected F. §; A. April 7, 
1737; and he supplied the society with many curious arti- 
cles of intelligence, and observations respecting both our 
own and other countries. In the midst of all these engage- 
ments, he was a mercer by trade, and lived at the Red 
Lion, in Gracechurch-street. His person was rather short 
than tall ; he had a pleasing and social aspect ; of a temper 
open and communicative, capable of feeling for distress, 
and ready to relieve and sympathize. Excepting some 
attacks of the gout, he enjoyed, in general, perfect health 
and great equality of spirits, and had arrived at bis 75th 
year; when, being on a visit to lord Petre, for whom he 
had a singular regard, he was seized with a total suppres- 
sion of urine, which, baffling every attempt to relieve it, 
proved fatal Aug. 11, 1768. Mr. CoUinson left behind him 
many materials for the improvement of natural history ; 
and the present refined taste of horticulture may in some 
respects be attributed to his industry and abilities. He 
jnarried, in 1724, Mary, the daughter of Michael JRussell, 
,'*^sq. of Mill Hill, with whom he lived very happily till her 
, ' death, in 175S. He left issue a son, named Michael, who 
resided at Mill Hill, and died Aug. 11, 1795, whose son 
is. still living; and a daughter, Mary, married to the late 
John Cator, esq. of Beckenham, in Kent. Both his chil- 
dren inherited much of the taste and amiable disposition of 
their father.* 

COLLIUS (Francis), a doctor of the Ambrosian col- 
lege at Milan, and grand penitentiary of that diocese, who 
died in 1640, at a very advanced age, made himself fa- 
mous by a treatise " De Animabus Paganorum," published 
in two Volumes 4to at Milan, in 1622 and 1623. He 
here examines into the final state in the world to come of 
several illustrious pagans, and hazards bold and ingenious 
conjectures on matters far beyond the reach of his intel- 
lect.. He saves the Egyptian midwives, the queen of 
Sheba, Nebuchadnezzar, &c. and does not despair of the 
salvation of the seven sages of Greece, nor of that of So- 
crates ; but condemns Pythagoras, Aristotle, and several 

\ From <' SMn«^ilccouiit of the late Peter CoHinsdn," by Dr. Fothergin and 
Michatl Coliinson, e^, his nephew, 1770, 4to. — Biog Brit. — Nichols's Bgwyer. 
-«Lett8om*t Memotn^f FotheiYiU.-~Gent. Ma^. toI. LXXXII, part 1, p. 9Q§. 

Vol. X. G 




Others ; though he acknowledges that they knew the true 
God. This work, properly speaking, seems to be nothing more 
than a vehicle for the display of the author's erudition^ of 
which it doubtless contains a great deal. It is now ranked 
among the curious arid rare. He also wrote " Conclu-? 
^k>nes theologicue," 1609, 4to, and a treatise ** De sanguine 
Christi,'* full of profound disquisition and citations innu- 
merable, Milan, 1617, 4to, but in less estimation than 
his treatise , " de Animabus." * 

COLMAN (George), an eminent dramatic author and 
manager, the son of Thomas Colman, esq. British resident 
at the court of the grand duke of Tuscany at Pisa, whose 
Irife was a sister of the countess of Bath, was born at Flo- 
rence about the year 1733, and placed at a very early age 
in Westminster-school, where he soon distinguished him- 
self by the rapidity of his attainments, and the dawning 
splendour of his talents. He was elected to Christ Church 
i!:ollege, Oxford, in 1751, and took the degree of M. A. in 
1758. During his progress at Westminster, and while at 
college, he formed those literary connections with whom 
he remained in friendship till they severally dropped off 
the stag6 of life. Lloyd, Churchill, Bonnel Thornton, 
Gowper, and other celebrated wits of that period, were 
among the intimate associates of Mr. Colman, and gave a 
histre to his name, by noticing him in some of their com* 
positions. Even so early as the publication of the " Ros- 
ciad," Churchill proposed Mr. Colman as a proper judge 
to decide on the pretensions of the several candidates for 
the chair of Roscius ; and only complains that he may be 
diought too juvenile for so important an award. 

It was during his residence at Oxford that he engaged 
with his friend Bonnel Thornton, in publishing the ** Con- 
lioisseur," a periodical paper, which appeared once a 
week, and was continued froin January 31, 1754, to Sep- 
temt>er 30, 1756. When the age of the writers of this 
entertaining miscellany is considered^ the wit and humour, 
the spirit, the good sense, and shrewd observations on life 
and manners, with which it abounds, will excite some de- 
gree of wonder, but will, at the same time, evidently point 
out the extraordinary talents which were afterwards to be 
more fully displayed in the *' Jealous Wife" and the 
5' Clandestine Marriage.-? 

• I Mwwi. ' ^ Ito pin^'MaeBient, BiU. Curicuie. 

C O L M A N. 83 

Wfaen h^ came to London^ the jrecommetidation of his 
firiendd, or bis choice, but pcobably the former, induced 
bim to fix upon the law for bis profession, and he was re- 
ceived with great kindness by lord Batb^ who seemed tt} 
nark him for the object of his patronage : a circumstance 
that gave rise to the suspicion that his lordship had a na- 
taral bias in fevour of young Colman. He was entered of 
the society of Lincoln's^inn^ and in due season called to 
the bar. He -attended there a very short time, though^ 
from the frequency of his attendance on the courts, we 
must conclude that it was not for want of encouragement 
that he abandoned the profession. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose that he felt more pleasure in attending to the muse 
than to briefs and reports ; and it will therefore excite no 
surprise, that he took the earliest opportunity of relin*'- 
qnishing pursuits not congenial to his taste. '' Apollo and 
Littleton," says Wycherley, '* seldom meet in the same 
brain." At this period Lloyd addressed to him a very 
pleasant poem on the importance of his proCessioDy and 
the seducements to which he was liable, on acconnt of his 
attachment to the sisters of Helicon. His first poetical 
performahce is a copy of verses addressed to his cousin 
lord Pulteney, written in the year 1747, while he was yet 
at Westminster, and puUisbed in the St James's Maga- 
zine, a vfork conducted by his unfortunate friend Robert 
Lloyd ; in conjnnctiGin.witii whom he wrote the best paro- 
dies of modem times, the '^ Odes to Oblivion and Obscu* 
rity." \ In 1760, his first dramatic piece, *^ Polly Honey- 
comb,'* was acted at Druty-laoe with great success ; and 
next year he wis one of tlnree different candidates for pub** 
he fitvour in the higher branch of the dranui ; viz. Mn 
Murphy, who exbibked the ^^ Way to keep him ;'' Mr* 
Macklin, the ^^ Married Libertine ;" and Mr. Colman^ 
*^The Jealous Wife." The former and latter of these 
Wfve successful, and Colmaii in a very high degree. 
About the same time the newspaper entitled *' The St 
Jameses Chronicle" was established ; of which he became 
a proprietor, and* exerted the full force of his prosaic 
talents to promote its interest, in a series of essays and 
knmourous sketches on occasional subjects. Among these 
he opened a paper called *^ The Genius," which he pub«* 
kshed at irregalar intervals as far as the fifteenth number* 
These papers appear, npon the whole, to be superior to 
the gwend oierit of tbe Connmsoers ^ they h^ rdthey 

Q Z 

84 C O L M A N. 


niore sohdity, and the huttiOur is more chaste and classical. 
His occasional contributions to the St. Jameses Chronicle 
were very numerous^ and upon every topic of the day, 
politics, manners, the drama, &c. A selection from them 
appears in his prose works, published by himself in 1787. 

In the establishment of the St. Jameses Chronicle, he 
had likewise Mr. Thornton for a colleague, who was one 
of the oijginal proprietors : and by their joint industry they 
drew the productions of many of the wits of the times to 
this paper, which, as a depository of literary intelligence, 
literary contests and anecdotes, and articles of wit and hu* 
mour, soon eclipsed ail its rivals* It appears that the prin- 
cipal departments were for some time filled by the follow- 
ing persons : the papers entitled *^ The Genius,'' by Mr. 
Colman ; " Smith's Letters," by Peregrine Phillips, esq. ; 
short essays of wit, by Bonnel Thornton, esq. ; longer essays 
of wit, by — — Waller, esq. ; rebusses and letters, signed 

** Nick Testy" and " Alexander Grumble," Forest; 

letters signed " Oakly," Mr. Garrick. 

In July 1764, lord Bath died, and left Mr. Colman a 
veiy comfortable annuity, and he now found himself in 
circumstances fully sufficient to enable him to follow. the 
bent of his genius. The first publication which he pro- 
dnced, after this ev^t, was a translation of the comedies 
of Terence, in the execution of which he rescued that au- 
thor from the hands of his former tasteless and ignorant 

The successor of lord Bath, general Pulteney, died in 
1767 ; and Mr. Colman found himself also remembered in 
his will by a second annuity, which confirmed the inde- 
pendency of his fortune. He seems, however, to have taken 
the first opportunity to engage in active life ; as,, about 
the year 1768, Mr. Beard, being incapable of bearing any 
longer the fatigues of a theatrical life, and wishing to re- 
tire from the management of Covent*garden theatre, dis- 
posed of his property in that house to Messrs* Ccdman^ 
Harris, Powell, and Rutherford. . These gentlemen car- 
ried on the management conjointly ; but, in a short time^ 
Mr. Colman appearing to aspire to a greater authority than 
the tither patenteei^, excepting Mr. Powell, were disposed 
to grant, Mr. Colman, after a severe literary contest,^ * 
which was published, sold his share, and retired. Soon 
after, Mr. Foote, then proprietor of the Haymarket theatre, 
baying beeju induced to withdraw from the stage, disposed 

C O L M A N. 85 

of his theatre to Mr. Colman for a handsome annuity, which 
he did not long enjoy. On his death, Mr. Colman ob<^ 
tained the license ; and, from that period, conducted the 
theatre with great judgment and assiduity, occa3iQnalIy 
supplying many dramas from bis own fancy, as well a^ 
many pleasant translations from the French. 

While Mr. Colman was thus shewing his. attention to the 
theatre, he did not entirely neglect bis classiqal studies. 
He gave the f>ublic, in 1783, a new translation of *^ Hoi- 
race's Art of Poetry," accompanied with a commentary, in 
which be produced a new system to explain that very dif- 
ficult poem. In opposition to Dr. Hurd, he supposes^ 
^^ that one of the sons of Piso, undoubtedly the elder, had 
either written or meditated a poetical work, most probably 
a tragedy ; and that he had, with .the knowledge of the 
family, communicated his piece or intention to Horace ; 
but Horace, either disapproving of the work, or doubting 
of the poetical faculties of the elder Piso, or both, wished 
to dissuade him from all thoughts of publication. With 
this view he formed the design of writing this epistle, adr 
dressing it with a courtliness and delicacy perfectly agreer 
able to his acknowledged character, indifferently to. the 
whole family, the father and his two sons : Epistola ad IH^ 
^ow« de arte poetica." This hypothesis is supported with 
much learning, ingenuity, and modesty ; and the bishop 
of Worcester, on its publication, said to Dr. Douglas, the 
late bishop of Salisbury : " Give my compliments to Col- 
man,. and thank him for the handsome manner in which he- 
has treated me, and tell him, that / think he is rights'' It 
may be added, that the late Dr. Warton and Dr. Beattie 
were of the same opinion. 

Some time about the year 1 790 Mr. Colman had a stroke 
of the palsy, which nearly deprived him of the use of one 
side of his body ; and in a short time afterwards he gave 
evident signs of mental derangement ; in consequence of 
which, he was placed under proper, management ^t Padr 
dington, and the. conduct of the theatre was vested in 
his son. He died the 14th of August 1794. Mr. Colman^ 
as a scholar, holds a very respe<!!tabie rank, as may be seen 
by his translations of Hojrace's Art of Poetry, and of the 
comedies of Terence ; and his manners were as pleasing a^ 
his talents were respectable. His various dramatic piece? 
have been published in 4 vols. 8vo. 

U G O L M A N. 


Hie year after bis death appeared a pamphlet, entitled 
^' Some Particulars of the Life of the late George Coiman^ 
esq. written by himself, and delivered by Bim to Richard 
Jackson, esq. one of his executors, for publication after 
bis decease.'* The object of this pamphlet was to contra- 
dict two reports which had long been current The one, 
that by his Uterary pursuits and dramatic compositions, he 
lost the favour and affection of the earl of Bath ; the other, 
that by his purchase of a fourth of the patent of Covent- 
garden theatre, he knowingly and voluntarily forfeited the 
intended bequest of a certain estate under the will of ge- 
neral 'Pnlteney* In opposition to these reports, he proves 
veiy clearly that he did not lose the favour of the earl of 
Bath, and that general Pulteney, while he did not openly 
resist his becoming a manager of the theatre, but rather 
consented to it, changed his intentions towards him, and 
left him, in lieu of the estate, an annuity of four hundred 
pounds. The general appears, however, to have con<* 
sidered the family as disgraced by Mr. Colman's becoming 
9 manager, for the latter is obliged to remind him of gen^ 
fkmen who had been managers, of sir William Davenant^ 
isir Richard Steele, sir John Vanburgb, and Mr. Con^* 
greve. * 

COLOCCI (Amqelo), in Latin AnoelIjs Colotius, an 
elegant Italian scholar, descended of an ancient and noble 
family, was born at Jesi, in 1467. He obtained in his 
youth the honour of knighthood, which was conferred upon 
him by the hands of Andreas Palssologus Despota, when, 
then a refugee at Rome, he was recognized as the legiti- 
mate heir to the imperial diadem of Constantinople. Co«» 
locci was a disciple of Georgius Vaiia, under whom he 
made great progress in philosophy, but particularly in po- 
lite literature. For political reasons, which are detailed 
by Ubaldinus, in his life of this illustrious scholar, the 
family of Colocci were obliged, in the pontificate of Inno-f 
centYIII. to abandon the city of Rome where they had 
taken up their residence. Angelo, in consequence, re- 
paired to Naples, where he became a member of the Pon- 
tana academy, under the assumed name of Augelus Colo- 
tius Bassus, and acquired an intimacy with the most emi- 
nent poets and wits of his time. Six years afterwards,^ 
having been permitted to return to his country, he divided 

) ^io^' Dram.— British SssaytiU, tqI. f}^ pre&ce tQ tli^ Co4nQis9CHr, 

C O L O O C I. W 


fa]» time betwixt bis literary fmcsuits and ibe oflkid: duties 
eotriist^dtto hkm ky hi» couatryme», who jeiu bim aa ant- 
Ussador to Alexander YI. in 1,49ft* He then took up fati 
wsidenpe at Rc^ne^ wbere bis bouse became an .elegant 
and liberal resort for men of learning and genius^ and 
wbece. tbe academy of Rome, wbicb after the deatb of 
Pompooius Lstus bad fallep into decay^ was ag^in rerired 
under bis care* Here also bis extensive gardens, which, 
io addition 4io tbe most captivating scenery resnlting from 
a happy, combination of nature and art, were adorned with 
a profusion, of statues, inscriptions, and other elegant re- 
mains of classic antiquity, revived tbe magnificence and 
amenity of tbe celebrated gardens of Sallust, of which they 
were supposed to occupy the actual site. On such objects, 
and on the patronage of learning and learned men, he 
employed his riehes. Tbe senate of Rome, . struck with 
bis liberality, bestowed on bim the title of patrician, whick 
extended to his family; and he was held in the highest 
estimation by the popes LeoX. Clement VII. and Paul III. 
Leo, independently of 4000 crowns with which he re- 
warded him for some verses in his praise, made bim bis 
secretary, and gave him the reversion of the bishopric of 
Nocera in 1521, Colocci having at that time survived two 
wives. This gift was afterwards confirmed to him by Cle- 
ment VII. who also appointed bim governor of Ascoli. 
•These favours, however, were insufficient to secure bin 
when Rome was sacked in 1527. On that occasion, bis 
bouse was burnt, his gardens pillaged, and he was obliged 
to pay a large sum for his life ^nd liberty. He then went 
for. some time to hb country, and on coming back to Rome, 
bis first care was to invite together tbe members of the 
academy who had been dispersed. In 1537 be took pos- 
session of the. bishopric of Nocera, and died at Rome in 
1549. His Latin and Italian poems were published in 
.1772, but our authority does not mention where or in 
what shape. Most of them had, however, previously ap- 
,peared in his life by Ubaldinus, Rome, 1673, Svo. ' 

COLOMBIERE (Ci.aud£ be la), a famous Jesuit, born 
at St Sympborien, two leagues from Lyons, in 1641, ac- 
quired great reputation among his order by his extraor- 
,diaary talents in the pulpit. He was preacher fov two 
years at the court of James 11. of England, who listened to 

1 ^regfwelPs Memoirs of Politian.— More ri.— Diet, HisU 

88 C O L O M B I E R E. 

his sermons with great pleasure, aud, as it is saiil by the ^ 
Romanists, with edification ; but, falling under the suspi-* 
cion, though not convicted, of being concerned in a con- 
spiracy, he was banished England, and betook hiniselt to 
Parai, in the Charofois, where he died, t'eb. 15, 1682. In 
conjunction with Marie Alacoque, he recommended the 
celebration of the solemnity of the heart of Jesus, and 
composed an office for the occasion. The first inventor of 
this rite, however, was Thomas Goodwin, president of 
Magdalefk college, Oxford, an Arminian, who excited great 
notice in England, in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
by his ascetical and theological writings. His book entitled 
** Cor Christi in coelis erga peccatores in terris," printed 
in 1649, comprises the^wbole system of this devotion ; and 
was intended to promote the spread of it in England. La 
Colombiere, who was sent to London as confessor and 
preacher to the duchess of York, afterwards queen, found 
there a numerous sect, who, after Goodwin's example, 
paid adoration to the fieshly heart of Jesus, as the symbo- 
lical image 'of divine love. He was astonished at the no- 
velty of so ravishinig a devotion, which had so long escaped 
the fertile invention of his fraternity ; and carried it in 
triumph back; with him to France, where, under the in- 
fluence of heavenly visions and miracles, it struck deep 
root, and was extensively propagated. Among other agents 
a nun of the name of Marie Alacoque, who, in her hea- 
venly visions, pretended to have conversed familiarly with 
Christ, was employed by the Jesuits to aid the deception, 
and in one of her visions, asserted that she had received 
orders from heaven to acquaint father la Colombiere, that 
he should institute a yearly festival to the heart of Jesus, 
propagate this devotion with all his might, and announce 
to such as should dedicate themselves to it, the assurance 
of their predestination to ieternal life. The Jesuits imme- 
diately and zealously complied with the celestial mandate. 
There appeared at once in all quarters of the world, and in 
all languages, an innumerable swarm of publications, 
manuals, coppei>- plates, and medals, with hearts decorated 
with crowns of thorns, with lambent flames, transpiercir^g^ 
swords, or other symbolical impresses. < They distributed 
scapularies to be worn day and night upon the breast, 
and tickiets to be swallowed for driving out fevers. I^i 
all Spain there was not a nun who had not a present 
frem the Jesuits of a heart cut out of red cloth, to be 

C O L O M B -J E R E. 89 

worn next the skin. In every cathoMc city and town, in 
all parts of the world, fraternities ^ere erected, passion->' 
masses and nine-day devotions were instituted, to the 
honoar of the heart of Jesus ; and panegyrical sermons de- 
livered, exhorting the faithful to augment their zeal. The 
proselytes must vow, before the holy sacrament of the 
altar, an ieternal fidelity to the heart of Jesus ; and every 
soul was made responsible for the increase and growth of • 
this new devotion ; nay, the display of a burning zeal for 
making proselytes was regarded as the peculiar charac- 
teristic of the true worshipper of the heart. This devotion 
was represented in their sermons and writings, as a neces- 
sary means to the enjoyment of a blissful hereafter : it was 
no wonder, then, that the partisans of this devotion were 
in a short time as numerous in all catholic Christendom as 
the sands of the sea. The bishops approved and confirmed 
the brotherhoods, and consecrated chutches, altars, and. 
chapels, erected to the promotion of this enthusiasm. 
Kings and queens preferred petitions to the papal throne,^ 
that a proper office might be appointed in the breviary and 
choir, and a peculiar mass for the solemnization of the an- 
niversary ; and even at Rome fraternities arose and fl6u<* 
rished that devoted themselves to the worship of the heart 
of Jesus. In recommendation of it the Jesuits were not 
wanting either in prophecies or miracles ; among the fore- 
most of whom was la Colombiere, who had an excellent 
taste in his compositions, and a noble delivery in the pul- 
pit. His masterly eloquence displays itself amidst the 
extreme simplicity of his style, as we are told by the abb£ 
Trubiet, speaking of his. sermons, published at Lyons 1757, 
in 6 volumes 12mo. He had an impetuous and lively ima- 
gination, and the warmth of his heart appears through all 
nis discourses : it is the unction of pere Ch^minais, only 
more ardent and glowing. All his sermons breathe the 
most gentle, and at the same time the most fervent piety : 
he has been equalled by few in the art of affecting his 
hearers, and no enthusiast ever fell less into the familiar. 
The celebrated Patru, his friend, .speaks of him as the best 
skilled of his time in the refinements and niceties of the 
French language. There are likewise by him, ^^ Moral 
Reflections,'^ and " Spiritual Letters." [ 

1 Moreri.-*Dict. Hiit^Varieties of Literature, 1795. 2 Tol. Svo. 


COLOMIES (Paul), or Colomesius, a learned Freocfa 
pcotestant, was born at Rocbelle in 1639, where his father 
was a physician, and where he was probably educated. 
His application to various reading must evidently have 
been very extensive, and although he haa no decided 
claims to originality, his works ranked in his^ ofwnday, and 
sojQse of them may still, as ably illustrating the history of 
learning and learned men. He faithfully treasured what 
be found in eld, scarce, and almost unknown aothors, and 
knew bow to render the reproducti(M> of learned curiosities 
both agreeable and useful. His great intimacy and high 
regard £Dr Vossius, induced him to visit England, where 
Vossius was then canon of Windsor, and by his interest or 
recommendation he was appointed librarian at Lambeth, 
with a competent salary. This, however, he tost at the 
revolution, when his patron, archbishop Sancroft, was de« 
{irived for not taking the oaths to the new government. 
After this it is said that he fell into poverty, and died in * 
Jan. 1692; and was buried in St Martin's church -yard* 
His principal works are, 1. ^^ Gallia Orientatis," repriuted 
at Hamburgh, 1709, in 4to, under the care of the learned 
Fabricins; and containing an account of such French aa 
were learned in the Oriental languages. 2. '^ Hispania & 
Italia Orientalis," giving an account of the Spanbh and 
Italian Oriental scholars. 3. <^ Bibliotbeque Choiste ;^' 
reprinted at Paris, 173], with notes of M. de ia Monnoye, 
]2mo. This was published at Hamburgh, 4to, -^by Christ. 
Wolf, an useful work, and of great erudition. 4, " Theo- 
logorum Presbyterianorum Icon," in which he shews his 
attachment to. episcopacy ; and for which be was attacked 
by Jurieu (who had not hadf his candour and impartiality) . 
in a book entitled " De I'esprit d*Arnauld;" 5. ^* De& 
opuscules critiques & historiques," collected and published 
|n 1709, by Fabricius. 6. <' Melanges Hirtoriques," &c. 
7. " La vie du pere Sirmorid," &c. His " Colomcsiana,'* 
inake a volume of the collection of Anas. * 

COLOMNA, or COLONNA (FAaio), an emihent bo- 
tanist, was born at Naples in 1 567, the son of Jerome, who 
was the natural son of the cardinal Pompeio Colonna. He 
devoted himself from his youth to the pursuit of natural 
history, and particularly to that of plants, which he studied 
in the writings of the ancients; and, by indefatigable ap- 
plication, was enabled to correct the errata with which the 

1 Gen. J>ict.-**Moreri,-^Dict. Hi8t«---Morhoff Poly hist,— Saxii Ooomast. 

C O L O M N A. 91 

manuscripts of those authors abounded. Tbe languages^ 

arasic, matbematics, drawing, paiqting, optics, the civil 

and canon law, filled up tbe moments which be did not 

bestow on botany, and the works be published in this last 

science were considered as master- pieces previous to the 

appearance of the labours of tbe latter botanists. He wrote^ 

1. ^^Plantarum aliquot ac piscium bistoria,'* 15912, 4to, 

with plates, as some say, by the author himself, executed 

with much exactness. The edition of Milan, 1744, 4to, is 

not so valuable as the former. 2. '^ Mini!l9 cognitarum ra« 

norumqne stirpium descriptio; itemque de aquatilibus^ 

aliisque nonuuUis animalibus libellus," Rome, 1616, two 

parts in 4to. This work, which may be considered as a 

sequel to the foregoing, was received with equal approba* 

tion. The author, in describing several singular plants^ 

compares them with tbe descriptions of them both by the 

ancients and moderns, which affords him frequently an op« 

port unity of* opposing tbe opinions of Mattiiiolo, Diosco- 

rides, Theopbras);us, Pliny, &c. He published a second 

part, at the solicitation of the duke of Aqua-Sparta, who 

had been much pleased with the former. The impression 

was entrusted to the printer of the academy of the Lyncsei, 

a society of literati, formed by that duke, and principally 

employed in the study of natural history. This society^ 

which subsisted only till 1630, that is« till the death of its 

illustrious patron, was the model on which all th^ others in 

Europe were formed. Galileo, Porta, Aqhillini, and Co* 

lonna, were some of its ornaments. 3. *^ A Dissertation 

on the Glossopetrse," in Latin, to be found with a work of 

Augustine Scilla, on marine substances, Rome, 1^47, 4to« 

4, He was concerned in the American plants of Hernan^* 

dez, Rome, 1651, fol. fig. f, A Dissertation on the Por- 

pura, in Latin ; a piece much esteemed, but become 

scarce, was reprinted at Kiel, 1675, 4to, with notes by 

Daniel Major, a German physician. The Brst edition is of 

1616, 4tQ.* 

COLONNA (Fi^NCis), a Venetian dominican, who 
died May 17, 1520, in his eightieth year, is chiefly 
known by a scarce book, entitled ** Poliphili Hypneroto^ 
machia,*' Venice, 1499, fol. There is an edition of 1545, 
but none of 1467 ; the copies which pass for that editioO| 
ftre of one or the other above mentioned editions ; and tbe 

^ Pict Hif t,^W9ren,-«»Ha}ler BibU i9tao.«-<:kii)eiit BibU Curieiise. 


C O L O N N A. 

mistake has arisen. from the last leaf, which contained the 
date of the impressions, b^ipg taken out, and the i^t.but 
one left ; on whicli is the date of the time when the work 
was written. It is a romance filled. vyith mythological 
learning, of very little value but for its scarcity and whim- 
sical, composition^ and has been translated into French by 
John Martin, Paris, 1561, fol.^ 

COLSTON (Edward)^ a person ever memorable for 
his benefactions and charities, was the eldest son of. Wil- 
liam Colston, esq. an eminent Spanish merchant in Bristol^ 
and born in that city Nov. 2, 1636. He was brought up 
to trade, and resided sonae time in Spain with his brothers, 
two of whom were inhumanly murdered there by assassins*. 
He inherited a handsome fortune from his .parents, which, 
received continual additions from the fortunes of his bre-^ 
thren ; all of whom, though numerous, hesuri^ived. This 
family substance he increased immensely by trade ; and 
having no near relations, he disposed of a great part of it 
in acts of charity and beneficence. In 1691 he built upon 
bisQwn ground, at the charge of about 2500/. St. Michael's^ 
hill alms-houses in Bristol ; and endo^yed them with lands, 
of the yearly rejit of 282/. 3^. 4^. The.same year he gave 
bouses and lands,* without Temple-gate in that city, to , 
the society of merchants for ever, towards the maintenance 
of six poor old decayed sailors, to the yearly value of 24/. 
In 1696 he purchased a piece of ground in Temple-street 
in the same city, and built at his. own charge a school and 
dwelling-house for a master, to instruct, forty boys, who 
are also to be clothed, instructed in writing, arithmetic, 
a,nd. the. church-catechism. . The estate given for this cha- 
rity amounted to 80/. yearly, clear of all charges. In 
1702 he gave 500/. towards rebuilding queen, Elizabeth^s 
hospital on the College- green in Bristol;, and. for the 
clothing and educating of six boys there, appropriated an 

* There is a tradition, that when Mr. 
Colston and bis two brothers were in 
Spaipt in their disputes with the Papists 
it was often objected* to them, ** That 
the reformed religion produced no ex- 
amples of great and charitable bene- 
factions »'' to which they were wont to 
reply, that if it pleased God to bring 

them safe home, they would wipe oflf 
that aspersion: Upon which, two of 
them were poiioned, to prevent .their 
return; but their elder brother, Mr. 
Edward Colston, escaped. Such is the 
tradition : but it is mor€ certain, that, 
one or both of them, were aasassinat^d 
by Landiltis or bravoes. 

1 Diet Hist.^Tiraboscbi, 


estate of 60/. a year, clear of charges, besides 10/. for 
placing oat the boys apprentices. In 1708 he settled his 
great benefaction of the hospital of St. Augustine in Bristol, 
consisting of a master, two ushers, and one hundred boys; 
for the maintenance of which boys, he gave an estate of 
138/. 155. 6|d a year. The charge of first setting up this 
hospital, and making it convenient for the purpose, 
amounted, it is said, to about 11,000/. He gave also 6/. 
yearly to the minister of All-Saints in Bristol, for reading 
prayers every Monday and Tuesday morning throughout 
the year, and 1/. a year to the clerk and sexton : also €L 
a year for ever, for a monthly sermon and prayers to the 
prisoners in Newgate there ; and 20/. yearly for ever to the 
clergy beneficed in that city, for preaching fourteen ser- 
mons in the time of Lent, on subjects appointed by him« 
self. The subjects are these: the Lent fast; against 
atheism and infidelity ; the catholic church ; the excei- 
lence of the church of £ngland ; the powers of the church ; 
baptism ; confirmation ; confession and absolution ; the 
errors of the church of Rome ; enthusiasm and superstition ; 
restitution ; frequenting the divine service ; frequent com- 
munion ; the passion of our blessed Saviour. He bestowed, 
lastly, upwards of 2000/. in occasional charities and bene- 
factions to churches and charity-schools, all within the 
city of Bristol. Beyond that city* his benefactions were 
equally liberal. He gave 6000/. for the augmentation of 
sixty small livings, on the following terms : Any living 
that .was entitled to queen Anne^s bounty might have this 
too, on condition that every parish, which did receive this, 
should be obliged to raise 100/. to be added to the lOOL 
raised by Colston : and many livings have had the grant of 
this bounty. He gave to St. Barthofomew^s hospital in 
London 2000/. with which was purchased an estate of 100/. 
a year, which is settled on that hospital ; and he left to 
the same, by will, 500/. To Christ's hospital, at several 
times, 1000/. and 1000/, more by will. To the hospitals of 
St. Thonoas and Bethlehem. 500/. each. To the workhouse 
without Bishopsgate, 200/. To the society for propagate 
ing the gospel in foreign parts, 300/. He built an alms^i 
house for six poor people at Shene in Surry, and left very 
faandsomeilegacies to Mortlake in thesame county, where 
be died : viz. 45/. yearly, to be continued for twelve years 
after his death, for clothing and educating twelve boys and 
twelve girls in that place; and also 85/.* be being so many 


years old, to eigbty«fiTe poor men and i^omen thef^^ to 
each iL to be distributed at the time of his decease. H^ 
gave 100/. per annum, to be contiaaed for twelve year» 
after his death, and to be distribtited by the direction of 
bis executors : either to place out every, year ten boys ap« 
prentices, or to be given towards the setting up ten young 
tradesmen, to. each 10/. He gave likewise to eighteen 
charity-schools in several parts of England, and to be con- 
tinued to them for twelve years after his death, to eacfai 
school yearly 5L . Finally, he gave towards building a^ 
chorch at Manchester in Lanca^re 20L and towards the 
building of a church at Tiverton in Devonshire 50/. 

Besides these known and public benefactions, he gart 
away eviery year large sums in. private charities, for many- 
years together ; and the preacher of bis funeral sermon 
informs us, that these did not fall much short of his public* 
In all his charities, Colston seems to have possessed no 
small share of judgment ; for, among other instances of it^ 
be never gave any thing to common beggars, but he aU 
ways ordered, that poor house-keepers, sick and decayed 
persons, should be sought out as the fittest objects of his 
charity. We must not forget to observe, that tiu>ugh cha-^ 
rity was this gentLeman's shining virtue, yet be possessed 
other virtues in an eminent degree. He was a person of 
great temperance, meekness, evenness of temper, patience, 
and niortification. He always looked cheerful and pkia-' 
sant, was of a peaceable and quiet disposition, and re*" 
mai^ably circumspect in all his actions. Some yeanibe<* 
fore his decease, he retired from business, and came and 
lived at London, and at Mortlake in Surry, where he had 
a country seat Here lie died Oct. 11, 1721, almost 85 $ 
and was buried in the church of All-saints, Bristol, where 
a monument is erected to his memory, on which are enti« 
merated his public charities, mentioned in this article. Hia 
ftiueral sermon was preached by Dr. Harcourt, and printed 
at London the same year. ^ 

COLUCCIO (Salutato), an ancient Italian poet and 
philosopher, was born at Stignano in Pescia, in 1330. 
His father, who was in the army, being involved in the 
troubles of his country, was obliged to retire to Bologna, 
where Coluccio was educated, or rather where he taught 
himself for some time without a master. It appears indeed 

\ Bios, Bnt-^Fttneral^fnaoo, 1721« 4ft9. 


itom » letter which he wrote to Bernardo di IVIoglo, that 
lie did MX tipply himself to the cultivation of polite litera- 
ture tUI he was arrived at maii^B estate, and that it niras 
then he went to Bologna, and attended the pubKc lectures 
of the father of the above Bernardo. By his o^vn falher^s 
request^ he afterwards studied law, but on his death quitted 
that profession for eloquence and poetry. It is not stated 
when lie left Bologiia, nor when be was permitted to re- 
tani to Floreuce ; but in 1363, in bis thirty-eighth year, 
wefiad him the colleague of Francis Bruin, as apostolical 
secretary to pope Urban V, and it is probable that he 
quitted this employl&ent when Urban went to France. He 
i]aitted at the same time the ecclesiastical habit, and anar- 
ried a lady by whom he had ten children. Hk repiitattoii 
for knowledge and eloquence procured him the greatest 
eSen from popes, empevors, and kings ; but his lore for 
his native country made him prefer, to the tnost brilliant 
prospects, akt oftee of chancellor of the republic of Flo* 
rence, which wasoonforred on him in 1S75, and which he 
fflkd very faonourabiy for thirty years. The letters he 
mrote apf>eared so strikiog to John Galeas Visconti, then 
at war With the republic, that he declared one letter of 
Coluccio^s'to be more mischievous to his cause than the ef- 
forts of a thousand Florentine kni^ts. 

in the midst of his more senous functions, he fouucl 
leisure to cultivate poetry, and particularly to make a col- 
lection of ancient manuscripts, in which he was so success- 
ful, that at his^ death his li^ary consisted of ei^ht hundred 
volumes, a princely collection before the invention of 
printing. His contemporaries speak of him in terms of 
the highest admiration, as a second Cicero and Virgil ; but 
aldiougfa modem critios cannot acquiesce in this character, 
his Letters, the only part of his works which are printed, 
evidoitly ptove him a man of learning and research, and 
no inconsiderable contributor to the revival of letters. He 
died May 4, 1406 ^ and his remains, after being decorated 
with a crown of iaurel, were interred with extraordinary 
pomp in the church of St. Maria de Fiore. 

Goluccio was the author of the following works, MS co- 
pies of most of which are preserved in the Lauren tian li- 
brary : I . " De !Fato et Fortuna." 2. « De saeculo et 
religione." 3. ** De nobilitate legum et medicinae.'* 4. 
** Tractatus de Tyraono." 5.. " Tractatus quod medici 
eloquentisB studeant, et de verecundia an sit virtus aut 

96 C O L U C.C I O. 

vitium/' 6. De laboribus Herculis." 7. " Hisioria de 
casu hominis/' 8. " De arte dictandi." 9. " Certamen 
Fortunae.'* 10. " Declamationes:" 11. " Invectiva iiiv^ 
Antonium Luscum.'* 12. *' Phyllidis querimOniae." 13. 
<* Eclogae octo." 14. "Carmina ad Jacobum Allegrettum.'* 
14. " Sonetti.'* And, lastly, various " Epistles." Of these, 
except the Epistles, the ouly article published is his trea- 
tise *^ De nobilitate legum," &c. Venice, 1542. His 
" Epistles" have appeared in two editions, the one by 
Mehus, Florence, 1741, with a learned preface and notes; 
the other by Lami, in the same year: but Mazzuchelli 
remarks, that it is necessary to have both collections, as 
they do not contain the same epistles. Some of Coluccio'^ 
poems have appeared in various collections of Italian poe- 

COLUMBA (St.), renowned in Scotch history as the 
founder of a monastery at Icolmkill, and the chief agent 
in converting the northern Picts, was a native of Ireland, 
where he was a priest and abbot, and is supposed to have 
b#*en born at Gartan, in the county of Tyrcounel, in 521. 
From thence, about the year 565, he arrived in Scotland, 
and received from Bridius, the son of Meilochon, the then 
reigning king of the Picts, and his people, tlie island of 
Hij, or Hy, one of the Western Isles, whicK was after- 
wards called from him Icolmkill, and became the famous 
burial-place of the kings of Scotland. There he built a 
monastery, of which he was the abbot, and which for se- 
veral ages continued to be the chief seminary of North 
Britain. Columba acquired here such influence, that nei- 
ther king or people did any thing without his consent. Here 
he died June 9, 597, and bis body was buried on the 
island; but, according to some Irish writers, was after- 
wards removed to Down in Ulster, and laid in the same 
vault with the remains of St. Patridc and St. Bridgit. From 
this moniastery at«Iona, of which some remains may yet be 
traced, and another^ which he had befcH'e founded in Ire- 
land, sprang many other monasteries, and a great many^ 
eminent men ; but such are the ravages of time and the 
revolutions of society, that this island, which was once 
*^ the luminary of the Caledonian regions^ whence savage 
clans and roving barbarians derived the benefits of know* 
ledge, and the blessings of religion,^' had, when Dr. 

I 'Gingtten4 Hist. Litt d'Haiie, toL III. ch. 17.— Shepherd's Lifb of Pos(io.— 
B'ibU G^rmaDiquey toI. I. 


Jfobnson Tiftited it in 1771, *' no sckool for edocaiiOfi,^ Mt 
temfrie fer worship, only two inbabitants that could spe^k 
Eiigitsh, and not one tbat could write or read/' * 

COLUMBANUS <St.), another eminent mi&sionairy for 
the propagation Of the Christian religion in the sixth can* 
tury, was a native of Ireland according to Jonas> who wroie 
bis life, sir James Ware, atid others ; but Mackenzie main- 
tains €bat he was a North Briton. From either Scotland or 
Ireland, however, he went into England, where he conti- 
nued some time, and in BB9 proOeeded to France, atid 
founded the monastery of LuiEevil, near Besan^dri, which 
he governed during twenty years. In 598 we find bitxi 
engt^ed in a controversy with pope Gregory concerning 
the proper time of keeping Easter, which was then a fre- 
quent object of dispute; but Oolumbanus at last siib"* 
mitted to tfie coilrt of Rome. After so long residence in 
Prance, be was banished for censuring the immoralities of 
Theodoric and bis queen. He then went to Switzerland, 
where he was kindly rece^d by Tbeodfbert, king of that 
country, and was sgccessful in converting the pagans; but 
the Swiss artny being defeated by the French, he was 
obliged to remore to Italy, where, under the protection of 
the king of the Lombards, he founded, in 613, the abbey 
of Bobio, near Naples. Over this monastery he presided 
but a short time, dying Nov. 21, 615. Authors are not 
agreed as to the order of monks to which Columbanus be- 
loTif ed, but it is certain tbat bisf disciple^ conformed to the 
riJles of liie Benedictines. His works are printed in the 
Bibl. Patrum, and consist of monastic rales, sermons, po« 
ems, letters, &c. ^ 

COLUMBUS' (CHRisTO!ta£R), a Genoese, and fre- 
quently mentioned in history as the discoverer of America, 
Was bom in 1442. Ferdinand his son, who wrote his life, 
wotdd suggest to us. tbat he was descended from an an- 
eient and considerable family ; but it is generally believed 
ftat his fittber was a woolcomber, and that he himself was 
of the same trade, till, by baring been* at sea, he had ac- 

Jcrh^ed a taste fbr nayigation. In his early years he applied 
tokself much to the study of geometry and astronomy at 
Paris, in order to understand cosmography : and learnt to 
draw, in order to describe lands, and set down cosmogras 

. ^ IfsdMnaie'if Sootch wrkcra.— CftTe» toI. I.r-Batl«r't Ltv«8 of Um Sfiolt,-^ 
Britiwua SboeU.^ — ^Tanner.— Johnson's Joorney to Uie W«»tcpi,l|||is, 
* lfackeaEie«*»Ca!re, vol. I.*— Dupin.— fanner. -< > 

VouX. H 


pbical bodies, plains, or rounds. He went to sea at tl^e 
age of fourteen : his first voyages were to those ports ^i 
the Mediterranean frequenteid by th^e Genoese ; after which, 
he took a voyage to Iceland ; ai>d proceeding still further 
uorthj advanced several degrees within the polar circle. 
After dus, Columbus entered into the service of a famoi^s 
sea-capt|Mn of his own name &nd family, who commanded 
a small squadron fitted out at bis own expence ; and by 
cruising against the Mahometans and Venetians, the rivals 
of his country in trade, had acquired both wealth and re- 
putation. With him Columbus continued for several years, 
no less distingui^ed for his courage than his experience 
as a sailor. At length, in an obstinate engagement, off the 
coast of Portugal, with some Venetian caravals returning 
richly laden from the Low Countries, his ship took fire, to- 
gether with one of the enemy's ships to which it was first 
grappled. Columbus threw himself into the sea, laid hold 
of a floating, oar, and by the support of it, and his dexte- 
rity in swimming, reached the shore, though above two 
leagues distant. . 

After this disaster he went to Lisbon, where he married 
a daughter of Bartholomew Perestrello, one of the captains 
employed by Prince Henry in his early navigations, and 
who had discovered and planted tbe islands of Porto Santo 
and Madeira, and by getting possession of his journals and 
charts, Columbus was seized with an irresistible desire of 
visiting unknown countries. He first made a voyage to 
Madeira ; and continued during jteveral years to trade with 
that island, the Canaries, Azores, the settlements in Gui- 
nea, and all the other places which tbe Portuguese h%cl 
discovered on the pontinent of Africa. By these means he 
soon became one of xhe most skilful navigators in Europe* 
At this time the great object of discovery was a passage by 
seajbo the Eastdndie^s^ which was at last accomplished by 
the Portuguese, by doubling the Cape of Good Hope. Tl^e 
danger. and tediousnpss of the passage, however, induced 
Co]^.iubu3 to consider whetlier a shorter and more direct 
passage to the^e regions might not be found out ; and at 
length he. became convinced that, by sailing across the 
Atlantic Ocean, directly towards the West, new countries, 
which probably formed a part of the vast continent of In- 
dia;' must infallibly be discovered. In 1474, he comniu^ 
iiicated his ideas on ^thi$ subject ra ime Pa'dl^ a pbyldcfian 
ia Florence, a man eminent for his knowledge in cosnao- 


graphy, who suggested several facts in confirmation of the 
plan, and warn^ly encouraged Columbus to persevere in an 
UDdertaking so laudable, and which must redound so much 
to the honour, of his country and the benefit of Europd. 
Columbus,, fully satisfied of the truth of his system, was 
impatient tO' set out on a voyage of discovery, and to se^ 
cure the patronage of some of the considerable powers of 
Europe, capable of undertaking such an enterprize. He 
applied first to the republic of Genoa; afterwards to the 
courts of Portugal, Spain, and England, successively, but 
met with a variety of mortifying interruptions. At last bis 
project was so far countenanced by Ferdinand of Spain and 
queen Isabella, that our adventurer set sail with three small 
ships, the whole expence of which did not exceed 4000/. 
During ^his voyage he met with many difficulties from the 
mutinous and timid disposition of. his men. He was the 
first who observed the variation of the compass, which threw 
the sailors into the utmost terror. For this phenomenon 
Columbus was obliged to invent a reason, which, though it 
did not satisfy himself, yet served to dispel their fears, or. 
silence tl\eir mnrmurs. At last, however, the sailors lost 
all patience ; and the admiral was obliged to promise so-* 
lemnly, that in case land was not discovered in three, days, 
he should return to Europe. That very night, however, 
the island of San Salvador was discovered, and the sailors 
were then as extravagant in the praise of Columbus as they 
had before been insolent in reviling and threatening him. 
They threw themselves at, his feet, implored his pardon, 
and pronouDced him to be a persojA inspired by heaven, 
with more than human sagacity and fortitude, in order to 
accomplish a design so far beyond the ideas and concept 
tion of all former ages. Having visited several of the 
West India islsmds, and settled a cplony in Hispaniola, he. 
again set sail for Spain ; and after escaping great dangers 
from violent tempests, arrived at the port of Palos on the 
15th of March UW. 

As soon as Columbus's ship was discovered approacbiiig, 
all the inhabitants of Palos rao eagerly to the shore, where 
they received the admiral with royal honours. The court 
was then at Barcelona, and. Columbus took care immediately > 
to announce his arrival fto thel^ing and qneeu, who were 
BO less delighted than astonished with this unexpected 
event,. and gave orders for conducting him into the city 
with all imaginable pomp ; receiyioH him clad in theiV 

u 2 . • 

1X)0 o a L U M B U §• 

rofdini^ -and soa4)€d on a throne vmier ^ faazgoiAcev^ 
canopy. I^witbstaadiDg all this respect, howeTery Cckt 
lumbus wail no longer regarded than he was socceasfuU 
The coioQists he afterwaitds carried over were to the last 
degree unreasonable and unmanageable ; so that he was 
obliged to use some severities with then ; aiid complatfite 
wer^ made to die court of Spain agakist him fof csaetty. 
Ckitbis, Francis da Bovadiila, a knight of G^atiaxa, waa 
appointed to inquire into the conduct of Columbus; wtt^ 
ordeK$, in case he found the oh^rge of oMdradininistnctioii 
proved, to supersede him, an^ assume the a£ce of gevMi 
nor of Hispaniola. The consequence of tht& was, that Con 
kimbus was sent to Spain in chains^ From these, howe^sei^- 
he was freed immediately ixa his avcifal, and had an oppof'- 
tunity granted him of vindicating his innctcence. He was^ 
however, deprived of all power ; and notwithstanding his 
great services, and the solemnity of the agreement between 
him and Ferdinand, Columbus never could obtain thiafiil-!' 
filn>ent of any part of that treaty. At last, disgui^ted with 
the ingratitude of a monarch H<hom h^ had serv^ udth sucfa 
fidelity and success, and esi^hausted with fatigues, he died 
May 2»th, 1506. 

• Ferdinmd, who had slighted bis well-founded claima 
when living, bestowed upon him fiineral hononrS) and oon«- 
firmed to bis children tfaeiv hereditary rights. Columbua 
niras buried in the cathedral at SeviUe, and on his tomb waa 
engraven an epitaph, in memory of his renowned aistions 
and discovery of a New World, which, in justice, ought 
to have been denominated Columbia, in onier that. the 
name might for ever excite the remembrance of the here 
who, in spite of every obstacle, succeeded in realiaiag a 
project, esteemed by his contemporaries as the dumera c^ 
a disturbed imagination. 

Justinianus, in his curious edition of the Pofyglot Psal« 
ter^ 1516, of which a beautiful copy is preserved in ' the 
Cracherode, collection in the British Museum, has intso-* 
duced^ by way of commentary on Ps. xix. 4, ^' their words 
are gone forth to the ends oi the earth,^' a very cuaioua* 
sketch of the life of Columbus, an account of his di^covery^ 
of America, and also a description of the inhabitam% par-* 
ticularly of the female native Americans. But before the 
Reader can completely allow the praise of original disco^. 
very to Columbus, jit will be necessary to peruse with at- 
tention oiir article of Martin Be^bm^ where )m claims aiie 



powerfully controverted. Don Ferdinand Columbus, the 
son of Christopher, »nd writer of his life, entered into the 
^clesiastical state ; and fouod'ed a library, which he be- 
queathed to the church of Seville, to this day called the 
Coiumbine Library. He died in 1560. * 

COLUMBUS (Don Bartholomew), brother of Chris- 
topher, acquired a reputation by the sea-charts and the 
spheres, which he made in a superior manner, considering 
the time in which he lived. He had passed from Italy to 
Portugal before his brother, whose tutor he had been in 
cosmography. Don Ferdinand Columbus, his nephew,, 
says, that his uncle having embarked for London, was 
taken by a corsair, .who carried him into an unknown coun- 
try, where be was reduced to the extremity of distress, 
from which he delivered himself by making charts for navi- 
gation ; and, having amassed a considerable sum of money, 
he went to England, presented to the king a map of the 
world in his own method, explained to him the plan his 
brother had formed of striking much farther forward on 
the ocean thkn bad ever yet been done : the prince in- 
treated him to inviie over Christopher, promising to de- 
fray the whole expence of the expedition ; but the latter 
had already entered into an engagemi^nt with the crown of 
Castile. Part of this story, and ' especially the proposal 
made by the king of Encrland, seems totally without founda- 
tion : but it appears that Bartholomew had a share in the 
bounty bestowed on Christopher by the king of Castile; 
and in 1493 these two brothers, and Diego Columbus, 
who was the third, were ennobled. Don Bartholomew 
underwent with Christopher the fatigues and daitgers inse- 
parable from such long voyages as those in whibh tiiey both 
engaged, and built the town of St. Domingo. Ha died in 
1514, possessed of riches and honours. ' 

COLUMELLA (Lucius Jui^ius Moderatus), a native 
of Spain, was a Latin writer, of whom nothing is known, 
except that he flourished under the Roman Emperor CIcU- 
dius, about the year of Christ 42 ; and has left some books 
upon agriculture, and a " Treatise upon Trees." These 
works are curious afsd valuable, as well for their matter as 

* Life Ry his son, written aboat,1630» of wh'ch there is a French translation, 
^Vi^, 168i, « voU. 12mo. — Delia pairiadi Colombo, Florence, 15'(>8, in tba 
Turin Memoirs.-T-Robertson*8 Hist, of America. — Inquiry into the Discovery 
of America by Dr. Williams, 8v9, n9l.— Cliaractei'of Columbus, Gtut. Mag, 
'ol. tXl. p. 1104. See also art. Bbucm^ in this Dictionary. 

* FerOioaml'Si Life.— Mcreri. 


Style, wjiich latter is thought by some to be not very remotQ 
from the Latin of the Augustan age. They have usually 
been published with the ** Scriptores de re rustica." * 

COLUMNA (Guy),, was a native of Messina in Sicily, 
who. followed Edward I. into England, on his return from 
the Holy Land. About the year 1287 he compiled a chro-r 
nicle in 36 books, and wrote several historical tracts in re- 
lation to England. His most curious wort is, •' The his- 
tory of the siege of Troy," in Latin, Cologne 1477, 4to, 
and Strasbourg 1486, fol. These editions are very scarce, 
as are the Italian translations 1481, Venice, in fol. and 
Florence 1610, 4to j but the edition of Naples 1655, 4to, 
is not so rare. ^ 

GOLUTHUS, a Greek poet, was a native of Lycopolis, 
a city of TJiebais, in Upper Egypt, of whose parentage or 
education nothing is recorded ; but we learn from Suidas 
that he lived in the reign of Anastasius, who succeedecl 
Zeno in the government of the Eastern empire, about th^ 
year 491. He wrote Caledonics, Persies, and Encomia; 
btit none of his works now remain, except the ^* Rape of 
Hel^n,'* and that in a mutilated state. It is not, however, 
destitute of imagery, and is adorned by a variety of striking 
and expressive epithets, although we may infer from it, 
that th^ true poetic spirit had then ceased to flourish. The 
first edition of this work is that by Aldus, 8vo, without a 
date, along with Quintus Calaber; and (he last, if we 
mistake not, was by Harl^s, 1776, 8vo, but the best i$ 
said to be that of Lanness, Gr. & Lat. 1747, 8vo. The 
Italians and French have good translations in their re- 
spective languages, and there are three in English ; the 
first by sir Edward Sherborne in 1701, valuable chiefly for 
his learned notes ; the second partly by Fawkes, and partly 
by a nameless coadjutor, in 1780; and the third, inferior 
to that of Fawkes, by an aponymous writer, was published 
in 1786.' 

COLWIL (Alexander)h a Scotch divine and poet, was 
born near St. Andrew's in Fifeshire, 1620, and educated 
in the university of Edinburgh, where he took his. degree 
of D.D. and was settled minister at Dysart. In 1662 he 
complied with the act of uniformity, and was appointed 
principal of the university of Edinburgh, in the rpou^ of 


I Moreri.— -Fahric. Bibl. Lat. — Sayii Ononiast. 

• Moreri. — ^Dict. Hist. 

? Morcri.—Dict. Hist,— Month. Rev, vol. LXXVI.-rVp^sius de Poet Gr»c. 

C O L W I L. 103 

Dr. LeighlOD^ promoted to the see of Dunblane* * He 
wrote < several controversial tracts, most, of wh^h are bow 
forgotten ; but that which particularly rc^commend^ him to 
the notice of the public, • i$ a humorous . poem entitled 
'' Scotch Hudibras," written in the manner of Butler. 
This book gave great offence to the presby terians ; but 
still, although little known in England, is well esteemed 
in Scotland. He died at Edinburgh 16t6, aged 58. 

This account, we know not on what authority, appeared 
in the last edition of this Dictionary, and we suspect is 
erroneous^ unless there were two Colwils, or Colvils, who 
l^oth wrote ia imitation of Butler. In; 1681. one Samuel 
Colvil published, . at London, ** The mock poem, or the 
Whig's supplication," 12mo.^ 

COMBEFIS (Francis), a learned Dominican, was born 
in 1605 at Marmande, and^ distinguished for his learning 
and piety. The clergy of France appointed him a pension 
of 1000 livres in 1650, as a reward for his merit, and an. 
encouragement to complete those editions of the Greek 
fathers which have procured him a name. He died at 
Paris March 23, 1679, aged 74. He published the works 
of St Amphilocbus^ St Methodius, St Andrew of Crete, 
and several opuscula of the Greek fathers, and an addition 
to the library of the fathers, 3 vols, folio, Gr. and Lat. He 
also contributed to the edition of the Byzantine history, 
^'Historise Bizant. Script, post Theoplianem,^' 1685, folio; 
and there is a library of the fathers by him, for the preach- 
.ers, 1662, 8 vols, folio, and other works. The chief objec- 
tion to this laborious writer is the inelegance of his Latin 
style, which renders some of his translations obscure.' 

COMBER (Thomas), dean of Durham, the sop of James 
Comber, and Mary Burton, who, . when she married his 
father was the widow of Mr. Edward Hampden oif Wester- 
ham in Kent, was born at Westerham March 19, 1644, 
and was the last child baptised in that parish church ac- 
cording to the rites of the church of England, before those 
rites were prohibited by the usurping powers. His father 
was so persecuted in that tumulti^ous period, for his loyal^ 
ty, as to be compelled to take refuge in Flanders, leaving 
his son entnrely under the care of his mother. , His early 
education he received at the school of Westerham, under 

* Lait edit, of this Diet. — ^Irving's Litcs of lh« Scotch Poets.— Campbe)l*t 
Introduction to tilt History of Scotish Poetry. 
t< Moreri.-*PLCt. Hiit.— Saxii pnomiuticoa. 

\ * 


104^ C O M B X It 

the reir. Tbomas Walter, a teacher of pietti at well as 
learning. Here his progress was se rapid that be cimid ' 
read and write Greek before be was ten yeaiss old, and in 
other respects, was accounted a pupil of great promise. 
From this place heretnoved in 1653 to London, and passed 
some time under a schoolmaster, a distant relation, but 
without adding much to his stock of knowledge, and in 
1656 returned to his first master at Westerham, afid on bis 
death, read Greek and Latin, for a year, assisted by the 
rev. William Holland. 

In 1^59 he was admitted of Sidney-Sussex college, G»i« 
bridge, AprillS, after having completed his fourteenth 
year. Here be was undei" the care of tbe rev. Edmmnd 
Matthews, B. D. senior fellow and president of the college* 
To this gentleman he acknowledges his obligations {<3t the 
{irains he took in teaching bim experimental ptulosopby^ 
geometry, astronomy, and otjiier parts of the mathematics^ 
liinsic, painting, and even the Oriental languages, and the 
elements of philosophy and divinity. His femfly having been 
auflPerers by the rebellion, he was c^liged to husband his little 
property with the utmost care, and seems to have considered 
an exhibition of ten pounds annually as a very importanl 
acquisition ; because with the addition of 6ve pounds fron 
a private benefactor, he informs us, ^il enabled him te Kve 
very jvell, and from that time, he put bis parents to no 
other expence, but that of providing him his clothes and 
books." In January 1662 he was chosen $chdar ol the 
house, with another pension of five pounds per armum^ 
which cheered an oeconomif^t of such humble expectations 
with the prospect of absolnte plenty. Having been ad* 
initted to the degree of A. B. Jan. 21, 1662, he now in« 
dulged the natural wish of a young scholar, to continue in 
the university, and was led to entertain hopes of obtaining 
a fellowship, either in his own college, or in St. «k)hn'B, the 
jhaster of which, Dr; Gunning, had made him many pro« 
mises ; but these proving, abortive, and the ten pound ex* 
bibition being withdrawn (which did not come from the "' 
college, but from a fund raised by certain Kentish men 
resident in London} he 'was obliged to leave tbe univer- 
sity, and retire to his father's house. In this sitnation^ 
however^ he was not without friends ; a Mr. John Hdney* * 
qf Eden*bridge, a pious old gentleman, and his father^s 
particular friend, found out has merit, and made him a: 
handsome present, with a request thai be woul4 daraw npon 


•  . • • * 

Ufll M tiny tfibe for any sum he tnigbt wint ; and M> totoy 
other friends from other quarters ap|>eared, that Mr. Cdm** 
ber never faund it necessary to avail himself of Mr. HoU 
niey's m.unifieeneein the future J>eriods of his life. 

Early in 1663, he accepted ah invitation to the house of 
Us late precept(Mr Mr. Holland, now rector of All-hali6wil 
Staining, London, and being ordained deacon Aug. id, 
be read prayers for Mr. Holland, and employed the week 
in studying at Sion college. Soon after he was invited to 
be curate to the rev. Gilbert Behnet, who held the living 
of Stonegrave in Yorkshire, and who promised, if he Kked 
bim, to resign in bis favour in a year or two, as be was pos- 
sessed of other preferment. Having accepted this offer, 
he was next year ordained priest at York mitister by arch- 
bishop Sterne, and no objection was made to hi$ age* 
(twenty years) on account of his uncommon qualificattons ; 
and when this circumstance, which had not passed unob- 
iServed, was afterwards objected to the archbishop, ks an 
irregularity, he declared he had found no reason to repent. 
In 1666 he was admitted at Cambridg'e to bis master^s de-' 
gree by proxy, the plague then raging at the university. 
At Stonegrave, his character having recommended him tb 
the notice of Mr. Thornton of East- Newton in Yorkshire, 
be was invited to reside at that gentleman's house, and he 
afterwards married one of his daughters. While he lived 
with this family, he wrote variotts theological pieces, and 
also amused himself with poetical compositions. In 1669 
Mr. Bennet resigned the living of Stonegrave, and Mr. 
Comber was inducted in October of that year. 

Having long been an admirer of the church-service, he 
determined to recommend it to the public, which at that 
time was frequently interested in disputes respecting set 
fbrms and extempore prayer; and with this view published, 
about 1672, the first part of his " Companion to the Tem- 
ple j** in 1674 the second part; and in 1675, the third part, 
of which a different arrangement was adopted in the sub* 
sequent editions. In 1677, he was installed prebend of 
Holme in the metropolitan church ef York, and the same 
year, so rapid was the sale, a third edition of his *^ Com- 
panion to the Temple'* was published, and at the same 
time a new edition of a very useful tract, to which he did 
not put his name, entitled ^' Advice to the Roman CatHo-* 
lits," and his first book of " The Right of Tithes,*' &^. 
against Elwood the quaker, and also v^thout bis name. 

106 , CO M B E R. 

The same year appeared his " Brief Disooiirse on the 
Offices of Baptism, Catechism, and Confirmation," dedi- 
cated to Tillptson. In 1678 the living of Thornton be- 
coming vacant, be was presented to it by sir Hugh Cjiol- 
meley ; and as this place was only ten miles from Stone- 
grave, he found no difficulty in obtaining a dispensation 
from the archbi^op of Canterbury, who also created him, 
hy patent, D. D. In 1680 we find him combating an ad- 
versary, on the subject of tithes, far more considerable 
than Elwood, namely, John Selden, so justly celebrated for 
* his learning and abilities. In confutation of Selden^s 
** History of Tithes," he now published the first part of 
his " Historical Vindication of the Divine right of Tithes," 
and in 1681, the second part. Some time in this year, 
be published a tract,^ entitled ** Religion and Loyalty," 
which he informs us was intended to convince the duke of 
York, that no person in succession to the throne of England 
ought to embrace popery ; and to persuade the people of 
England not tQ alter the succession. As in this pg^nphlet 
he seemed tp favour the doctrine of non-resistance, he was 
attacked by. the popular party as an enemy to freedom; 
but his biographer has defended him with success against 
such charffes. 

Some inferior preferments, obtained by Dr. Comber, 
were followed (in 1683) by a grant of the dignity of pre- 
centor of York. He was in this situation when a series of 
imprudent and arbitrary measures roused that national 
spirit which drove James 11. from his throne. The pre- 
centor was not slow in promoting this spirit; and, when 
the prince and princess of Orange had been called to the 
throne, he vindicated the legality of the new government 
against the calumnies of the Tory party. His patriotic 
exertions were not unrewarded j for he was promoted in 
1691 to the valuable deanry of Durham, partly by the in* 
terest of archbishop Tillotson, but was not a little affected 
in owing the vacancy to the deprivation of his friend Dr. 
Dennis Grenville, a nonjuror. He would probably have 
been at length advancQd to the episcopal dignity, , had not 
a consumption put an end to his life m 1699, before he 
had completed his fifty r-fifth year. 

Besides the works already noticed, Dr. Comber wrote, 

1 . " A Scholastical History of the primitive and general 

use of Liturgies in the Christian Church ; together with an 

Answer to Mr. David Clarkson's late Discourse concerning 

COMBER. 107 

Liturgies/* Lond. 1690, dedicated to king- William and 
queen Mary. 2. " A Companion to the Altar f or, an 
Help to the worthy Receiving of the Lord's Supper, by 
Discourses and Meditations upon the whole Communion- 
office." 3. "A brief Discourse upon the Offices of Bap- 
tism, Catechism, and Confirmation," printed at the end of 
the Companion to the Altar." 4. " A Discourse on the 
occasional Offices in thfe Common Prayer, viz. Matri- 
mony, Visitation of the Sick, Burial of the Dead, Church- 
ing oF Women, and the Commination." 5. *^ A Discourse 
upon the Manner and Form of making Bishops, Priests, 
and Deacons," London, 1699, 8vo, dedicated to archbishop 
Tenison. 6. " Short Discourses upon the whole Common 
Prayer, designed to inform the judgment, and excite the 
devotion of such as daily use the same ;" chiefly by way of 
paraphrase, London, 1684, 8 vo, dedicated to Anne, prin- 
cess of Denmark, to whom the author was chaplain. 7. 
*^ Roman Forgeries in the Councils during the first four 
Centuries ; together with an Appendix, concerning the 
forgeries and errors in the annals of Baronius," ibid. 1689, 
4to. It seems doubtful, whether the edition of Fox'i 
"Christus Triumpbans," which appeared in 1672, was 
published by him. From his correspondence, and from a 
MS account of his life left in his family, his great grandson, 
the rev. T. Comber of Jesus college, Cambridge, publish- 
ed in 1799, an interesting volume,, entitled " Memoirs 
of the Life and Writings of Thomas Comber, D. D. 
some time dean of Durham ; in which is introduced a 
candid view of the scope and execution of the several 
works of Dr. Comber, as well printed as MS. ; also a fair 
account of his literary correspondence." Of this we have 
availed ourselves as to the preceding facts, and must still 
refer to it for a more satisfactory detail of Dr. Comber's 
public services and private character. He was unques- 
tionably a pious, learned, and indefatigable supporter of 
the doctrine and discipline of the church of England ; and 
his private character added a very striking lustre to his 
public professions. His principal works, not of the con- 
troversial kind, are those he wrote on the various parts of 
the liturgy, which, although in less reputation now than 
formerly, unquestionably were the first of the kind, and 
rendered the labours of his successors Nichols, Wheatley, 
&c. more easy. His style is in general perspicuous, al- 
though void of ornament, and the phraseology, somewh?Lt 

108 COMBER* 

peculiar ; but theie liturgical commentaries are chiefly 
valuai^le for tbe accumulatioii of learned references aiul 
authorities^ As to bis private character^ bis biograpbefr 
^sures us, tbat '' his modesty and iaambition were singu- 
larly remarkable. Content with a moderate fortune^ b« 
was desirous of continuing in a private station, tbougk 
possessed of abilities and integrity capable of adorning tb« 
most exalted and spleudid rank. Insensible equally to the 
calls of ambition and the allurements of wealtb^ we bebal4 
him declining situations of honour and emolument, to ob- 
tain which thousands have made sbipwreck of their honour 
and conscience. When the importunity of his friends had 
at last prerailed on him to lay aside his thoughts of con- 
tinuing in obscurity, and induced him to step forward into 
a more public life, we see him reapect^d by all tbe great 
and good men of his time, and freqijcntly receiving public 
marks of esteem from the lips of royalty iU3:f< The sama 
modesty which had made him desirous of coitlinuing ina 
private station, still adhered to him when preferred to an 
eminent dignity in the church : unassuming and hun^ble iti 
private life, in publie he was dignified without pride, and 
generous without ostentation.'' 

There was also another Thomas Comber, D. D« who 
lived in the same century, and was of Trinity college in 
Cambridge. He was born in Sussex, Jan. I, 1575 > ad^ 
mitted scholar of Trinity college, May 15^3 ; chosen feU 
low of the same^ October 1597 ; preferred to the deanery 
of Carlisley August 1630; and sworn in master of Trinity 
. college, Oct. 1631. In 1642, he was imprisoned, plundered, 
'and aeprived of all his preferments; and died February 
1653, at Cambridge. He was a man of very extensive 
learning, particularly in the classical alid oriental lan- 
guages ; and Neal, the historian of his persecutors, bears 
testimony to the excellence of hts character in this and 
other respects. He is here however noticed, chiefly ta 
correct the mistakes of the Biog. Britannica, Wood's 
Athenss, &c. in which tie is confounded with the dean of 
Durham, and said to have entered into a controver$y witb 
Selden on the subject of tithes. He was| however, relate<t 
to him, the dean's g^ndfather John Comber, esc^ being hi» 

COMBER (TBOMAa),. LL, D. grandson to the preceding 
t>r. Comber, dean of Durham, was educated at Jesua ceU 

* MeiDOHTf a*«bo^«.— Bireh'sTillotsofi.— Oftte Dean of Carlisl*, sceWal* 
ker^s Sufferings, and hif Funeral Sermon by Borenan, 1653, 4to. 

C tf B £ B. 109 

UfPi Candsirklge, wheceht torii bii dcgHfts of B. A. IT44, 
It A. 177Q, aod LUft 1777. Hewts vector of Kirkby 
Misperton, Vorkdbire, mA 4luirwiurd9 eeetor q£ Morborm 
^ BuckwDith^ in Hiiiiti4g<Uiii«hire. He wn a man of 
^niidefmUe parta and learnifig^ and tli^ author of >seveni 
eoAtroserttial tractB, amoi^ vi^isk ara : 1* ''The Heathen 
JKgectioii of Cbnsiiianuy in tbe&nst a^s cenflifkvad^" 114i7» 
^0, 2, ^ Ap Examidttdon of a fete intredMetory JUa** 
eoune ooneevning Mwiusuioos Power/' ^Ihi Middleton, a 
paoipUet in whidsk Wavkunoa diacewved madia of genitts 
«ad aenae, but with some puerilities. 3. f^ A Vindtcatmn 
of die gneat R^vcduiiQB in En^and in IM^^ &c." 1TM» 
^€0. 4u ^ A f^ree aad Caa&d ConmifieBdeaee on the 
Smner'a Lettec to the people ef En^ad^ Aie^ with tbo 
Author/' 1770^ &VQ. £. ^A Treatise of I,aws, froatthd 
QsgA ci Sytbui^ius'a edition of Theodoiety bishop of Cyw 
prua, &c.'^ 1T76, 8io. & ^< Memoirs of the Life and 
Death o£ th^ right hoa. the Lond DepaQr Wandesfoide/' 
Cambridge, 1779, )2me^ Dr. Comber was great gseat 
grandson to this nobleman. . This fatat ia a irery cnrioas and 
a vjety sconce performance. It is marhed on the titlo-ipage, 
^oL II. and was to he eonaideued aa the second Tolume of a 
woek published by our author in 1777, eaititled ^ A Book 
of luatmetioos, written by sir Chriafeo^er Wandesferde to 
his sen, but tbey are aridom Hpund together.^' Dr. Gon«> 
her died in 177ft. ^ 

COMENIUt$ (JooM Ajcos), a eelebratted grammarian 
and protest9&t din^ino) waa bora in Moravia in L5M. Har-* 
^S atiidied ia several plaoea, and particularly at Herbom^ 
hei returned to, bia awn country in 1614, and waa made 
i^ter of a college there. He was ordained mtniater in 
ULfi, and two years after became pastor of die church of 
Fuloec : a|fc which time he waa appointed master of a school 
' lately erectedj He then appeara to have projected the 
kitroduotioii of a new method for teaching the laiqpiagea* 
He published some eaaaysr for thiapuipoae in 16 16^ and 
hadpr^Mured o^r pieces on that subject, which weve de-» 
atroyed in 1621, when the Spaniards plundered his library, 
aft^ having taken the cky. The ministers of Bdiemia 
and Morvria being outlaw^ by an edict in 1624, and the 
peraecatiQU increasing the ymr after, Comeniua Aed to 
LeiDa, a city of FoUiid, and tau^^ Lactinc. There be pub* 

110 C O M £ N 1 U S. 

lishedih 1631, his book entitled '^Janua linguarum rese^ 
rata," or, " tbe gate of languages unlocked :" of which be 
gives us an account which is uniyersally allowed to be true : 
** I neirer could have imagined," says he, " that this little 
book, calculated only for children, should have met with 
universal applause from the learned. This has been justi- 
fied by the letters I have received from a great number of 
learned men of different countries, in which they :higbly 
congratulate me on this new invention; as well as by. the 
versions which have been emulously made of it into several 
modern tongues. For it has not only been translated inta 
twelve European languages, namely, Latin, Greek, Bohe-' 
mian, Polish, German, Swedish, Dutch, English, Freuch, 
Spanish, Italian, Hungarian ; but likewise into the Asiatic 
languages, as, Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and even ^e Mo^ 
gul, which is spoken all over the East Indies.'' It was af- 
terwards reprinted under the title of ^' Orbis sensualium 
pictus," and is still, according to baron Born, used in the 
schools of Bohemia, Comeniias being particularly skilled 
in the language of that country. . 

This book gained Comenius such reputation, that the 
govert^ing powers of Sweden wrote to him. in 1638, aad 
oifFered him. a commissioii for new regulating all the schools- . 
in that kingdom ; which offer, however, he did not thiiilc 
proper, to accept, but only promised to assist with his ad- 
vice those who should be appointed to Execute that com- 
mission. He then translated into Latin, a piece which he 
had written in his native tongue, concerning the new^ 
method of instructing youth, a specimen of which appeared 
under the title of ^^ Pansophi® prodromus," or *' The 
forerunner of universal learning," printed at London, 1639, 
]2mo, and translated by Jer. Colliery 1651. This made 
him considered as one very capable of reforming the ihe- 
thod of teaching; and the parliament of England desired 
his assistance to reform the schools of this kingdom. He! 
arrived at London, Sept. 1641, but the rebellion th^i 
commencing, shewed Comenius that this wa^ not a juhc-^ 
tu re favourable to his designs; he went therefore to Swe-^ 
den, whither he had been invited by Lewis de Geer, ^ 
gentleman of great merit, who had the public wdlfare 
very much at heart. He. arrived there in August 1642,' 
and discoursed with .Oxeustiern about his method : the 
result oF which conference was, that he should go and fix 
at Elbing'irf Prussia, and cptnpose it. In the mean time 



C O M E N I U S. Ill 

Lewb de Geer settled a considerable stipend upon him, * 
by which means, being delivered from the drudgery of 
teaching a. school^ he employed himself wholly in finding 
out general methods for those ifho instructed youtbt 
Having spent four years at Elbing in this study, he returned 
to Sweden to shew his composition, which was examined 
by three commissioners, and declared worthy of being 
made public when completed. He spent two more years 
upon it at Elbing, and then was obliged to return to Lesna. 
In 1650 he took a journey to the court of Sigismund Ra- 
gotski, prince of Trausilvania : where a conference was 
desired with him on the subject of education. He gave 
this prince spme pieces, containing in'structions for regu«- 
lating the college of Patak, pursuant to the maxims laid 
down in his ^^ Pansophia ;" and, during four years, he wa^ 
allowed to propose whatever he pleased with regard to the 
government of that college. After this he returned to 
Lesna, and did not leave it till it was burnt by the Poles ; 
of which calamity, as we shall see below, Comenius was 
charged with being the cause. He lost there all his ma«^ 
nuscripts, except what he had written on Pansophia,: and 
on the Ileveiations. He fled into. Silesia, thence to Bran* 
denburgh, afterwards to Hamburgh, and lastly to Amster- 
dam ; where he met with so much encouragement, that 
he was tempted to conjtinue there for the remainder of his 
life. He printed there, in 1657, at the expence of hi^ 
Miecenas, the different parts of his new method of. teach^ 
ing. The work is in folio, and divided into four parts. 
^' The whole," says Bayle, '^ cost the author prodigious 
pains, other people a great deal of money, yet the learned 
received no benefit from it; nor is there, in my opinion, 
any thing practically useful in tlie hints of that author/* . 

But Comenius \nis not only intent upon the reformation 
of schools ; he had become a deep researcher into pro* 
phecies, revolutions, the ruining of antichrist, the milieu^ 
nium, &c. arid had collected with prodigious care the chi- 
meras of Kotterus, those of Christiana Poniatovia, and of 
Drabibius, and published them at Amsterdam. These 
writers promised miracles to those who should. endeavour 
to extirpate the house of Austria and the pope. Gustai- 
vus 'Adolphus, and Charles Gustavus, kings of Sweden, 
Cromwell and Ragotski, had been promised as those who 
should accomplish those splendid prophecies; to whicir, 
however, the ^veut did nQt;«orrespQnd.« Wje^re tddtbat 

c a M E N I U f. 


CcMKie»iti«, itpi Icnowing how ta extriette UniBetf, at 
toak it into bii» bead to addf^ss Leiiris XIV. of Itene^; 
that be seol him a cq^y of Drabiciuf^s prophe6ifl% and 
infia«ated tb94: it vfn% to this monarch God pioaiiflsed Ike 
empif e of the worlds by the dowofiiU of tbone who perse- 
oyted Christ. He wrote some boohs at Amsterdaoi ; oife' 
iwticularly against <les Marets CQDceraing the miUciiQiutii» 
and Des Marets answered with contecnpt aed asperityi m-* 
presenting bioi as an in^ostor. 

Comeaius became at kst sensible of the vanity of his < 
labours, as we learn from the book he pubHshcd in l^W -^ 
at AoEisterdacn, entitled ^^ Unhis neoeasarii^^' or ** Of the ^ 
one thing needfiii ;" in which he afiqnaints us also widi Ike 
jreaohit»>n he had made, ol easploying all bis future? tfaoo^ls 
wholly on bis salvation^ and this he probably kept. He 
died at AmsterdaiD, 1671, in his eightieth year. Had be 
lived n^ucfa longer^ he would have seen the falsity d lAs 
pfopheoies with re^rd to the millennium, which, he af* 
.finned wddd begin in 1672,. or 1673. Whatever mertifi* 
cation Comenius nrast have fek on the score of his prophe- 
cies,, his eneniies have brueght mere sevious charges against 
hisn,^ He waa first reproached witb.having done great pre- 
judice tO' bis Wethieo, who were banished with bias from 
Moravia. Most ef them had fled from their country with 
considerable sums of money.; but, instead of bein^ ceco- - 
nemists^ they squandered it away in. a short time, becauee 
Comenius prophesied they should return to their countiy 
immediately, aaid thus they were very aoon reduced to 
beggary. He was also accused of having been the cause 
of the plundering and hucniug of Lesna, where his bre- 
thren bad found an asylum, by the panegyric he mcM^e so ; 
unse^onably upon Charles Gustavus of Sweden,, when he 
invaded Poland. Comenius proclaimed him in a prophetic 
manner to be the iaimediate destroyer of popery; by 
which the pcptestants of Poland became extremely odious 
t» the fipman catholics of that kingdom. He did not 
seem to be undeceived when the kaog of Sweden turned his 
i^ems againsi: Denmark; for he made him a second pane- 
gymcy wherein he congratulated him no less on this new 
ifivasion than he had, done upon the former. But whatever 
credit, the protestants of Lesna might give to Conoenrns, 
fbat city was sarprised and burnt by the Polish army ; oti 
wrfaich, occasion Comenius lost his house, his furniture, and 
hoa library ; a proof that^ if he waa an impostor, he had 

-. X 

C O M E N I U S. 113 

first deceived himself* Part of his apocalyptic treatises, 
and some other pieces relating to his Patisophia, escaped 
the flames ; be having just time to cover them in a hole 
underground^ from which they wer^ taken ten days, after 
the fire : but hi« ** Lexicon Bobemicum/' a work which 
baroQ Born conceives would have been of the highest 
utility, was totally destroyed. On this he had spent above 
forty years of bis life. 

Besides the works already mentbned, Comenius wrpte» 
U '* Synopsis Physicse, ad lumen divinum reformatse/* 
Aoist. 1643, and 1645, 13mo, published in English, 1651, 
l2mo. This 'book has procured him a place in Brucker*s 
class of scriptural philosophers. Comenius, according to 
his analysis of the work, supposes three principles of na« 
ture — matter, spirit, and light ' the first, a dark, inactive, 
corporeal substance, which receives forms < the second,' 
the subtle, living, invisible substance, which animates ma* 
terial bodies; the third, a middle substance between the 
two former, lucid, visible, moveable, capable of penetrate 
ing matter, which is the iitstirument by which spirit acts 
upon matter, and which performs its office by means gf 
motion,-^ agitation, or vibration. ^ Of these thcee principles 
be conceived all created beings to be composed. This 
doctrine he attempts to derive from the Mosaic history of 
the creation ; but the scholastic fictions which men of this 
cast ascribe to Moses, Moses himself would probably nevet 
have owned. 2. ^'Ecclesiae Slavonic, &c. brevis his« 
toriola,'' Amst. 1660, afterwards published by Buddeus 
under the t^le of *' Historia Fratrum Bohemorum," 1702, 
4to. Several other of his publications, now of little io<» 
terest, are enumerated in our authorities.^ 

COMES (Natalis), or No£L Conti, an Italian writer^ 
was born at Venice about the commencement of the six* 
teenth century, 'and became greatly distinguished for clas- 
sical learning. He translated from Greek into Latin the 
" Deipnosophistss of Atbenaeus," the *^ Rhetoric of Her' 
mogenes,'* and he published original poems in both these 
iaogiiages. He wrote a history of his own times from 1545. 
to 1581, foL 1612, a very scarce edition. The first was 
ibat of 1572, 4to, but his principal work is a system of 

* Gen. Diet.— Baron Bom's £Afies Virorum Bohemia, vol. I.— Morboff 
Polyhist. who speaks with much sererity of bis ** >aou« Lioi;uaram.''— Foppaa 
Bibl. Belg.— Brucker's Hiit of Pbiloiopby.— Freytag AdparaL Lit^Saxii Ofto- 


Vol. X. I 


U4 COM E .S. 

mythology entitled << MyHiologiis, sire explicationls Fa* 
Vuiarum, lib. X.** Padua, 1616, 4to, and often reprinted. 
It was dedicated to Charles IX. of Ftance. He died in 
1589, and on account of his lo?e of allegory and mysticism 
be was denominated by Joseph Scaliger^ rather harshly, 
^ Homo futilissimus. ' 

^ COMIERS (Claude)» canon of Embnin, his .native 
place, was professor of mathematics at Paris, and was eai« 
ployed some tidoie on the Journal des Savans, bat becooi* 
ing blind, he entered the Quinze-Vingts of Paris, where 
^e died in 1693. The chief of his works are, 1. ^^ The 
new science of th^ nature of Comets.** 2. *^ A Discourse 
on Comets.^' 3. '^ Three Discourses on the aft of pro** 
longing Life,'' suggested by an article in the Gazette of 
lloUand. concerning a Louis Galdo, who was said to have 
lived 400 years. These discourses are curious from the 
number of anecdotes. they contain. 4. *' A Tract on Spec- 
tacles for assisting the Sight," 16B2. 5. A Treatise on 
Prophecies, Vaticinations, Predictions and Prognostica- 
tions,'* against M. Jurieu, i2mo. 6,*^ A Treatise on 
Speech^ on Languages, and Writings, and on the art of 
secret speaking and writing," Liege, 16.91, 12mo, which, 
says our authority, although it passed through two editions, 
is extremely rare. • 

COMINES, or COMMINES, Lat Cominaus (Phii.ip 
1>£), an excellent French historian, was born of a noble 
family in Flanders, 1 446. He was a man of great abilities, 
which, added to his illustrions birth, soon recommended 
hior to the notice.of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, 
with whon^ he lived in intimacy for about eight years. He 
was afterwards invited to the court of France by Louis XP. 
fmd became a man of consequence, not only from the 
countenance which was given him by the monarch, but 
from other great connections also, which he' formed by mar- 
rying into a noble family. Louis made him his chamber- 
lain; and seneschal or chief magistrate of the province of 
Poictou. . He also employed him in several negotiations, 
which he executed in a satisfactory manner, and enjoyed 
the high favour of his prince. But aftier the death .of 
Louis, when bis successor Chai^les YIII. c^xae to the throne, 
the enVy of his adversaries prevailed so far, ths^t he was 


^ Moreri.— Diet Hist— Saxii Onomast— Clement Bibl. Curieuse. 




jjdpfisooed at Locbes, in the county of Berry^ and treated 
^itb great severity ; but by the application of his wife, he 
was removed at length to Paris. After some time he was 
convened before the parliament, in which he pleaded his 
own caude with such effect, that,, after a speech of two 
hours, he was dischi^rged. In this harangue he insisted 
much upon what he had done both for the king and king- 
domj and the favqur and bounty of his master Louis XI. 
He remonstrated to them, that he had done nothing either 
trough avarice or ambition ; and that if his designs had 
been only to have enriched himself, he had as fair an op« 
portunity of doing it as any man of his condition in France* 
H^ died in a house of his own called Argenton, Oct. 
17, 1509; and his body, being carried to Paris^ was in- 
terred IB the church belonging to the Augustines, in .a 
chapel which he bad built for himself. In his prosperity 
be bad the foUowiug saying frequently in his mouth : ^^ He 
that will not work, let him not eat :^' in his adversity he 
l^sed to say, ** I committed myself to the sea, and am 
overwhelmed in a storm." * 

He was a mail 'of great parts, but not learned. He 
spoke several modem languages, well, the German, French, 
and Spanish . especially ; biit.he knew nothing of the an- 
cient, which he used to lament. His ^^ Memoirs of his own 
tiinea/' eoihmente from 14<i4, and include a period of 
ihirty-fouf f year$ ; in which are commjemorated the most 
remarkably acitions of the iwo last dukes of Burgundy, and 
of Lo\k\% XLatid Charles VIII. kings of France ; as like* 
wise the most importa<i4: contemporary transactions in Fng^* 
land, Fla^dera, Germany, Italy, and Spain. The great 
penetration and judgment which Comines has shewn in 
these memoirs j the extensive know lege of men and things, 
the. Wonderful skill in unfolding counsels and tracing ac* 
tions to their -first springs, and the variety of excellent 
precepts, political aind philosophical, with which the whole 
is wrought up, have long preserved the credit of this work; 
Catherine "de Medicis used to say, that Comines havl made 
as many heretics in politics as Luther bad in religion. Hd 
has one qualification not -yet mentioned, which ought par^ 
ticularly to recommend him to our favour; and that is, the 
great impartiality he shews to the English. Whenever be 
has occasion to mention our nation, h is with much re- 
Bpect; and though, indeed^ he thinks us deficient in po*? 
i^ticai knowledge, when compared with hu own couniry* 

I 2 

116 C O M I N E S. 

men, he gives us the character of being a generous, boldr 
spirited people; highly . commends our constitution, and 
never conceals the grandeur and magnificence, of the Eng» 
lish'nation. Dryden, inhi^ life of Plutarch,, has made the 
historian some return for bis civilities ; in tbe foilowing 
elogiuiij : ** Next to Thucydides,** says that poet; **in this 
kind may be accounted Polybius among the Grecians; 
Livy, though not free from superstition, nor TacHus from 
ill- nature, amongst the Romans; amongst the modem 
Italians, Guiociardini and d^Avila, if not partial :< but above 
all men, in my opinion, the plain, sincere, unaffected^ 
and most instructive Philip deComines amongst the Ft^icby 
though he only gives his history the humble name of Com** 
mentaries. I am sorry I cannot find in our own nation^ 
though it has produced some commendable historians; any 
proper to be ranked with these." There are a very great 
number of editions of these " Memoirs" in French, enu- 
merated by Le Long : the best, in the opinion of his coitti* 
trymen, is^ that of the abb6 Lenglet du Fresnoy, Paris, 
1747, 4 vols. 4to, under the title of London. It was trans- 
lated into English in 1596, as noticed by Ames and Her- 
bert, who have, however, confounded him with Philip Am 
Mornay. The last English translation was that of Uv^ale^ 
1712, 2 vols. 8 vo.* 

COMMANDINE (Frederick), a celebrated mathema- 
tician and linguist, who was bom at Urbino in Italy, in 
1509, and died in 1575, was famous Jbr his learning and 
knowledge in the sciences. To- a great depth and just 
ta^te in the mathematics, he joined a critical skill in the 
Greek language ; a happy conjunction which made him 
very well qualified for translating and expounding the 
writings of the Greek mathematicians. And, accordingly, 
with a most laudable zeal and industry, he translated and 
published several of their works for the first time. On 
which account, Francis Motia, duke of Urbino, who wa» 
very conversant in those scienoesy proved a very affectionate 
patron to him. He is greatly applauded by Bianchini, and 
other writers ; and he justly deserved their encomiums. 
Of his own works Commandine published the following : 
1. " Commentarins in Planisphserium Ptolomsei,** 1558, 
4to. 2. " De Centro Gravitatis Solidbrum,^' Bonon. 1565, 

t Moreri.— Diet. Hist,-^Poppen Bibl. Belg.-^Le Loof Bibl. Historique: — 
SaxU Ononast. 


4to. 3. '< Horologioniin Descriptioi** Rom. 1562, 4to; 
He tranalM^d and iUttttrated v^ith notes the following works, 
most of them beauttfoHy priniedy in 4to, by the celebrated 
printer Aldus : 1. <* Arcbimedis CircuU Dimensio; de Li- 
neis Spiralibui ; Qaadratura Parabolas ; de Conoidibus et 
Sphderoidiboft ; de Arens^ Namero/* 1553. 2. <' Ptolo- 
miei PlanispbflBrium ; et Planisphsrium Jordan!/^ 1558. 
S. " Ptolomiiei Analemona/* 1562. 4. « Archimedis de iia 
quse vebuntur in aqua/' 1565. 5. " Apollonii Pergal 
Cbnicorum libri quatuor, una cum Pappt Alexandrini Lem* 

^tnatibus, et Commentariis Eutocii Ascalonita?/' &c. 1566. 

.6. *^ Machometes Bagdadinos de Superficierum Divisioni- 
bus,'* 1570. 7. "Eiementa Eqdidis," 1572. 8. *♦ Aris- 
tarcfaus de magnitudinibus et distantiis SoHs et Luii»,^* 
J572. 9. " H^ronis Alexandrini Spirituaiium liber," 1583. 
.10. " Pappi Alexandrini Collectiones Matheraaticae," i 588.' 

' COMMELIN (Jerome), a celebrated French printer, 
native of Douay, settled first at Geneva, afterwards at 
Heidelberg, where he died in 1 59^. He was a very learned 
schdlar, as appears by all the editions of ^he Greek and 
Latin ^Uihers which he corrected, ^nd to which he added 
ncffies^ that are much esteemed. He printed since 1560, in 

^Switzerland, S. Ghrysostomus iirNov. Testamentum, 1596, 

,^:.2rols. fbU iTkis .edition:,: with that of the Old Testti-> 
ment printed at Paris, make^' this w^ork complete, and 
4be besir edition. -Me took, up his residence Ut Heidelberg 

^forthe'couyentence^of' consulting the MSS. in the Palatine 

-iibiisiry; > lie^^pirin^d many otfaar books ; those without his 

'naoteare koolirif iiy his mark, which represents Truth sitting 
ki tt chain Hia edition of Apollodoras is well known in 
classical . lUEiraries, but unfortunately he did not live to 
iiniisiiit,.- which wss accomplislied iu 1599 by his assistant 

. Bonutius.* 

COMMELIN (John), a distinguislied botanist, wa$ born 
at Amsterdam, July 23, 1629. He succeeded his father 

- as one of the magiatraces of the city, and while holding 
this office Was very active in forming a iie^v botanical gar*- 
den ; the ground occupied by the. old garden having been 
taken into the city. The second and third volumes of tlie 
^^ Hortus Indicus Malabaricus,'' owe much of their value 
to his judicious notes and observations. He published 

I Gen. Diet — Chaufepie. — VoBsius de Scient. Math. — Hatton^i Diet.— Sax\i 
Onomait.— NiceroD, vol. Vf. 
• Fwpp«R Bibl. Belg.— Diet. Hist.— Morcru— Saxii On'omast. " 

us CO ftLM JE 1, I N. 

f^ Catalogas 'Platiucrum indigfenarain HoUandie^/''. ISSS*^ 
12nio, containing a Ikt of 776 piant9; and, in 1^89, *^ Ca* 
talogiis Plantaruin Horti Medici Amstelodami, pars prior/* 
bpth wh^ch have beon freqaentlj reprinted. While pre*^ 
paring to complete this work, be died at Amsterdam in 
1692. His nephew, Gaspar Commelin, after taking his 
degree of doctor in medicine, was appointed professor in 
Iwuny, and direi:tor of the garden at Amsterdam, offices 
which he filled with 4istiliigmsbed d»|iity and attention. 
He completed the work begun by his uncle^ which be pvih* 
lished in 1701. His next production was *^ Flora Mala^ 
barica, seu Horti Malabarici Catadogus,'* serving as an in- 
dex to the Hortus Malabaricus. This was followed by 
^' Prseludta Anatomict^,'' 1705, 4to; and the same year, 
'f iPr«Bludia Botanica,'- with figures for the benefit of stu- 
dents in those arts. In 1715 be published ^MconesPIan* 
tarum, presertim ex Indiis collectarum,'* 4 to ; and in 1718, 
f* Botanographi^^ Malabarica, a nominum barbarismis re- 
flftituta," Lugduni Bat. folio. ^ 

COMMEUSON (Philibert), doctor of physic, king*d 
botanist, and member of the faculty of Montpelier, waa 
born at Chatilon les Dombes near Bourg in Bre^se, in 1727^ 
He discovered an early propensity to botany and other 
branches of natural history, which he pursued with unre«- 
mitting ardour, and, as it is said, with very little delicacy, 
performing the same tricks in a garden, which coin and 
print collectors have been known to perform in museums 
and libraries. When at Montpelier, he miide no scruple 
to pluck the rarest an<| most precious plants in the king*9 
botanic garden there, to enrich bis herbal ; and when on 
this account the directors of the garden refused him ad- 
mittance, he scaled ^tbe walls by night to continue his de*^ 
predations. The reputation, however, of a better kind, 
whici} he gained during a residence of four years at Mont- 
pelier, induced Linnaeus to recommend' hhn as a proper 
person to form the queen of Sweden^s collection of the 
rarest fishes in the Mediterranean, and to compose accu- 
rate descriptions of them ; which undertaking he executed 
with great labdur and dexterity, producing a complete 
Ichthyology, 2 vols. 4to, with a Dictionary and Bibliogra- 
phy, containing accounts of ait the authors who had treated 
tliat branch of natural history. Among his various pro- 

1 Diet. Hist^-Haller Bibl. Botan^— Rees's Cyclopsdia* 

COM HE R 8 O N. lit 

doctions, is a diiteitation entitled *' The Martyrebgy of 
Botany,*' containiag accounts of all the antbors who lost 
their lives by the fatigues and accidents incident to the 
seal for'acqiiiring natural curiosities; a list, in which his 
own name was destined to 'be enfolled« Sometimes he haf 
been found in bis closet with a candle burning long after 
sunrise^ with his bead bent over his herbal, unconseious 
of its being day-light ; and usedf frequently to return fron 
his botanical excursions torn with briars, bruised with falls 
from rocks, and emaciated witli hunger and fatigue, after 
many narrow escapes from precipices and^torrents. These 
ardent occupations did not, however, extinguish senti^ 
ments of a more tender nature. M. Commerson married iA 
1760 a wife who died in childbed two years after, aud whose 
memory he preserved by naming a new kind of plant, whose 
fruit seemed to contain two united hearts, *^ Pulcheria 
Commersonia.*' He arrived at Paris in 1764, where he 
became connected with all the learned botanists, particu*- 
Jarly the celebrated Jussieu ; and was^recommended to the 
duke de Praslin, minister for the marine department, to 
accompany M. Bougainville in his voyage round the world. 
The duke conceived the highest idea of bis merit from the 
dcetcb be drew of the observations that might be made 
relative to natural history in such a voyage ; and he sailed 
accordingly, in 1766, making the most industrious use of 
every opportunity to fulfil his engagements^ He died at 
the Isle of France in 1772^, and by his will left to the: 
king^s cabinet all his botanical collections, which, before 
he engaged in this voyage, amounted to above 200 vo** 
'lumes in folio; those made during the voyage, together 
with his papers and herbal, were sent home in 32 cases, 
containing an inestimable treasure of hitherto unknown 
materials for natural history, and Mess^. Jussieu, D* Au*- 
benton, and Thouin, were commissioned to examine and 
arrange them. ' 


COMMIRE (John), a Jesuit, was born March 25, 1625, 
atAmboise, where his &lher kept a tennis-court. The 
study of the ancients, joined to his natural abilities, imbued 
bis writings with a considerable share of taste, beauty, pu* 
rity, and eloquence. He also taught the belles lettre^, 
and divinity, and died at Paris, December 25, 1702. There 

•*  . " 

f Eloge l»y lia lisnde.— »i>ict. Hijtt. 

190 COM M.I K Ei 

is extant a volume of his. Latin poems, and a cpUediim df 
his posthumous works, 17 54, 2 vols. 12mo« The odes and 
fables are particularly admired. He appears to have aie^ 
ditated a history of the ^ Wars of tl^ English/' but H 
probably was never completed. ' , 

COMMpDIANUS, of Gaza, a Christian poet of the 
third century, is the author of a Latin piece entitled ^^ In* 
stitutiones/'. .It is composed, in .the fyrta of vi^rse, but 
without either measure or quantity : . only, care is taken that 
each line comprises a complete sense, afid.that it begins 
with something like an acrostic. It lay a long .time ipi. 
obscurity, until Rigaltius published it in bis edition of. 
Cyprian, and Davies at the end of JMiniit^us.Fe}ix. It is 
more valuable for the strain of piety which prevails througb«- 
out the whole than for any poetical roerit, .Coiomodiantt» 
appears to. have been originally a heathen, and ashe in^ 
forms u?, was converted by reading the scriptures, and 
appears to have been also acquainted with secular authors. 
Lardner has he^iito^'ed a chapter on this work, and on the 
history of its author, in his ^* Credibility of the Gospel -^ 

COMTE (Lewis L&), a Jesuit of Bourdeaux^ was. sent, 
to China, as. a missionary and. mathematician in 1683,. and 
published a book in considerable reputation before that pf 
Du Halde appeared, entitled ^^ Memoires sur la Chiue,^^^ 
2 vols.. 1.2 mo, to which was added a history of the eni- 
peror\s edict ii) favour of Christianity. His ^^ Memoirs>*r 
were censured by the faculty of. divinity at Paris, becauspr 
of his uncommon prejudices in favour of the Chinese^^ 
whom he equalled to the Jews, and maintained that they 
had worshipped the true God during two thousand years^' 
and sacrificed to him in the most ample temple of the uni« 
verse, while the rest of mankind ^^re in a state of cor<« 
ruption. The parliament for the same reason ordered tbf 
work to be burnt, by a decree passed in 1762. Le Comte. 
died in 1729,» . . .^ 

COMPTE (Nicholas de), a French jmonk, a native of, 
jParis, is known, as the author. or editor of different work» 
which met with a favourable jeception. Among others he 
published ^' The remarkable Travels of Peter delia Vallcu 

» Moreriv— Diet; itist 

* Larrfner's Works, vol. TIT.— Di>pin.#— Care^ vol. I. — DaviM'a Minutiuf Fe^ 
^x, 1712, Svo.^Fabric. Bibl. Lat. and J^fbl. Med. Lat. < Diet. Uht. 

C O M P T E. 121 

a RoiftAti gentieinan, trandated from the Italian/* 4 rob. 
410 ; *< A new and interesting History of the kingdoms of 
Ttmquin and Lao^** 4to, tratislatea from the lulian of 
iifther Manni, in- 1666. In' the year preceding this, he 
published the third volume of father Lewis Couion^s *^ His- 
tory of the Jews." He died at Paris in 1 689. * 

COM PTON (S^BNCEay, only son of William^ first earl 
of Northampton, by Elizabeth, sole daughter and heiress ' 
of sir John Spencer, alderman of London, was born in 1601. 
He wa» made knight of the bath in 1616, when Charles, ' 
doke of York ^afterwards Charles L) was created prinbe of 
M^es ;' with whom he became a great &vourite. In 1622^' 
he accompanied htm into Spain, in quality of master of hiy \ 
robes aiid wardrobe ; and had the honour to deliver all his 
presents, which amounted, according to computation, to 
tr4^000/. At the coronation of that prince he attended as 
aiaster of the robes ; and in 1639, waited on his majesty . 
in h'isiexpedition against the Scots. He was likewise one ' 
of those noblemen, who, in May 1641, resolved to defend' 
the protestant religion, eitpressed in the doctrine of the: 
church of England, and his majesty^s royal person, honotir, 
and estate ; as also the power and privilege of parliaments^ 
and the lawful rights and liberties of the siibject. In J 642 
he waited upon bis majesty at York, and after the king set 
mp his standard at Nottingham, was one of the first who 
appeared in arms for him. He did him signal services^ 
supporting his cause with great zeal in the coulities of 
Warwick^ Stafford, and Northainptom. He was killed, 
March 19^ 1643, in a battle fought on Hopton-heatb, near 
Stafibrd; in which, though the enemy was routed, and 
much of their artillery taken, yet bis lordsbip^s horse being 
unfortunately shot under him, he was somehow left eh* 
compassed by them. When he was on his feet, be killed 
with his own hand the colonel of foot, who first camie up to 
him; notwithstanding which, after his head^piece was struck 
off with the butt-end of a musquet, they offered him quar- 
ter, which he refused, saying, ^* that he scorned to accept 
qua^rter from such base rogues and rebels as they were :'? 
on this he was killed by a blow with an halbert on the 
hinder part of his head, receiving at the san^e time another 
deep wound in his face. The enemy refused to deliver ^p 
his body to the youn; earl of Northamptoui unless be 
\» . *  ' • ' * • 


122 C O HJ?lTO iJ. 

would retuTDy ine&change for it^ all the ammunitioni, pri* 
soTierB, and cannon be had Uken io the late battle : but 
at last it was delivered, and buried in AUballowa church in 
Derby, in the same vault with his relation .the old couor 
teas of Shrewsbury. His lordship married Mary, daughter 
of sir Francis Beaumont, knt* by whom be bad six sons 
and two daughters. The sons are all said to have inherited 
tb^ir ikther^s courage, loyalty, and virtue ; . particularly sir 
William, the third son^ who had the command of a regi^ 
ment, and performed considerable service at the taking of 
Bapbury, leading his men on to three attacks, during 
which he had two horses shot under him. Upon the sur- 
render of the town and .castle, be was made lieutenant'- 
govemor under his &tber;^; aadon the 19tb of July, 1644^ 
when the parliament's forces came before tb^. town, be re* 
turned answer to their summons ; *^ That he kept the cafitle 
for his majesty, and as long as one man was left alive in it,. 
willed. them not to. expect to have it delivered :*' also on 
tbe 16th of September, they sending him another sum«> 
mons, he made answer, ^' That he had formerly answered 
them, and wondered they should send again." He was 
so vigilant in his station, that be countermined the enemy 
eleven times, and during the siege, which held thirteeu 
weeks, never went into bed, but by his example so ^nir 
mated the garrison, that though they had but two horses 
left uneaten, they would. never suffer a summons to be 
sent to them, after the preceding answer was delivered. 
At length, his brother the earl of Northampton raised the 
siege .on the 26 th of October, the very, day of the month, 
on which both town and castle had been surrendered to the 
king two years before. Sir William continued governor 
of Banbury, and performed many signal services for the 
king, till bis majesty left Oxford, and the whole kingdom 
was submitting to the parliament ; «id then, on the 8 th of 
May, 1646, surrendered upon honourable terms. In 
1648, he was major*>general of the king's forces at Colche»- 
ter, where he was so much taken notice of for his admi«> 
Vable behaviour, that Oliver Cromwell called him the sober 
young man, and the godly cavalier. At the restoration of 
king Charles II. be was made one of the privy*coancil, 
and nQaster*general< of the ordnance ; and died October 19, 
1663, ilk the 3dth year of his age*. Ther^ 19 an epitaph 
to his memory in the church of Compton^Winyate*^ Henry, 

C O M FT O N: 123 

theaixth and -youngest, who was afterwards biriio{> of Lonv 
don, is the subject of the next article. ' 

COMPTON (Henry), an eminent prelate of the church • 
of England, was the youngest son of the preceding Spen- 
cer second :earl of Northampton, and bom at Compton in 
1632. ' Though he was but ten years old when his father 
was kiiled, yet he received an education suitable to his 
quality ; and when he had gone through the grammar^' 
schools, was entered a nobleman of QueenU college. Ox* 
ford, in 1649. He continued there till about 1652 ; and 
after having lived some little time with his mother, travelled 
into foreign countries. Upon the restoration of Charles IL 
he returned to England ; and became a comet in a regt-^ 
ment of horsey raised about that time for the king's guard i 
but soon quitting that post, he dedicated himself to the 
service of the church ; and accordingly went to Cambridge^ 
where he was created M. A. .Then entering into orders, 
when about thirty years of age, and obtaining a* grant 6f 
the next vacant canonry of Christ church in Oxford, hm 
was admitted canon*commoner of that college, iA the be* 
ginning of 1666, by the advice of Dr. John Fell, then dean 
of 'the same. In April of the same year, he was incor- 
porated M. A. at Oxford, and possessed at that time th^ 
rectory of Cottenham in Cambridgeshire, worth about 
500/. per annum. In 1667, he was made master of St 
Crosse's hospital near Winchester. On May 24, 1669, he 
was installed canon of Christ church, in the room of Dr. 
Heylin deceased ; and two days af^er took the degree of 
B.I). to whigh, June 28 following, he added that of doctor. 
He was preferred to the bishopric of Oxford in December' 
1674; and about a year after was made dean of the chapri 
royal, and was also translated to the see of London. 

King Charles now caused him to be sworn onlf of his 
privy council ; and coinmitted to his care the educating 
of his two nieces, the princesses Mary and Anne, which 
important trust he discharged to the nation^s satisfaction. 
They were both confirnied by him upon January 23^ 
1676 ; and it is somewhat remarkable that they were 
both' likewise married by him : the eldest, Mary, with 
William prince of Orange, November 4, 1677 ; the 
youngest, Anne, with George prince of Denmark, July 28^ 
1663. The attachment of these two princesses to the pro*- 

» Biog. Brit, 

124 C O M P T O N. ~ 

testani religion was owing, in a great measure, to their tu* 
tor Compton ; which afterwards, when popery came to pre* 
vail at the court of England, Xvas imputed to him as an un- 
pardonable crime. In the mean time he indulged the 
hopeless project of bringing dissenters to a sense of 
the necessity of an union among protestants; to pro-^ 
mote which, he held several conferences with his own 
clergy, the substance of which he published in July 1680^ 
He further hoped, that dissenters might be the more easily 
recoi^iled to the church, if the judgment of foreign^di- 
Tines should be produced against their needless separation : 
and for that purpose he. wrote to M. le Moyne, professor 
of divinity at Leyden, to M. de TAngle, one of the 
preachers of the protestant, church at Charenton near Pa^ 
ris, and to M. Claude, another eminent French divinie. 
Their answers are-published at the end of bishop Stiiling^- 
fieet's ^^Unreasonableness of Separation,'' 1681, 4to ; alt 
conrcurring in the vindication of the church of England from 
any errors in its doctrine, or unlawful impositions in its 
discipline, and therefore in condemning a separation from 
it as needless and uncharitable. But popery was what the 
bishop most strenuously oppo^ ; and while it was gain- 
ing ground at the latter end of Charles the lid's reign, 
under the influence of the duke of York, there was no 
method he left untried to stop its progress. This zbal was 
remembered and resented on the accession of James II. ; 
when, to his honour, be was marked out as the first sacri- 
fice to popish fury, being immediately dismissed from the 
council-table; and on December 16, 1685, from being 
dean of the royal chapel. Means were also devised to 
entrsip him into some measure which might ai&ct t^ts office 
as bishop of London, nor could this be difficult in the case 
of a man so firm and consctentiousr The following is jai 
striking instance of the intentions of the court to overturn 
the national church. Dr. John Sharp, rector of St. Giles's 
in the Fields, afterwards archbishop of York, having in 
some of his sermons vindicated the doctrine of the church 
of England against popery ; the king sent a letter, dated 
June 14, r686, to bishop Compton, *^ requiring and com^ 
manding him forthwith to suspend Dr. Sharp. from further 
preaching in any parish church or chapel within his dio- 
cese, until he had given the king satisfaction." In order 
to understand how Sharp had onended the king, it mus( 
be remembered, that kmg Jam«s bad caused the direction^ 

C O M i> T O N. 125 

concerning preachers/ published in 1662^ tone now re« 
printed ; and reinforced theni by tt letter directed to the 
archbishops of Canterbury and Yofk^ given at Whitehall, 
March 5, 1686, to prohibit the preaching upon controver- 
sial points; that was, in effect, to forbid the preaching 
against popeiy, which Sharp had done. The bishop re- 
fusing to suspend Dr. Sharp, because, as he truly alleged, 
he could not do it according to law, was cited to appear, 
August 9, before the new ecclesiastical commission : when 
he was charged with not haying observed his majesty^s 
cooiinahd in the case of Sharp, whom he was ordered to 
suspend. The bishop, after expressing some surprise, 
hiunbly begged a copy- of the commission, and a copy of 
bis" charge; but was answered by chancellor JeflFeries, 
"That he should neither have a copy of, nor see, the com- 
mission : neither, would they give him a copy of the 
charge.'' His lordship then desired time to advise with 
counsel; and time was given him to the 1 6th, and after- 
wards to the 31st of August. Then his lordship offered his 
plea to their jurisdiction: which being overruled, he pro- 
tested to his right in that or any other plea that might be 
made for his advantage ; and observed, *^ that as a bishop 
be had a right, by the most authentic and universal eccle* 
siastical laws, to be tried before his metropolitan, preqe- 
dently to any other court whatsoever/* But the eccle- 
siaistical commissioners would not upon any account suffer 
their jurisdiction to be called in question; and therefore, 
in spite of. all that his lordship or his counsel could- allege, 
he was suspended on Sept. 6 following, for his disobe- 
idietnce^ from the function and execution of his episcopal 
pffice, gnd from all episcopal and other ecclesiastical juris- 
diction, during his n^^jesty's pleasure ; and the bishops of 
Durham, Rochester, and Peterborough, were appointed 
commissioners to exercise ecclesiastical jurisdiction within 
the diocese of London. But the court did not think fit to 
meddle with his revenues. ^ Ft)r the lawyers had settled 
that benefices were of the n^ure of freeholds; therefore, if 
the sentence had gone to the temporalities, the bishop 
wQuld have had the oiatter tried over again in the king's 
beochi where he was likely to find justice. 
. While this matter was in dependence, the princess of 
Orange thought it became her to interpose in the bishop's 
favour ; and wrote to the king, earnestly begging him to 
he gentle to' the bishop, who she could hot think would 


e M p T a N. 

offend willingly. She also wrote to the h\$h^, e^preiteiog 
the great pbare.^be took in x)cke trouble he was fallen into ; 
as did al^o tbe- prince. The. king wrote an answer to the 
princess, r^{)^cting severely on the /bishops npt wiibout 
some sharpness on^her for meddling in such. matters*. The 
bishop in the mean time acquiesced in his {sentence ; but 
being suspended only as a bishop, aikl remaining still whole 
in his other capacities^ he made another stand against the 
king, as one of tlie governors of the Charter*bouse, in re- 
jfosing to admit one Andrew Popbam, a pa|>ist^ : into the 
first pensioner's place in that hospitah While be was tfany 
sequestered from his episcopal office, he applied himself to 
the improvement of his garden at Fulham ; and having a 
great genius for botany, enriched it with a variety of ca- 
rious plants, domestic and exotic^. His suspension^ how«^ 
ever, was so flagrant a piece ojf arbitrary power, thaJt the 
prince of Orange, in hb 46clarati.on, ceuld not omit 
taking notice of it; and w)ien there was an alaroi of his 
highnesses coming over, the court was willing to make the 
bishop reparation, by restoring him, as they did on Sep.t» 
523, 1688, to his episcopal function. But he made, no haste 
to resume his charge, and to thank the king for bis restora* 
tion; which made some conjecture, and, as appeared after* 
weirds with good reason, that hf. bad no mind tp be restored in 
that n^anner, and that he knew well enough what. bad be^n 
doing in Holland* On Oct. 3, 1688, however, he; waited 
upon king James, .with the archbishop of Canterbary, and 
seven other bishops, when they suggested to.hi^ majesty 
such advice as they thought conducive to his interest, but 
this had no effect. The first part the bishop acted in the 
revolution, which immediately ensued, was the convey ing^ 
jointly with tbe earl of^ Dorset, the pdncess Anne:of Den«* 
mark safe from London to Nottingnam ; lest she^ in the 
present confusion of affairs, might have been sent away into 
France, or put under restraint, because the prince, her 
consort, had left king James, and was gone over to ttie 
prince of Orange. 

* We learn from Mr. Ray and PIu* 
kenet, that he joined to his taste for 
gardening, a real and setentific knovr-, 
ledge of plants; an attainment not 
usual among the great in those days. 
He collected a greater variety of green- 
house rarities, and planted a greater 
variety of hardy exotic trees aud shrubs, 
than had been seen ii) any garden be- 

fore in England. This repository was 
ever open to the Inspection of the cu- 
rious, and- scientific ; and we find ft&y. 
Petiver, and Plukeoet, in numerous 
instances, acknowledging the assist- 
-ance they received from thefreer com- 
munication of rare and Qew plants i>iit 
of the garden at Fulbam. Pultenfy's 


:. Afeliia^etiirn : to Ltuftdoii, he discovered hid ieai 4br tbe 
revolutioii) and first set his baud to the associatioii begim 
at Exeter* .He waited oo ibe prince. of Orangey Dec. dl, 
at tbe head of bis dergy ; and, in their nasies aiid bis^Owb, 
ibanked hit bigbnessfor his very great and bazaiklotts un- 
dertakttig f&c their dehverar^ce, and the preservation of 
ihe prolestant religioiv witb the ancient laws aod liberti^ 
of tbia aation. He gave bis royal highness the sacrament, 
Dec. 30 ; and upon Jan. 29 following, when the house of 
lords, in a grand comnuttee, debated tbe important qaes» 
tion, ^' Whether the throne, being vacant, ought to be 
filled by a regent or a king ?*' Compton was one of' the 
two bishops, sir Jonathan Trelawny biriiop of Bristol being 
the other, wbo made the majority for filling up tbe throne 
•by a. king. On February 14, he was again appointed of 
tbe privy-council, and mad^ dean of the royal chapel; 
from both which places king James had removed. him : and 
-was. afterwards chosen by king William, to perform the 
ceremony of his and queen Mary's coronation, upon April 
11, 1689. The same year he was constituted .one .of the 
commissioners for revising the liturgy, in which be labour- 
ed with much zeal to reconcile the dissenters to tbe 
church; and also in the. convocation, that m^t Nev« 2t, 
1689, of which he was president. But tbe intended com- 
prehension met with insuperable difficulties, the 'majority 
of the lower house being resolved not- to enter into any 
terms of accommodation with tbe dissenters ; and his lodU 
^hip^s not complying so fan as the dissenters liked, is ^p^ 
posed to have beea the reason of Btnrnet's calling him 
.^^ a weak man, wilful, and ^rangely wedded to a party .^ 
This however must seem extraordinary to those who con- 
sider, that those who are usually called high churctuBen 
have spoken very coolly of him ever since, on thatvecy 
account : and that even his opposing, as he did, the prose^ 
cution against Sacheverell in 1710, declaring him not 
guilty, and also pcotesttng against several steps taken Ib 
that affair, has not been sufficient to reconcile them to his 
complying so far with the dissenters as he did. The fact 
appears to have been that the bishop endeavoured to act 
with,. moderation, for which no allowance is made in times 
of violent party-spirit. 

Kine William having soon after named commissioners 
of trade ^. and plantations, his. lordship 'was made one of 
them, and tbe bishop of. London^ £or the lime being,, is 

l£8 C O M P T O N, 

always to be oi)e, in virtue of his being superintendent of 
mil the ciiurches in the plantations. In the beginning of 
IMO-i) at his own charge, be attended king William to 
the famous congress at the Hague, where the grand alliance 
, against France was concluded. But notwithstanding the 
zealous part he acted in th^ revolution, and his subsequent 
services, no sooner was the storm over, but jealousies were 
infused, and calumnies dispersed, to supplant and under-> 
mine him ; insomuch, that though the metropolitan see of 
Canterbury was twice vacant in that reign, yet he still con- 
tinued bishop of London*. However, he went on consist* 
ently, and like himself, despising all other rewards but 
the quiet and the applause of his own conscience, and the • 
high esteem and intimacy of queen Mary, which he pre* 
served to her dying. day. At the accession of queen Anne 
to the throne, he seemed to stand fairest for the royal fla- 
vour.; and though many things were said to disparage him 
at court, yet nothing could discourage him from paying 
bis duty and attendance there. About the beginning of 
May 1702, he was sworn of her majesty's privy-council. 
The same year, he was put in the commission for the union 
of: England and Scotland, but was left but in the new com- 
mission isslied out in April 1706. Two years before, be 
very much promoted the ^' Act for making effectual her 
majesty's intention for the augmentation of the mainte- 
nance of the poor clergy, by enabling her majesty to grant 
the revenues of the first fruits and tenths.'^ 

He maintained all along a brotherly correspondence 
with the foreign pirotestant churches, and endeavoured tp 
promoteri% them a good opinioii of the church of England, 
and her moderation towards them ; as appears, not only by 
his application to le Moyne, Claude, sijpd de 1* Angle before . 
'mentioned, but also from letters, afterwards printed at Ox- • 
ford, which passed between his lordship and the university , 
of Geneva, in 1706. It was this spirit of moderation vWhic.^! 
rendered bishq> Compton less popular with (he cler^y^^ 
and probably, as we have already noticed^ hindered Jhijs, 
advancement to Canterbury. Towards the close : of b^f^ ;; 
life^ he was afflicted with the stone and g^ut ; which,^turQ* •, 
ing at length to a complication of distempers, pi|t;an en4 .^ 
to it at Fulham, July 7, 1713, at the age of 81. His bo4^ 

^ The (wo racancies. were itipiilied and hy Tenifon, who if snppo^ to 
by illfotson, a man unquestionably of have bete mere of a courtier, btit wit ** 
supcirior lilmis mi4 fiitte w<Qogipi»B, liUwift s mSf t AettpriH ctoM^*' - « 

CO M P T O N* 129. 

Ms iotKred il&e IStb of the same inonth in the churoh^ 
yard of Fulbam, according to bis particular directioD : for 
lie used to say, that ^ the church is for the livingi and the 
cliiarcb-yard for the dead.^' Qii the 2€th ** A sermon on 
the occasion of his much-lamented death/' was preached 
at St l^aui's, before the mayor and aldermen of London^ 
liy Dr. Thomas Goocb, lately onfe of his domestic chaplains^ 
•then fellc^l^, and, afierwards master, of Caius* college in 
Cambridge, and' bishop, first of Norwich, then of El}^. 
Over his grave, was erected an handsome tomb, surrounded 
.with iron rails, banring only this short inscription '^ '< IL 
Lond. BT MH EK TA rTATPn. mdccxiii/' That is, 
*' Henry Londoti. Save in the cross. 1713.'* 

Among the many excellent features of his character 
given by Dr. Gooch, his munificence stands conspicuous. 
*^ He disposed of money to every one who could make out 
(and it was very easy to make that out to him) that he was 
a projper object of charity. He ansl^ered literally the 
apostle's character, poor enough himself, yet making many 
rich. He had divers ancient people, men and women, 
whom he supported by constant annual pensions ; and se- 
veral children at school, at his own cost and charge, besides 
those educated from children, and brbnght up to the unt* 
vermies, to die sea, dr to trades, Ac. The poor of his 
parish were always attending' his gate for their dote, and 
>)^ the remains of his constant hospitable table, which was 
always furnished, and free to t|ieie whom respect or busi-i' 
ness drew to him. His hall was frequented in the morn- 
ing with petitioners of all sorts. More particularly, he 
spared no cost nor pains lo serve the church and clergy. 
He bought maiiy advowsons out of lay-hands. He gave 
great sums for the rebuilding of churches, awd greater still 
for th^ bu3»ng in impropriations, and settling them on the 
poor vicars. There was-tio poor honest clerg3rman, or his 
widow, in want^ but had his benevolence when applied for: 
Botany in the reformed churches abroad, to whom he was 
not a liberal patrou, steward, and perpetual solicitor for. 
The French refugees drank deep of his bounty for many 
vears; so did the Irish in their day of affiiction ; and like- 
Vite the S<^0tch episcopal party,*' when ejected from their 
IHiags- at the revl)lutiLpn. It n^y truly be said, that by 
'his death the church lost an excellent bishop ; the kingdom 
a ooasisteut .;and able statesman ; the jprotestant religioni 
at home and-abroad^ an ornament and refuge;-, andtj^q^ 

VouX. K 

130 G O M P T O N. 

 • . . ,  • 

whole Christian worlds an eminent esample of virtae and. 
piety. , 

His works are: 1. "A translation from, the Italian, of 
the Life of Donna Olympia Maldachini, who governed the 
church during the time of Innocent X. which was from the . 
year 1644 to 1655/' London, 1667. 2. " A . translation 
from the French, of- the Jesuits' intrigues ; witb the pri- 
vate instructions of that society to their emissaries," 1669* 
3. " A treatise of the Holv CommunionV 1677. 4. " A . 
Letter to the Clergy of the diocese of London^ concerning 
Baptism, the Lord's Supper, Catechising, . dated April 25^ 
1679." 5. "A second letter concerning: the Half-conv- 
munion, Prayers in an unknown tongue, Prayers to Saints, 
July 6, 1680." 6. " A third letter, on Confirmation, and 
Visitation of the Sick, .1682." 7. " A fourth letter, upon 
tlie 54th Canon," April 6, 1683. 8. "A fifth letter, upon 
the 118th Canon, March 19, 1684." 9. "A sixth letter, 
upon the J3th.C!inon, April 18, 1685." They were all 
reprinted together in 1686, 12mo, under the titlie.of " Epis* 
copalia, or. Letters of the right reverend. father in God, 
Henry lord Hshop of London, to the Clergy of his Dio- 
cese." There is also, 10. " A Letter of* his to a Clergy- 
man in his Diocese, corfcerning Non resistance:" written 
soon after the revolution, and inserted in the Memoirs of 
the life of Mr. John Kettlewell.* 

CON ANT (Dr. John), a learned English divine, w^s 
born Oct. 18, 1603, at Yeatenton in Devonshire. He was 
educated in classical learning at private schools, and, in 
\^^^, sent to Exeter college in Oxford. He soon distin- 
guished himself for uncommon parts and learning; by- 
means of which he grew highly in fatour with Dr. John 
Prideaux, then rector of Exeter college, and king's pro- 
fessor in divinity, who, according to the fs^hion of wit in 
those times, used to say of him, " Con^Tz^i nihil est diffi- 
cile." He took his degrees regularly; and, July 1633, 
was chosen feUow .of his college, in which be, became an 

* In Percy's Relics we are told that the Latin translation of Chevy Chase in 
Bryden^s Miscellanies, by Mr. Henry Bold of New college, Oxford, was undeit. 
taken at the command of Dr. Compton, who, Dr« Percy adds, ttiought it oo 
derogation to his episcopal character, to avour a fondness for this excellent old 
ballad. The life of Dr. Compton ^as first published without a name in an Bvo 
pamphlet, and without a date, but probably soon after his death. Frftm this 
the account in the Biog. Brit, is eyideatly taken,, but without acknowledgment. 
•—See also Burnet's Own Times, who seems much prejudiced againxi Comptoo. 
— ^Birch's Tillotson.— Ath. Ox. Yol. Il.—Nichols's Atterbury, tot. II. p.461.— 
Salmoi\*s Lives of t,he Bishop;^. — Dr. Cockbiim published a FuDeral Seroioo for 
Bishop Compton, but there is not much in it. 

C O N A N T. 131 

eminent tutor. Upon the Ibreaking out of the civil war^' 
he judged it convenient to leave the university in 1642. 
He retired first to Lymington, a living of his unclq^s in 
Somersetshire; v^here, his uncle being fled, and he in 
orders, he officiated as long as he could continue there 
with safety. While he was at Lymington, he was consti- 
tuted by the parliament one of the assembly of divines ; 
but it is said that he never sat among them, or at least 
very seldom, since it is certain that he never took the co« 
venant. He afterwards followed his uncle to London, and . 
for some time assisted him in the church of St. Botolph 
Aldgate. He then became a domestic chaplain to lord 
Chandos, in whose family he lived at Harefield. He is 
said to have sought this situation, for the sake of keeping 
himself as clear from all engagements and difficulties as 
the nature and fickle condition of those times would per-- 
mit Upon the same motive he resigned his fellowship of 
Exeter college, Sept. 27,. 1647 ; but, June 7, 1649, was 
unanimously chosen rector of it by the fellows, without 
any application of his own ; and Wood allows that undel: 
his care it flourished more than any other college. 

In a very short time, however, after being thus settled, 
he was in great danger of being driven out of all public 
employment again, by the parliament's enjoining what was 
called the engagement, which he did not take within the 
time prescribed. He had a fortnight given him. to consider 
' further of it ; at the end of which he submitted, but under 
a declaration^ subscribed at the same time with the en* 
gagement, which in fact enervated that instrument entirely. 
The terms of the engagement were ; " You shall promise to 
be true and faithful to the commonwealth of England^ as 
it is now established without king or house of lords." Co- 
nant's declaration befbre the commissioners, when he took 
the engagement, was in this form and manner : ^' Being 
required to subscribe, I humbly premise, first, that I be 
not hereby understood to approve of what hath been don6 
in order unto, or under this present government, or the 
government itself*: nor will I be thought to condemn it; 
they being things above my reach, and I not knowing the 
grounds of the proceedings. Secondly, that I do not bind 
myself to do any thing contrary to the word of God. 
Thirdly, that I do not so hereby bind myself, but that, if , 
God shall remarkably call ine to submit to any other 
power, I may be at liberty to obey that call, notwithstand- 

K 2 

m „ d 6 1* A N t. • 

Ing tbe prfisent ^bga'gemeht. Fdurthlyy in this sens^y tnd 
in this sense onl]^, I do promise to be true and faithful t6 
the preseht gbviemmenty as it is now established withoitt 
king or house of lords.'* * 

This difficulty being got orer^ he went on to disehar^ 
bis office of rector of Exeter college with great approba* 
tion. In 1 652 he received priest's orders at Satisbory, and, 
in Dec, 1654, became divinity-professor of the university 
of Oxford. In 1657 he accepted the impropriate rectory 
bf Abergely near St. Atoph in Denbighshire, as some satis- 
faction for th6 benefices formerly annexed to the divinity 
chair, which he never enjoyed ; but knowing it to have 
belonged to the bishopric of St. Asaph, he immediately 
quitted it, upon the re-estdiilisbment of episcopacy. Oct. 
19, 1657, he was admitted vice-chancellor of the univer- 
sity; which high drgnity he held till August 5, 1660*. 
Burine his office he was very instrumental in procuring Mr. 
Seldeirs large and Taluable collection of books for the pub- 
lic library; and was the principal misans of defeating a 
design, to which the protector Oliver gave his consent, of 
erecting a kind of university at Durham. He was yet more 
serviceable in preventing some persons in the university 
from sacrificing their rights and privileges, by a petition to 
the protector Richard's parliament. Upon the restoration of 
Charles 11. Dr. Conaiit, as vice-chancellor of Oxford, came 
Up to London, attended by the proctors and many of the prin- 
tipals ; and was introduced to the king, to whom he made a 
I..atin speech, and presented a book of verses written by 
the members of the university. March 25, 1661, the 
king issued a commissibii for the review of the book of 
Common-prayer, in which Conant was one of the com- 
missioners, and assisted at the Savoy conferences: but 
after this, upon the passing />of the act of uniformity, not 
thinking it right to conform, he suffered himself to be de- 
prived of his preferments; and accordingly his tectory of 
Exeter college was pronounced vacant, Sept. 1, 166^. 

At length, after eight years* serious /leliberation upoin 
tihe nature and lawfulness of conformity, his conscience 
was satisfied, and he resolved to comply in all parts; 
and in particular with that about which: he had probably 
most scruple, the being re-ordained. To this, however, he 
consented, and the ceremony, was performed Sept.. 28, 
1 670, by Reynolds bishop of Norwich ; whose daughter 
be had married in August 1651, and by whom he had six 

eONANT. iss 

spos u4 M v^ny ^ugluMeri Arifeiiimti nwre o&tod 
Iiioi imioediately^ and the mqiq year he was elected naiois- 
tef of St Mary Aldermanbury, irt London ; but, having 
$pent some year^ in th^ town of Northampton, where b^ 
was much beloved, he chose rather to accept the invitation 
of his neighbours to remain among them { and Dr. Simon 
Ford, who was then minister of AlUsainu in Northampton, 
going to St. Mary^s Alderinanbury, he was nominated to 
succeed him. On Sept 2;0, 1675, he had the mortification 
to see the greatest part of his parish, together with bin 
church, burnt to the ground, though proyidentially bis 
own house escaped. In 1676, the archdeaconry of Nor- 
wich becoming vacant, the bishop offered him that pre* 
ferment, with this singular compliment, ^* I do not expect 
thanks from you, but I wiU be very thankful to you, if you 
will accept of it*^ He accepted it after some deliberation, 
and discharged the office worthily, as long as health per- 
mitted him. Dec. 3, 1681, he was installed a prebendary 
in the church of Worcester. The earl of Radnor, an old 
friend and contemporary of b^s at Exeter college, asked it 
for him from Charles II. in these terms : ** Sir, I come to 
beg a preferment of you for a very deserving person, who 
never sought any thing for himself:'* and upon oaroing 
him, the king very kindly consented. In 1686, after his 
eyes bad been for some time weak, he lost his sight en- 
tirely : but he did not die till March 12, 1693, when he 

, was in his 86th year. He was buried in bis own parish 
church of All -saints in Northaippton, where a monument was 

• jBrected over him by his widow, with a suitable inscription. 
He was a man of great piety, and of solid and extensive 
^earning;, and so very modesty it is said, that though he 
understood most of the Oriental languages, and was par- 
ticularly versed in the Syriac, yet few people knew it. 
There have been published six volumes of his sermons : 
the first in 16.93, and dedicated by himself to the inhabi* 
t9.nU of Northampton ; the second, after his death, in 1 697, 
^y John bishop of Chichester; the third in 1698, the 
fourth in 1703, the fifth -in 1708, by the same editor; the 
sixth in 1722, by Digby Cotes, M. A. principal of Magdalen- 
hall in Oxford. Many more of his sermons and visitation 
.charges are still in the hands of his descendants, as is a 
life of him written by his son John Conant, LL. D. alsp in 
manuscript, but communicated to the editors of the first 
edition of the Biog. Britannica. For want of attention to 

134 C O N A N T. 

this account, which must undoubtedly bje deemed authen- 
tic, Mr/ Palmer, in his "Nonconformists' Memorial," (a 
new edition, with continuations of Calamy*s work),- has in- 
troduced him for the purpose of giving some extracts from 
an unpublished MS. relative to the oppressions he suffered 
from the bishop of Bath and Wells, all which story evi- 
dently belongs to his uncle John Conant^ B. D* and rector 
of Lymington. * 

CONCA (Sebastian), a very popular artist, was born 
at Gaeta in 1676. He studied under Solimene, and by 
persevering practice soon became an able machinist. At 
little less than forty, the desire of seeing Rome prompted 
him to visit that city, where he became once more a stu- 
dent, and spent five years in drawing after the antique and 
the masters of design : but his hand, debauched by man- 
ner, refused to obey his mind, till wearied by hopeless fa- 
tigue, he followed the advice of the sculptor le Gros, and 
returned to his former practice, though not without con- 
siderable improvements, and nearer to Pietro da Cortona 
than his master. . He had fertile brains, a rapid pencil, and 
a colour which at first sight fascinated* every eye by its 
splendor, contrast, and the delicacy of its fiesh tints. His 
dispatch was equal to his employment, and there is scarcely 
a collection of any consequence without its Conca. He 
was courted by sovereigns and princes, and pope Clement 
XI. made him a cavaliere at. a full assembly of the acade- 
micians of St. Luke. He died, far advanced in agej in 
1764. Sir Robert Strange, in whose possession was a 
*^ Virgin and Chil,d»" by ^Conca, observes that, with all 
his defects, be was a great painter, and must be regarded 
as one of the last efforts which this expiring art made in 
Italy .« 

CONCANEN (Matthew), a miscellaneous writer of 
some note in his day, was born in Ireland, and bred to the 
law, in which we da not find that he ever made any great 
figure. From thence he came over to London, in com- 
pany with a Mr. Stirling, a dramatic poet of little note, to 
seek his fortune; and finding nv:thing so profitable, and 
so likely to recommend him to public notice, a&^ political 
writing, he soon commenced an advocate for the govern- 
ment. There goes a story of hi^^ however, but we will 

1 3iog. Brit. — Ath. Ox. vol. II. — Prince's Wor^hicsofDeYOn.^-NichoVs Lei- 
cestershire. — Gent. Mag. vol. LXXV. 
) Piik(p$toq.— Sir R. Strange's Cutalogae. 

C ON C A N E N. 135 

hope it is not a true one, that he and his fellow- traveller, 
^ho was embarked in the same adventure, for the sake of 
making their trade more profitable, resolved to divide .their 
interests ; the one to oppose, the other to defend the mi^ 
nistry. Upon which they determined the side each was to 
espouse by lots, or, according to Mr. Reed's account, by 
tossing up a halfpenny, when it fell to Concanen's part to 
defend the ministry. Stirling afterwards went into orders^ 
and became a clergyman in Maryland. Concanen was for 
some time concerned in the ** British" and " London 
Journals,'' and in a paper called ^* The Speculatist," which 
last was published in 1730, 8vo. In these he. took occa- 
sion to abuse not only lord Bolingbroke, who was- natu- 
rally the object of it, but also Pope; by which he pro- 
cured a place in the Dunciad. In a pan>phlet called ^^ A 
Supplement to the Profound," he dealt yery unfairly by 
Pope, as. Pope's commentator informs us, in not only fre- 
quently imputing to him Broome's verses (for which, says 
he, he might seem in some degree accountable, having 
corrected what that gentleman did), but those of the dj>ike 
of Buckingham and others. His wit and literary abilities, 
however, recommended . him to the favour of the duke of 
Newcastle, through whose interest he obtained the post of 
attorney-general of the island of Jamaica in 1732, which 
office he hiled with the utmost integrity and honour, and 
to the perfect satisfaction of the inhabitants, for near 
seventeen years; .when, having acquired an ample fortune, 
he was desirous of passing the close of his life in his native 
country; with which intention he quitted Jamaica^ and 
came to London, proposing to pass some little time there 
before he went to settle entirely in Ireland. But the dif- 
ference of climate between that metropolis and the place 
he had so long been accustomed to, had such an effect 
on his constitution, that he fell into a consumption, of 
which he died Jan. 22, 1749, a few weeks after his arrival 
in London. His original poems, though siiort, have con- 
siderable merit; but much cannot be i^aid of his play, en- 
titled " Wexford Wells."- He was also concerned with Mr^ 
Roome and other gentlemen in altering Richard Broome's 
^'^Jovial Crew" into a ballad opera, in which shape it is 
now frequently perfornved. Concanen has several songs in 
" The Musical Miscellany, 1729," 6 vols. But a memo- 
rable letter addressed to him by Dr. Warburton will per- 
haps be remembered longer than any writing of his own 


jmu Thii tetter, which Mf. Ma1ois9 INt piri^iisbed (iti Iff 9 
Supplement to Shatepeare, vol. I. p. 2^22), ^bews that^ht 
1726, Warburton, then an attorney at Newark, was inti*' 
mate with Concanen, and an assoeiate in the stfaeks made 
en Pope's &me and talents. In 1724, Concanen publmhed 
a volume of ^* Miscellaneous Poems, original and trans* 
lated/' by himself and others.^ 

CONCINA (Daniel), u very celebrated Dominican <ii- 
Tine, of the congregation of St. James Salomoni, wa» born 
about 1686 in Friiili, on one of the estates of the signiots 
Savoriani, noble Venetians. He entered the Dominiean 
order 1 70S, preached, with great applause, in the prin* 
eipal towns of Italy, gained the esteem of pope Cle* 
ment XII. and Benedict XIV. and wrote incessantly agaiiisli 
the opinions of the relaxed casuists. He died February 21, 
1756, at Venice, aged 69i His works are numerous, both 
in Latin and Italian : the latter are : ^^ The Lent of the 
litigious ecclesiastical Courts,'^ Venice, 1739, 4to; "The 
Church discipline respecting the fast of Lent,*' &e. Ve- 
nice, 1742, 4to; " Dissertations theological, moral, and 
critical, on the history of ptt>bability and rigourism," tic. 
Venice^ 1743) 2 toIs. 4to, and two pieces in defence of this 
work, 4to; an " Explanation .of the four paradoxes which 
ar<$ in vogue in our age^'* Lucca, 1746, 4to. Thiswdrk 
|ias been translated into French, t2mo. <^ The dogma of 
the Roman Church respecting Usury,'* Naples, 1746, 4td; 
an ^^ Historical Memoir on the use of chocolate upon fast 
days,** Venice," 174S; a " Treatise t»n revealed Religion^ 
against atheists, deists, materialists, and indifferents,*' Ve* 
nice, 1 754, «4to; ^instructions f6r confessors and peni- 
tents," Venice^ 1753, 4to. The following are written id 
Latin: three volumes upon Usury, 4to; three others on 
^* Mopastic discipline and poverty ;*' '^ Nine letters on re* 
laxed n^orality." But the most valuable of all his works is 
his> ^^ Theologia Christiana dogmatico-moralis," Roihe, 
1746, 12 vols. 4to.' 

CONDAMINE (CRAaiu Makie D£ la), chevalier de 

St La:sare, member of a great number of academies, and 

^ celebrated traveller, was born at Paris in 1701. He be^ 

gan his journey to the east very young; and after haviftg 

jooasted along the ah^res of Africa and Asia in the Medilier'* 

1 Bi9ff. praoD.V^ibber'i pyef.-^Warburtov^c letters, 4to» p 159| 1^— * 
N^chets*s Bowyer. — Keed's M3 Kptes oa« copy of |bc Speculatist* 
• Mxif«n.?— Diet, Uist •' 


raaeiHi, he itas ehoaen^ ta 179^, to ^eompBi^ St. Godtn 
10 Peru, for the purpose of detomiatog the figure of the 
earth at the equator. The diffieukies and dangers he sier* 
mouated in tins expodition^ ate aloMMt iacredtUe ; aad at 
oae tioiM be had nearly perished by the impradence of one 
of his companions, M. Seniergues, whose arrogance bad 
so mnch irritated the inhabitants df New Caen^a, that they 
sose tumultiioiisiy against the traveUera ; but, fortunately 
for the rest^ tlie offender was the only victim. On bis re- 
turn home, la Condamine Tisited Borne, where pope Be- 
oediet XIV. made hima present of his portrait, and granted 
him a dispensation to marry one of his nieces, which he 
accordingly did, at the age of fifty- fire. By his grtat 
equanimity of temper, and his liirely and amiable <Uspbsi* 
tion, he was the delight of all that knew him* Such was 
his gaiety or thoughtlessness, that two days before h» death, 
he made a couplet on the surgical operation that carried 
him to the grave ; and, after having recited this couplet to 
afriead that came to see him, *' You must now leave me," 
added he, ^ 1 hafe two letters to wirite to Spain ; probid>ly, 
by next post it will be too late.^' La Condamine bad the • 
art of pleasing the learned by the concern be shewed in 
advancing their interests,- and the ignorant by the talent of 
persuading them that they understood what be said« Even 
the men of fiasbion sought his company^ as be was full of 
anecdotes and singular observations, adapted to amuse their 
frivolous curiosity. He was, however, himself apt to lay 
too much stress, on trifles ; and bis inquisitiveness, as is often 
the case with travellers, betrayed him into imprudenciea. 
£ager after fame, he loved to multiply his correspondences 
and intercourse ; and there were few men of any note #ith 
whom he had not/intimacies or disputes, and scarcely^ any 
journal in which he did not write* Replying to every cri* 
tic, and flattered with every species of praise, he despised 
no opinion of faiin, though given by the most contemptible 
scribbler. Such, at least, is the picture of him, drawn by 
the marquis de Condorcet in bis teloge. Among his most 
ingenious and valuable pieces are the following : 1 • '* Dis-^ 
tano^ Off the tropics,? London, i744. 2. *> Extract of eb-: 
servotions made on a voyage to the river of €he Amasons,'* 
174& 8;^' Brief rdation of a voyage to the interior of 
Souths America,'* Svo. 1745. 4. <* Journal of the voyage 
made by order of the king to the equator;, with t;be sup- 
plement/' 2 vols. 4tb. 1751, 1752, 5. *< On the Inocqla- 

138 C O N D A M I N E. 

tion of the Small-pox,*' 12mo, 1754. 6. "A letter on Edu- 
cation,'* 8vo. ' 7. " A second paper on the Inoculation of 
the Small pox,'* 1139. 8. " Travels through Italy," 1762, 
I2mo. These last three were translated and published 
here. 9. " Measure of the three first degrees of the me^i 
ridian in the southern hemisphere," 1751, 4to. The style 
of the different works of la Condamine is simple and negli- 
gent; but it is strewed* with agreeable and lively strokes 
that secure to him readers. Poetry was also one of the ta«* 
lents of our ingenious academician ; his productions of this 
sort were, " Vers de soci6t6," of the humorous kind, * and 
pieces of a loftier style, as the Dispute for the armour of 
Achilles and others, translated from the Latin poets ; the 
Epistle from an old man, &c. He died the 4th 'of Fe^ 
bruary 1774, in consequence of an operation for the cure 
of a hernia, with which he had been afBicted. ^ 

CONDER (John), D. D. a dissenting divine, was born 
at Wimple, in Cambridgeshire, June 3, 1714, and edu- 
cated in London under Dr. Kidgley, an eminent dissenting 
minister. He was ordained in 1738, and his first settle- 
ment was at Cambridge, where he had a considerable con* 
gregation for about sixteen years ; but having written an 
essay on the importance of the ministerial character in the 
independent line, he was in 1755 placed at the head of 
the academy for preparing young men for the ministry, 
then situated at Mile End, hut since removed to Hommer* 
ton. In 1759 he was -chosen one of the preachers of the 
** Merchants' lecture" at Pinner's Hall, and in May 1760 
assistant to Mr. Hall in the pastoral office in the meeting 
on the pavement near Moorfields, whom he succeeded in 
1763, and where he continued to officiate till the time of 
his death. May 30, 1781, aged 67. Besides the essay 
above mentioned, he. printed several sermons on public 
occasions, particularly funerals and ordinations.^ 

CONDILLAC (Stephen-Bonnot de), of the French 
academy and that of Berlin, abb^ of Mureaux, preceptor 
of the infant don Ferdinand duke of Parma, was born at 
Grenoble about the year 1715, and died of a putrid fever 
at his estate of Flux near Baugenci, the 2d of August 1780. 
Strong sense, sound judgment, a clear and profound know- 
ledge of metaphysics, a well chosen and extensive reading, 
a sedate character, manners grave without austerity, a style 

* Elopes, by Condorcet, &o. vol. I. — Diet, Hiet. 
' Middletou's Biog. Evangelica, vol. lY. 

C O N D I L L AC. 139 

rather sententious, a greater fecility in writing than in 
speaking, more philosophy than sensibility and imagination ;. 
form, according to the opinion of his countrymen, the 
principal features in the portrait of the abbe de Condillac. 
A collection in 3 vols. 12mo, under the title of his Works, 
contains bis essay on the origin of human sciences, his 
treatise of sensations, his treatise of systems ; all perform* 
ances replete with striking and novel ideas, advanced 
with boldness, and in which the modern philosophic style 
seems perfectly natural to the author. His ^' Course of 
Study," 1776, 16 vols. 12mo, composed for the instriic* 
tion of his illustrious pupil, is esteemed the best of bis 
works. He also wrote *^ Commerce and Government con- 
sidered in their mutual relations," 12mo, a book which 
has been decried by anti-(9conomists, and it is allowed by 
his admirers that it might have been as well if the author 
bad not laid down certain systems on the commerce 
of grain ; that he had given his '. principles an air less 
profound and abstracted, and that on those matters that 
are of moment to all men, he had written for the per- 
usal of all men. It is observed in some of the abb6 Con- 
dillac^s works, that he had a high opinion of his own merit, 
and thought it his 'duty not to conceal it. He has lilso 
been more justly censured for having, in his treatise of 
^^ Sensations," established principles from which the ma- 
terialists have drawn pernicious conclusions ; and that in 
bis course of study, he has, like an incompetent judge, 
condemned several flights of Boileau, by submitting poetry, 
which in its very nature is free, irregular, and bold, to the 
rules of geometry. * His works we may suppose are stifl in 
favour in France, as a complete edition was printed in 
1798, in 25 vols. 8vo.* 

CONDIVI (AscANio), of Ripa Transona, the most'ob- 
scure of modern artists, though a biographer of some cele« 
brity, owes that and a place here to his connexion with 
Michael Angelo,, whose life he published in 1553. If we 
believe Vasari, his imbecility was at least equal to his assi- 
duity in study and desire of excelling, which were ex- 
treme. Np work of his exists in painting or in sculpture. 
Hence Gori, the modern editor of his book, is at a loss to 
decide on his claim to either, though from the' qualities of 
ttie writer, and the familiarity of M* Angelo, he surmises 

1 Diet. HifU 

140 CONDI VI. 

Condtvi must have had merit as an artist From the 
last no conclusion can be formed ; the attachment of M. 
Angela, seldom founded in congeniality, was the attach- 
ment of the strong to the weak, it was protection ; it eK« 
^nded to Anto'iio Mini of Florence, another obscure scholar 
of his, to Giuliano Bugiardini, to Jacopo L'Indaco : all 
men unable tq penetrate the grand motives of his art, and 
more astonished at the excrescence/^ of his learning in de- 
sign, than elevated by his genius. Condivi intended to 
publish a system of rules and precepts on design, dictated 
by Michael Angelo, a work, if ever be did compose it, 
Aow perhaps irretrievably lost; from that, had destiny 
granted it to us, we might probably have formed a better 
action of his powers as an artist, than we can from a bio- 
graphic account, of which simplicity and truth constitute 
the principal merit Condivi published this life, consisting 
of fifty pages, under the title ^' Vita de Micbelagnolo 
Buonarroti, raccolta perAscanio Condivi da la Ripa Tran* 
sone. In Roma appresso Antonio Blado Stampatore Ca- 
Aierale nel M. D. LIII. alii XVI. di Luglio.'' According 
to Beyero, in his ^* MemorisB Historico-criticsD, lib. rario- 
i:um,*' this is one of the scarcest books in Europe. In 
1746, Gori republished it in folio, and as it was originally 
published ten years before the death of Michael Angelo, 
continued it to that period. Gori's work is a small folioy 
printed at Florence, 1746.^ 

CONDORCET (John Antony Nicolas Caritat Mar*. 
WW Dfi), an eminent French philosopher and mathematir 
ckn, was born at Ribemont in Picardy, three leagues from 
Saint-Quiatin and De la Fere, September 17, 1743, of a 
very ancient family. At the age of fifteen he was sent to 
study philosophy at the college of Navarre, under Giraud 
de K^naudon, who has since distinguished himself by 
several scientific works, and was an able teacher of mathe- 
matics. During the first year of his residence there, young 
Condorcet exhibited but little relish for the metaphysical 
fjuestions relative to the nature of ideas, of sensations, and 
ot nMnnoryj but in the course of the following year, 
mathematics and natural philosophy decided his future 
vocation ; and although he hod more than one hundred and 
pffenty fellow*stodents, he acquired a greater portion of 
ifisme than any of them. At Easter he supported a public 

* Pi|kingt«a. — ^Dvppft'g Life of M. Ans^lOy preface, p. 5 sod 6. 

e O N i) O & <! £ T, , 1*1 

thesis, at which Clairaut, D'Aledabei^t, atfd 'V<mttdM, tte 
^n&t "geometriciads of France, assisted ; andkts 'M&dMt 'oh 
this occasion oMained their approbation. -A'ft^ his ^oufsfe 
tf philosophy was finished, he returned to bis Ifiuialjr^ but 
still continued to tuItlTate gieometiy ; atid hls^atM^hoiemft 
to it carried him back to Paris in 176S, where %e lived 
With his old professor, in order to have more frequent op* 
portunities of indulging his rating passion. He at-the sam^ 
time attendi^d the chemical lectures of Macquer anil 
Beauin6, and sobn distinguished himseflf among -the ^'geo** 
tnetricians. ' 

In 1765 he published his first woric ^Sltr le Galeul In-^ 
tegrel/* in which he proposed to exhibit a general method 
bf determining the finite integral of a ^ven differemiiA 
equation, either for differences infinitely snHin, ot finite 
difiPerences. D^Alembert and Bezout, the comdiisfeionerft 
of the academy, employed to examine the merita df tfai^ 
performance, bestowed high pfaises-on k as -a work of in* 
vention, and a presage of talents worthy of encouragement* 
In 17B7 he published a second work, the problem of three 
bodies, ** Probleme dqs Trois corpsj" in which he present* 
ed the nine diflFerential equations of the moVemertt of tii6 
bodies of a given system, supposing that each Of these bo^ 
dies should be propelled by a certain 'forcer, and that A 
mutual attraction subsisted among them. He also treated 
of the movement of three bodies of a given figure, the pdtt* 
tides of which attracted each other in the inverse ratio (St 
the square of the distance. In addition 'to this, %he ekr 
)>]ained a new method of integers, by approximation, with 
the assistance of infinite series ; andmdded to the methods 
tahibited in his first work, that whi^h M. de hi Grange 
had convinced him was still wanting. Thus Condorcet; 
says his eulogist La Lande, was already nmifiti^red with 
the foremost mathematicians in Europe. *^ There was 
not,*' he adds, " above ten of that 6lilss ; one lit 'Pfeters- 
burgh, one at Berlin, one at Basle, one at Milan, and fit^6 
or six at Paris; England, which had set'si!ich'an illustriouti 
example, no longer produced a single geometer that\;Ou]ti 
rank with the former." It is mortifying to us to confe^ 
diat' this remark is but too much founded on truth. Tet« 
Says a late writer of the life of Cmidorcet, we doubt not 
but there are in Great Bi^itain at present matlYc^aticians 
equal in profundity and address to any who have existed 
since the illustrious Newton : but these men are not known 

142 C O N D O R C E T. ' 

to the learned of Europe, because theykeep their science 
to theinselves. They have no encoxiragement from the 
taste of the nation, to publish any thing' in those higher 
departments of geometry which have so long occupied the 
attention of the mathematicians on the continent^. 

In 1768, under the title of the first part of his " Essais ' 
d^ Analyse,'' he published a letter to D'Alembert, in which 
be reaumed the subjects treated of in his two former works^ 
and endeavoured, by means of new exhibitions, to extend 
his methods of integral calculation, in the three hypo- 
theses of evanescent differences, finite differences, an4 
partial differences. He there also gave the application of 
infinite or indefinite series to the integration ; the methods 
of approximation, and the use of all the methods for the 
dynamic problems, especially the problem of three bo- 
dies : these modes might have become an useful help, that 
would have led to important discoveries, but he only 
pointed out the road necessary to be followed, without 
pursuing it. 

He was received into the French academy on the 8th of 
March, 1769, and in the course of the same year he pub- 
lished a memoir on the nature of infinite series, on the ex- 
tent of solutions afforded by this mode, and on a new 
method of approximation for the differential equations of 
all the orders. In the volumes of 1770, and the following 
years, he presented the fruits of his researches on the 
equations with partial and finite differences; and in 1772 
he published ^^ L'Essai d'une methode pour disilnguer les 
Equations differentielles possibles en termes finis de celles 
qui ne le sont pas," an essay on a method to distinguish 
possible differential equations in finite terms, from those ' 
which are not so. The mode of calculation here presented, 
although an admirable instrument, is still very far distant ' 
from that degree of perfection to which it may be brought. 

In the midst of these studies, he ptblished an anonymous 
pamphlet, entitled " A Letter to a Theologian,'* in which 
he replied with keen satire to the attacks made by the 
authttr of " The Three Centuries of Literature," against 
the philosophic sect. "But (subjoins the prudent La 
Lande) he pushed the matter somewhat too far, for, > even ^ 
supposing his system demonstrated, it would be advan- ^ 
tageous to confine those truths within the circle of the ini- 

* Gleig^s Suppl. to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

CO N D OR C E T. 1« 

tiated) because they are dangeroua, in respect to the 
greater part of qiankiud) who are unable. to replace^ by 
meaos of principlesy that which they are bereaved of .m 
the shape of fear, consolation, and hope.'' Coudorcet 
was now in fact leagued with the atheists; and La Laiide, 
who wished well to the same sect, here censures not his 
principles, but only regrets his rashness. In 17.73 he was 
appointed secretary to the academy of sciences, when he 
composed eulogies upon several deceased members who 
had beeipi neglected by Fonteuelle; and in 1782 he was 
received into the French academy, on which occasion iie 
delivered a discojarse concerning the influence of philoso- , 
pby. In the following year he succeeded D'Alembert as 
secretary to that academy, and pronounced an able eulogy 
to the mempry of his deceased friend, whose literary aod 
scientific merits are set forth with great ability. The deatb 
of Euler afforded Condorcet ajiother opportunity of dis- 
playing his own talents by appreciating those of the de^ 
parted^ mathematician* The lives of Turgot and Voltaire» 
and the eulogy pronounced upon the death of the cele- 
brated Franklin^ were decided testimonies to the abilities 
of Condprcet as a biographical writer. Turgot bad occu- 
pied much of his time and attention with moral and poli- 
tical sciences, and was particularly anxipus that the cer- 
tainty of, which different species of knowledge are suscep- 
tible, might be demonstrated by the assistance of calcula- 
tiQn> hoping that.the human species would necessarily taake 
a progress towards happiness and perfection, in the same 
manner as it had done towards the attainment of triitlx. 
To second, these views of Turgot, Condorcet undertook a 
work replete with geometrical knowledge. He examined 
the probability of an assembly's rendering a true decision, 
and he explained the limits to which our knowledge of 
fqture events, regu^s^tedby the law^ of nature, considered 
as the most certain and uniform, might extend. If we do 
not, possess a.rea/, yet he thought, we have at least a mean 
probability, that the law indicated by events, is the same 
constant law, and that it will be perpetually observed»^ He 
considered a forty-five thousandth part as the value of the 
risk, in tlie case when the consideration of a new law comes 
in question ; and it appears fro^n his calculation, that an 
assenably consisting of 61 votes, in which it is required 
that there should be a plurality of nine, will fulfil this con- 
dition, provided there is a probability of each vote being 

144 C O N D O R C E T. 

equal to four^ftfths, jduit is, ibat «ach member 'Toftinj; dbaH 
be decetved only once in five times, fie applied these cal^ 
culations to the creation of tribanals, «to the forms of elec* 
tionsy and to the decisionsof nnmerous assemblies ; incen^ 
jvenienoes attendant on which were exhibited by him. This 
work, says his eulogist, famished a grand, and at the same 
time, «n agreeable proof of die utility of analysis in im- 
portant matters to which it had never before been applied, 
and to which we may venture to assert it never will be ap- 
plied while human reason is allowed any share to human 
tmnsactions. There are many of these paradoxes in geo- 
metry, which, we are told^ it is impossible to resolve with- 
<>ut being possessed of metaphysical attainments, and a 
degree of sagacity not always possessed by the .greatest 
geometricians ; but where such attainments arid sagaci^ 
«re to be found, even Condorcet himsdf has not exempli* 
«ed. In his << Euler's Letters,^' published in 1787-S§, he 
started the idea of a dictionary, in which dbjects 'ate to be 
^discovered by their qualities or properties, instead -of being 
searched for under their respective names ; he also inti- 
mated a scheme for constructing tables by which ten rml" 
liards of objects might be classed together, by means df 
only ten different modifications. 

In October 1791 he sat as a miember of the national as- 
sembly, and for the last time in the academy on Nov. 25, 
1792, after whidi it was. suppressed by the barbarians who 
then were in power. Of their conduct, however, Con- 
dorcet, who had contributed to place them there, could not 
complain with a good grace. In the mean time the mem* 
bers of the academy considered it as allowable to assemble, 
-but terror soon dispersed them, and that dispersion ton* 
tinued during nearly $wo years. At lencth Daunou deli^^ 
vered in bis report relative ta the National Institute, which 
was read to the convention in the name of the cominission 
of eleven, and the conlmittec; bf public safety. The con- 
sequence was, that the restoration of the academies was 
decreed, under the title of a National Institute, the firat 
class of whidi contained the whde tsif the academy of 
sciences. This a$sembly was installed soon after, s^nd 
Condorcet furnished the plan. 

The political labours or Condorcet entirely occupied the 
last years of his existence. Amonv them were, his work, 
<< Sur les assemblies provinciales,*^ and his '^* IleflexioDS 
8ur le commerce des blls,*^ two ef the most harmless. 


C O N D OR C E T. us 

tn 1788, Roucher undertook to give a new* translalfon 
of an excellent English work by Smith, entitled "The 
Wealth of Nations," with notes by Gondorcet, who, how- 
ever, had but little concern with it, and on this and other 
occasions he was not unwilling to sell his name to tlie 
booksdlej?s to give a reputation to works with whicit be 
had no concern. Chapelier and Peis^onel announced a 
periodical/collection, entitled ** Bibliotheque de Phomnie 
Public, &c." (The statesman's library, or the analysis of 
the best political works.) This indeed was one way of 
enabling the deputies of the assembly to learn what it vras 
' impoirtant for them to become acquainted with ; it was sun- 
posed that the name of Condorcet might be useful oDthis 
occasion also, and it was accordingly made use of. 'The 
work itself contained one' of his compositions which'hid 
been transmitted to the academy at Berlin. The subject 
discussed was, "Est il permis de tromperle peuple?'' 
(Ought the people to be deceived?) This question, we 
' presume, must have always been decided in the affirma- 
tive by such politicians as Condorcet, since what amounts 
' to the same effect, almost all his writings tended to pave 
the way for a revolution in which the people were com- 
pfetely* deceived. He was afterwards a member of the 
popular clubs at Paris, particularly that of the jacobins, 
celebrated for democratic violence, where he was a fre- 
qbenti but by no means a powerful speaker. He was cho- 
sen a representative for the metropolis, when the consti- 
tuent assembly was dissolved, and joined himself to the 
Brissotine party, which finally fell the just victims to that 
 revolutionary spirit which they had excited. Condorcet at 
this period was the person selected t;o draw up a plan for 
pubKc instruction, which he comprehended in two memoirs, 
and whit*h it is acknowledged were too abstract for general 
ti^e. He was the author of a Manifesto addressed from the 
F^ehch people to the powers of Eurojbe, on the' approach 
of war ; and of a letter to Louis XVI. 'as president of the 
assembly, whicH was dictated in terms destitnte of that 
rfespfect and consideration to which the first magistrate of a 
gre^t people has, as such, a just claim. He even at^empt- 
'€d*to juistify the jiisults offered to tfie sovereign by the 
Towest, the most illiterate, and tncistbrhtal part of a deli- 
rr6tJs populace. ^ On the trial of theking, his conduct was 
c^iiivocai and iinmanly ; he hac( d'edlare'd that he ought 
'iYdt'to:b6 arraigned, yet he had not courage'to defend big 
Vol. X. "^ * ^ |>^ : 

146 C O N D O R C E T. 

opinion, or justify those sentiments which he hftd delif 
berately formed in the closet. 

After the death of Louis, Condorcet undertook to frame 
a new constitution, which was approved by the convent^oui, 
but which did not meet the wishes and expectations of the 
nation. A new party, calling themselves the Mountain, 
were now gaining an ascendancy in the convention over 
Brissot and his friends. At first the contest was severe : 
the debates, if tumult and discord may be so denominateo, 
ran high, and the utmost acrimony was exercised on all 
. sides. Condorcet, always timid, always anxious to avoid 
danger, retired as much as possible from the scene. By 
this act of prudence he at first escaped the destruction 
which overwhelmed the party ; but having written against ' 
the bloody acts of the mountain, and of the monster Robes- 
pierre, a decree was readily obtained against him. He 
was arrested in July 1793, but contrived to escape from 
the vigilance of the officers under whose care he was 
placed. For nine months he lay concealed at Paris, when, 
dreading the consequences of a domiciliary visit, he fied 
to the house of a friend on the plain of Mont- Rouge, who 
was at the time in Paris. Condorcet was obliged to pass 
eight-and-forty hours in the fields, exposed to all the 
wretchedness of cold, hunger, and the dread of bis enemies. 
On the third day he obtained an interview with his friend; 
he, however, was too much alive to the sense of danger to 
admit Condorcet into his habitation, who was again obliged 
to seek the safety which unfrequented fields and pathless 
woods could afford. Wearied at length with fatigue and 
want of food, on March 26 he entered a little inn and de- 
manded some eggs. His long beard and disordered clothes, 
having rendered him suspected by a member of the re- 
volutionary committee of Clamar, who demanded his pass- . 
port, he was obliged to - repair to the committee of the 
district of Bourg-la-Reine. Arriving too late to be e^** ' 
. amined that night, he was conBned in the prison, by the 
name of Peter Simon, until he could be conveyed to Paris. . 
He was found dead next day, March 28, 1794. On in- , 
' specting the body, the immediate cause of his death coutd 
'not be discovered, but it was conjectured that be had . 
poisoned himself. Condorcet indeed always carried^ 
^ of poison in his pocket, and he said to the friend who was ' 
1 to have received him into his bouse, that he had, been 
; often tempted to make use of it, but that the idea of a wife- 

C ON DO R C £ T. ^41 

and daogfatelT) whom be loved ^ tenderly^ restrained him. 
During the time that he was concealed at Paris^ he wrote 
a history of the ** Progress of the Human Mind/^ in two 
volumes,, of which it is necessary only to add, that among 
other wonderful things, the author gravely asserts the pos- 
sibility, if not the probability, that the nature of man may 
be improved to absolute perfection in body and mind, and 
his existence in this world protracted to immortality, a 
doctrine, if it deserves the name, which, having been af- 
terwards transfused into an English publication, has been 
treated with merited ridicule flnd contempt. 

Condorcet's private character is described by La Lande^ 
as easy, quiet, kind, and obliging, but neither his conver- 
sation nor his e:^ternal deportment bespoke the fire of his 
genius. D'Alembert used to compare him to a volci^no 
covered with snow. His public character may be estimated 
by what has been related. Nothing was more striking in 
him than the dislike, approaching to implacable hatred, 
^ which he entertained against the Christian religion; his 
philosophical works, if we do not consider them as the 
reveries of a sophist, have for their direct tendency a con- 
tempt for the order Providence has established in the 
world. But as a philosopher, it is not very probable that 
Condorcet will hereafter be known, while his discoveries 
and improvements in geometrical studies will lev^r be no- 
ticed to his honour. If he was not superior to his contem- 
poraries, he excelled them all in the early display of talent ; 
and it would have been happy for him and bis country, had 
he been only a geometrician« ^ 

CONFUCIUS, or CoN-FU-TSEE, the celebrated Chinese 
philosopher, was born in the kingdom of Lou, which is at 
present the province of Chan Long, in the 21st year of the 
reign of Ling van, the 23d emperor of the race of Tcheou^ 
551 years B. C. He was contemporary with Pythagoras^ 
and a little before Socrates. He was but three years old 
when he lost his father Tcbo leang he, who had enjoyed 
the highest offices of the kingdom of Long ; but left no ' 
other inheritance to his son, except the honour of descend* 
ing from Ti ye, the 27th emperor of the second race of 
the Changp. His mother, whose name was Ching, and who 
sprung originally from the illustrious family of the Yen, 

> fi)og0 by La Larnde. — Condorcet's Works were published in 21 vols. 8to» 
m Ptttf^ 1804^ exclusive of hit mathematical writings. 

t 2 


lived twenty-one years after the death af heiv husbands 
Confucius did not grow in knowledge by degrees, as chil- 
dren ordinarily doy but seemed to arrive at reason and the' 
perfect use of hi» faculties almost from bis infancy. Ta- 
king no delight in amusements proper for his age, be had 
a grave and serious deportment, which gained him respect, 
and was joined with an appearance of unexampled and 
exalted piety. He honoured bis relations ; he endeavoure4 
in all things to imitate his grandfather, who was then alive 
in China, and a most holy man : and it was observable, 
that he never ate any thing but he prostrated himself upon 
the ground, and offered it first to the supreme Lord of 
heaven. One day, while he was a child, he heard bis . 
grandfather fetch a deep sigh ; and going up to. him with 
many bowings and much reverence, " May I presume/' 
says he, " without losing the respect I owe you, to inquire 
into the occasion of your grief? perhaps you fear that 
your posterity should degenerate from your virtue, and 
dishonour you. by their vices," " What put this thought 
into your head," says Coum-tse tp him, " and where have 
you learnt to speak after this manner ?" ** From yourself,** 
teplied Confucius : " I attend diligently to you every time 
you speak ; and I have often heard you say, that a son, 
whp does not by his virtue support the glory of his ances- 
tors, does, not deserve to bear their name." After his 
grandfather's death he applied himself to Tcem-se, a ce- 
lebrated doctor of his- time; and, under the direction of 
so great a master, soon made a surprising progress in an- 
tiquity, which he considered as the source from whence 
all genuine knowledge was to be drawn. This love for the 
ancients very nearly cost him his life when he was not 
more than sixteen years of age. Falling into discourse 
one day about the Chinese books with a person of higfc 
quality, who thought them obscure, and not worth the • 
pains of searching into, " The books you despise,"- says 
Confucius, " are full of profound knowledge, which is not 
to be attained but by the wise and learned : and the 
people would think cheaply of them, could they compre- 
hend them of themselves. This subordination of spirits, 
by which the ignorant are dependent upon the knowing, 
is very useful, and even necessary in society. Were all 
families equally rich and equally powerful, there could not 
subsist any form of government ; but there would happen a 
yet stranger disorder, if mankind were all equally knowing, 

C O N F tf C I U S. l« 

VIZ. every one would be for governing, and none would 
think themselves obliged to obey. Some time ago," adde4 
Confucius, " an ordinary fellow made the same observa- 
tion to me about the books as you have done, and from 
^uch a one indeed nothing better could be expected : 
but I wonder that you, a doctor, should thus be found 
speaking like one of the lowest of the people." This re- 
buke had indeed the good effect of silencing the mandarin, 
and bringing him to a better opinion of the learning of his 
country ; yet vexed him so at the same time, as it came 
from almost a boy, that he would have revenged it by 
violence, if he had not been prevented. 

At the age of nineteen he took a wife, who brought him 
a son, called Pe yu. This son died at fifty, but left be- 
hind him a son called Tsou-tse, wh,o, in imitation of his 
grandfather, applied himself entirely to the study of wis- 
dom, and by his merit arrived to the highest offices of the 
empire. Confucius was content with his wife only, so 
long as she lived with him ; and never kept any concu- 
bines, as the custom of his country would have allowed 
him to have done, because he thought it contrary to the 
law of nature. He divorced her, however, after some tim^, 
and for no other reason, say the Chinese, but that be 
might be free from all incumbrances and connexions, and 
at liberty to propagate his philosophy throughout the 
empire. In his twenty-third year, when he had gained a 
considerable knowledge of antiquity, and acquainted him- 
self with the laws and customs of his country^ he began to 
project a scheme of general reformation. All the petty 
kingdoms of the empire now depend upon the emperor -, 
but tben every province was a distinct Kingdom, which 
had its particular laws, and was governed by a prince of 
its own. Hence it often happened that the imperial au- 
thority was not sufficient to keep tbeni within the bounds 
of their duty and allegiance^ and a taste for luxury, the 
love of pleasure, and a general dissolution of manner9> 
prevailed in all those little courts. 

Confucius, wisely persuaded that the people could never 
be happ^ under such circumstances, resolved tq preach 
up a severe morality ; and, accordingly, he began to en- 
force temperance, justice, and other virtues, to inspire a 
contempt of riches and outward pomp, to excite to mag- 
nanimity and a greatness of soul, wqich should make men 
llicapable .of dissimulation and insincerity ; and used all 

.150 C O N F U C I U S, 

the means he could think of to redeem his countrymen 
from ^ life of pleasure to a life of reason. In this pursuit, 
his extensive knowledge and great wisdom scon made him 
known, and his integrity and the splendour of bis virtues 

. made him heloved. Kings were governed by his counsels, 
^nd the people reverenced him as a saint. He was offered 

. several high offices in the magistracy, which he some^ 
times accepted, but always with a view of reforming a 
currupt state, and amending mankind ; and never failed 

. to resign those offices, as soon as he perceived that be 
pould be no longer useful. On one occasion he was raised 
to a considerable place of trust in the kingdom of Lou, 

,bis own native country: before be had exercised his 
charge about three months, the court and provinces, 
through bis counsels and management, became quite aU 
tered. He corrected many frauds and abuses in traffic, 
^nd reduced the weights and measures to their proper 
standard. He inculcated fidelity and candour amongst the 

^ men, and exhorted the women to chastity and a simplicity 
of manners. By such methods he wrought a general refor- 

.mation, and established every where such concord and 
unanimity, that the whole kingdom seemed as if it wer0 
but one great family. This, however, instead of exciting 
the example, provoked the jealousy of the neighbouring 

, princes, who fancied that a king, under the counsels of 
such a man as Confucius^ would quickly render himself 
too powerful ; since nothing can make a state flourish 
more than good order among the members, and an exact 
observance of its laws. Alarmed at this, the king of Tsi 
assembled his ministers to consider of putting a stop to the 
career of this new government ; and, after some delibera- 
tions, the following expedient was resolved upon. They 
got together a great number of young girls of extraor- 
dinary beauty, who had been instructed from theiir infancy 
in singing and dancing, and were perfectly mistresses of 
pill those charms and accomplishments which might please 
^nd captivate the heart. These, under the pretext of an 
(Embassy, they presented to the king of Lou, ?ind to the 
grandees of his court. The present was joyfully received> 
and ^ad its desired effect. The arts of good g(5vernment 
were immediately neglected, and nothing was thought of 
but inventing new pleasures for the entertainment of the 
fair strangers. In short, nothing was regarded for some 
months but feasting, dancing, shows, &c. 9nd the cbxurt 

CO N.F U C I U S. 151 

Wm eolirtly dissolved in luxury and pleasure. Confucius 
hid foreseen all tbis, and endeavoured to prevent it by 
advising the refusal of the pressnt ; and he now laboured 
to take off the delusion they ^rere fallen into, and to bring 
them back to reason and their duty. But all his endea* 
vours proved ineffectual, and the severity of the philo- 
sopher was obliged to give way to the overbearing fashion 
of the court. Upon this he immediately quitted bis em* 
ployment, exiling himself at the same time from his native 
country, to try if he could find in other kingdoms, minds 
and dispositions more fit to relish and pursue his maxims. 

He passed through the kingdoms of Tsi, Guci, and Tson, 
but met with insurmountable difficulties every where, ' as 
at that time, rebellion, wars, and tumults, raged throughout 
the empire, and men had no time to listen to bis philo- 
sophy, and were in themselves ambitious, avaricious, and 
voluptuous. Hence be often met with ill treatment aiid 
reproachful language, and it is said that conspiracies were 
formed against his life : to which may be added, that his 
neglect of his own interests had reduced him to the ex* 
tremest poverty. Some philosophers among his contem* 
poraries were so affected with the state of public affairs, 
that they had rusticated themselves into the mountains and 
deserts, as the only places where happiness could be 
found ; and would have persuaded Confucius to have fol- 
lowed them. But, ^^ I am a man,^* says Confucius, *^ and 
cannot exclude myself from the society of men, and con- 
sort with beasts* Bad as the times are, 1 shall do all I can 
to recall men to virtue : for in virtue are all things, and if 
mankind would but once embrace it, and submit them- 
selves to its discipline and laws, they would not want me 
or any body else to instruct them. It is the duty of a 
good man, first to perfect himself, and then to perfect 
others/ Human nature,'* said he, ^^ came to us from hea- 
ven pure and perfect ; but in process of time, ignorance, 
the passions, and evil examples have corrupted it« All 
consists in restoring it to its primitive beauty ; and to be 
perfect, we must re-ascend to that point from which we 
have fsillen. Obey heaven, and follow the orders of him 
who governs it. Love your neighbour as yourself. Let 
your reason, and not your senses, be the rule of your con- 
duct : for reason will teach you to think wisely, to sp^ak 
prudently, and to behave yourself worthily upon all oc- 

ifi^ . CONFUCIUS. 

Cou&cius io the mean time, though he had Witfadvsiwit 
himself from kings and palaces, did not cease to travel - 
about and do what gbod he could among the people, a'tid 
among mankind in general. He had often in his mouth * 
the maxims and examples of their ancient heroes,. Yao^ 
Chun, Yu, Tischin tang, &c. who were thought to be re^ 
vived in the person of this great man ; and hence he pro- 
selyted great numbers, who were inviolably attached to 
his person. He is said to have had at least 3000 followers, 
72 of whom were distinguished above the rest by their su* 
perior attainments, and ten above them all by their com- 

{)rehensive view and perfect knowledge of his whole phi- 
osophy and doctrines. He divided his disciples into four 
classes, who applied themselves to cultivate and propagate 
his philosophy, each according to his particular distinction.  
The first class were to improve their minds by meditation, 
and to purify their hearts by virtue : The second were to 
cultivate the arts of reasoning justly, and of composing 
elegant and persuasive discourses*: The study of the third 
clfiss.was, to learn the rules of good government, to give 
an idea of it to the mandarins, and to enable them to fill 
the public offices with honour: The last class were con- 
cerned in delivering the principles of morality in a concise 
and polished style to the people ; and these chosen dis- 
ciples were the flower of Confucius*s school. 

He sent 600 of his disciples into different parts of the 
empire, to reform the manners of the peop)e; and, not 
satisfied with benefiting his own country only, he made 
frequent resolutions to pass the seas, and propagate his 
doctrine to the farthest parts of the world. Hardfy any 
thing can be added to the purity of his morality. He 
seems rather to speak like a doctor of a revealed law, than ' 
a man who had no lio:ht but what the law of nature afforded 
him, and he taught as forcibly by example as by precept. 
In short, his gravity and sobriety, hi^ rigorous abstinence, 
his contempt of riches, and what are commonly called the 
^oods of this life, his continual attention and watchfulness' 
over his actions, and, above all, that modesty and humility 
which are not to be found among the Grecian sages ; all 
these would almost tempt one to believe that he was not a 
mere philosopher formed by reason only, but a man raised 
up for the reformation of the world, and to cl^eck that tor- 
rent of idolatry nnd superstition which was about to over- 
spread that particular part of it. He is said to have lived 



s^retly three years, and to bave spent the latter part of 
Iris life in sorrow. A few days before his last illness, he 
told his disciples with tears in his eyes, that he was over* 
come with grief at the sight of the disorders which pre- 
vailed .in the empire : *^ The mountain," said he, ^^ is faU. 
len, the high machine is demolished, and the sages are all 
fled/' His meaning was, that the edifice of perfection, 
which he had endeavoured to raise^ was entirely over- 
thrown. He began to languish from that time ; and the 
7th day before his death, ** the kings," said he, '^ reject 
my maxioas ; and since I am no longer useful on the earth, 
I may as well leave it." After these words he fell into a 
leithargy, and at the end of seven days expired in the arm^ 
of his disciples, in his seventy-third year. Upon the first 
hearing of his death, Ngai cung, who then reigned in tha 
kingdom of Lou, coulc) not refrain from'tears : ^' The Tien 
is nut satisfied with me," cried he, " since it has taken 
away Confucius." Confucius was lamented by the whole 
empire^ which Irom that' moment began to honour him as 
a saint. Kings have built palaces for him in all the pro- 
vinces, whither the learned go at certain times to pay him 
homag^. There are to be seen upon several edifices, 
raised in honour of him, inscriptions in large characters, 
** To the great master." ♦< To the head doctor." " To 
the saint." " To the teacher of emperors and kings." 
They built his sepulchre near the city Kio fou, on the 
banks of the river^Su, where he was wont to assemble his 
disciples ; and they bave since inclosed it with wills, which 
look like a small city to this very day. 

Confocius did not trust altogether to the memory of his 
disciples for the preservation of his philosophy ; but com- 
posed several books : and though these books were greatly 
admired for the doctrines they contained, and the fine 
principles of morality they taught, yet such was the un« 
paralleled modesty of this philosopher, that he ingenuously 
confessed, that the doctrine was not his own, but was much 
more ancient ; and- that he had done nothing more than 
collect it from those wise legislators Yao and Chun, who 
lived 1500 years before him. These books are held in the 
highest esteem and veneration, because they contain all 
tl^t he had collected relating to the ancient laws, which 
are looked upon as the most perfect rule of government. 
The number of these classical and canonical books, for so 
it seems they are called, is four* The first i:s entitled ^^ Ta 



HiOy the Grand Science, or the School of the Adults.'' It 
is this that beginners ought to study first, as the porch of 
the temple of wisdom and virtue. It treats Of the care we 
ought to take in governing ourseives, that we may be able 
afterwards to govern others : and of perseverance in the 
chief good, which, according to him, is nothing but a con- 
formity of our actions to right reason. It was chiefly de- 
signed for princes and grandees, who ought to govern their 
people wisely. *^ The whole science of princes,*' says 
Confucius, ^* consists in cultivating and perfecting the rea- 
spnable nature they have received from Tien, and in re- 
storing tha^ light and primitive clearness of judgment, 
which has been weakened and obscured by various passions, 
that it may be afterwards in a capacity to labour the per- 
fections of others. To succeed then,'' says he, ^^ we should 
begin within ourselves ; and to this end it is necessary to 
have ao insight into the nature of things, and to gain the 
knowledge of good and evil ; to determine the will toward 
a love of this good, and an hatred of this evil : to preserve 
integrity of heart, and to regulate the manners according 
to reason. When a man has thus renewed himself, there 
will be less difficulty in renewing others : and by this means 
concord and union reign in families, kingdoms are govern- 
ed according to the laws, and the whole empire enjoys 
peace and tranquillity." 

The second classical or canonical book is called ^^Tchong 
Yong, or the Immutable Mean ;" and treats of the meui 
which ought to be observed in all things. Tchong signi- 
fies weansy and by Yong is understood that which is con- 
stant, eternal, immutable. He undertakes to prove, that 
every wise man, and chiefly those who have the care of 
governing the world, should follow this mean, which is the 
essence of virtue. He enters upon his subject by defining 
}iumau nature, and its .passions ; then he brings several 
examples of virtue and piety, as fortitude, prudence, and 
^lial duly, which are proposed as so many patterns to be 
imitated in keeping this mean. In the next place he shews, 
that this mean, and the practice of it, is the right and true 
path which a wise man should pursue, in order to attain 
the highest pitch of virtue. — ^The third book, '^ Yun Lu, or 
the Book of Maxims,'' is a collection of si^itentious and 
moral discourses, and is divided into 20 articles, contain* 
ing only questions, answers, and sayings of Confucius and 
his disciples, on virtue, good works^ and the art of goveni- 


iag wel! ; ^the tentb article excepted, in which the disci* 
pies of Confucius particdarly describe the outward deport* 
ment of their master. There are some maxims and moral 
sentences in this collection, equal to those of the seven 
wise men of Greece, which have always been so much ad* 
mired. — The fourth book gives an idea of a perfect govern- 
ment ; it is called ^' Meng Tsee, or the Book of Mentius;'* 
because^ though numbered among the classical and ca* 
nonical books, it is more properly the work of his disciple 
Mentius. To these four books they add two others, which 
have almost an equal reputation ; the first is called ** Hiao 
King,*' that is, *^ of Filial Reverence,^' and contains the 
answers which Confucius made to his disciple Tseng, con* . 
cerniug the respect which is due to patents. The second 
is called *^ Sias Hio,'' that is, ^^'the Science, or the School 
of Children ;" which is a collection of sentences and examf- 
ples taken from ancient and modern authors. They who 
would have a perfect knowledge of all these works, will 
find' it in the Latin translation of father Noel, one of the 
tnost ancient missionaries of China, which was printed at 
Prague in 1711. 

We must not conclude our account of this celebrated 
j)hiiosopber, without mentioning one most remarkable par- 
ticular relating to him, which is this ; viz. that in spite of 
all the pains be had taken to establish pure religion and 
sound morality in the empire, he was nevertheless the in- 
nocent occasion of their corruption. There goes a tradi* 
tion in China, that when Confucius was complimented 
upon the excellency of his philosophy, and his own con- 
formity thereto, he modestly declined the honour that wan 
done him, and said, that <<he greatly fell short of the 
most perfect degree of virtue, but that in the west the 
most holy was to be found.*' Most of the missionaries who 
relate this are firmly persuaded that Confucius foresaw the 
coming of the Messiah, and meantto predict it in this short 
sentence ; but whether he did or not, it is certain that it 
has always made a very strong impression upon the learn*^ 
ed in China : ai^d the emperor Mimti, who reigned 65 
years after the birth of Christ, was so touched with this 
saying of Confucius, together with a dream, in which he 
saw the image of a holy person coming from the west, that 
he fitted out a fleet, with orders tp sail till they had found 
\Am, and to bring back at least his image and his writings. 
The persons sent upon this expedition, not daring to veqr 

15i6 C O N F tJ C I U & 


ture £utber, went a-sbore upon a little island not far frotrt 
the Red Sea, where they found the statue of Fohi, who 
had infected the Indies with his doctrines 500 years before 
the birth of Confucius. This they carried back to China, 
together with the metempsychosis, and the other reveries 
of this Indian philosopher. The disciples of Confucius at 
first oppossed these newly imported doctrines with all thie 
vigour imaginable ; inveighing vehemently against Mimti, 
who introduced them, and denouncing the judgment of 
heaven on such emperors as should support them. But' all 
their endeavours were vain ; the torrent bore hard against 
them, and the pure religion and sound morality off Confu- 
cius' were soon corrupted, and in a manner overwhelmed, 
by the prevailing idolatries and superstitions which were 
introduced with the idol Fohi. 

By his sage counsels, says Brucker, his moral doctrine, 
and his exemplary conduct, Confucius obtained an immor- 
tal name as the reformer of his country. After his death, 
his name was held in the highest veneratTon ; and his doc- 
trine is still regarded, among the Chinese, as the basis of 
all mqrai and political wisdom. His family enjoys by in- 
heritance the honourable title and office of Mandarins ; 
and religious honours are paid to his memory. It is 
nevertheless asserted by the missionaries of the Franciscan 
and Dominican orders, that Confucius was either wholly 
unacquainted with, or purposely neglected, the doctrine 
of a future life, and that in his moral system he paid little 
regard to Teltgion. ' 

CONGREVE (William), an English dramatic writer 
and poet, the son of William Congreve of Bardsey Grange, 
about eight miles froni Leeds, was born iri Feb. 1669-70. 
He was bred at the school of Kilkenny in Ireland, to which 
country he was carried over when a child by his father, 
who had a command in the army there. In 1685 he was 
admitted in the university of Dublin, and after having 
studied there some years, came to England, probably to 
his father's house, who then resided iti Staffordshire. On 
the 17th of March 1690-1, he became a member of the 
society of the A^iddle Temple ; but the law proving too 
dry for him^ he troubled himself little with it, and con- 
tinued to pursue. his former studies. His first production 

* Preceding editions of this Diottonary, priacipailly from Dtt Hfllde, Lt 

Coippte> and the Ancient and Modem Universal History .-*-BrttCker,'rr]VIoreri^ 

. , , . , . • »■ ^  ■< • • • -  • 

CO NO RE V E, 157 

agnail a^uj^bor^ was a novel, wbich). under the assumed 
name of Cleopbil, he dedicated to Mrs. Catherine Levesan» 
The title of it was, ^Mncognita, or Love and Duty recoa* 
ciled/' which lias been said to have coasiderabtle . merit as 
the production of a youth of seventeen, but it it cetmain he 
was now full twenty-one, and had sense enough to publish 
it without bis name, and whatever reputation he gained by 
it, must haveH}een confined within the circle of a few^ac* 

Soon after, he applied himself to dramatic composition, 
apd . wrote a comedy called '' The Old Bachelor ;'* of 
which Dryden, to whom he was recommended by Soutfci«> 
erne, said,. *^ That, he never saw such a first play in his 
life; and.tbat it would be a pity to have it. miscarry for a 
few things, which proceeded not from the author's want of 
genius or art, but from his not being acquainted with the 
stage and, the town." Dryden revised and corrected it i^ 
a^ it was acted in 1693. The prologue, intended to be 
spoken, was written by lord Falkland ; tbe play was ad-^ 
mirably performed, and received with such general ap* 
plause, that Congreve was thenceforward considered §s.the 
prop of the declining stage, and as the rising genius in 
dramatic poesy. It was this plsiy, and the very singular 
success that attended it upon the stage, and after it came 
from the press, which recommended its author to the pa- 
tronage of lord Halifax i who, being desirous to place so- 
eminent a wit in a state of ease and tranquillity, made him 
immediately one of the commissioners for licensing hack* 
ney-coaches, which was followed soon after by a place in 
tbe Pipe^office ; and tbe office of a commissioner of wine^ 
licenses, worth 600/. per annum. After such encourage- 
ment as the town, and even the critics, had given him, be 
quickly made his appearance again on the stage, by bring- 
ing on '* The Double Dealer ;'* but this play, though 
highly approved and commended by tbe best judges, was 
not so universally applauded as his last, owing, it is sup- 
posed, to the regularity of the performance; for regular 
comedy was then a new thing. 

Queen Mary dying at the close of this year, Congreve 
wrote a pastoral on that occasion, entitled '^ The Mourn- 
ing Muse of Alexis;" which, for simplicity, elegance, and 
correctness, was long admired, and for which the king 
gave him a gratuity of 100/. In 1695 he produced his 
comedy called ^* Lore for Love," which gained him much 



applaose; and the same year addressed to king Willtam- 
an ode ^ Upon the taking of Namnr;*' which wa$ yery^ 
sQCcessfal. After having established hig reputation as a 
comic writer, he attempted a tragedy; and, in 1697, his 
<< Mourning Bride'* was acted at the new theatre in Lin- 
coln's^inn-fields, which completely answered the very high 
expectations of the public and of his friends. His atten-* 
tion, however, was now called off from the theatre to ano« 
ther species of composition, which was wholly new, and in 
which he was not so successful. His four plays were at- 
tacked with great sharpness by that zealous reformer of 
the stage, Jeremy ColKer^ who, having made his general - 
attack on the imau>rality of the stage, included Congrere 
among the writers who had largely contributed to that 
effect. The consequoice of the dispute which arose be* 
tween Collier and the dramatic writers we have related in ; 
CoUier^s article*. It may be sufficient in this place to add, 
that' although this controversy is believed to have created 
in Congreve some distaste to the stage, yet he afterwards 
brought on another comedy, entitled *' The Way of the > 
World ;'* of which it gave so just a picture, that the world 
seemed resolved not to bear it. This completed the dis- 
gust of our author to the theatre ; updn which the cele- 
brated critic Dennis, thougji not very famous for either^ 
said with equal wit and taste, '^ That Mr. Congreve quitted 
the stage early, and that comedy left it with him.'* This 
play, however, recovered its rank, and is still a favourite 
with the town. He amused himself afterwards with com<*> 
posing-eriginal poems and translations, which he collected 
•in a volume, and published in 1710, when Swift describes 
him as ^^ never free from the gout'," and *^ almost blind," 
yet amusing himself with writing a " Tatler." 

* CoDgreve*s comedies are certaiuiy, 
among the most licentious of the Eng- 
lish series, and have been ofUsner cen- 
sur^ on that account than the writ- 
ings of any other dramatist. The late 
lord Karnes it peculiarly severe in his 
notice' of Congrevcy but it is impossible 
to «ay that h« is unjust; " How odious 
ought those writers to be, who tfaas 
spread infed^on through their country, 
employing the talents they have from 
their Maker most ungratefully against 
Umself, by endeavoul^ing to corrupt 
and disfigure his creatuces ! If. the 
comedies of Congreve did not rack him 
with remors* in his lant oioinents, ht 

must have been lost to all sense of vir- 
tue. Nqr will it afford any excuse to 
such writers, that their comedies are 
entertaining, unless it could be main* 
tained, thai wit, sprigfatliness, and other 
such qualifications, are better- suited 
to a vicious than a virtuous character t 
the direct contrary of which holds true 
in theory ; and is exemplified in prac- 
tice from the M^rry Wives of Windsors 
where we are highly. entertained with 
the conduct of two ladies, not more re- 
markable for mirth and spirit than for 
the strictest purity of intaaenk" -Ele- 
ments of Criticism, 

C O N G R E V E. 159 

He had a taste for music as well as poetry ; as ajppears 
from his " Hymn to Harmony in honour of 8t. Cecilia^s 
day, 1701/' set by Mr. John Eccles, his great fi;iend, to 
whom he ii^as aho obliged for composing several of hk 
songs. His early acquaintance with the great bad fNrocored 
him an easy and independent station in life, and this freed 
him from all obligatioiis of courting the public favpur any 
longer. He was still under the tie of gratitude to his illus^ 
trious patrons; and as he never missed an opportunity of 
paying his cpmpliments to tbem» so on the other hand he 
always shewed great regard to persous of a less exalted 
station, who had been serviceable to him on his entrance 
into public life. He wrote an epilogue for his old fiieod 
Southerners tragedy of Oroonoko ; and we learn from Diy« 
den himself, how much he was obliged to his assbtance in 
the translation of Virgil. He contributed also the eleventh 
satire to the translation of ^^ Juvenal/' published by that 
great poet, and wrote someeiEcellent verses on the trans* 
lation of Persius, written by Dryden alone. 

The greater part of the last twenty years of his life was 
spent in ease and retirement ; but towards the end of it, 
he was much afflicted with gout, which brought on a gra* 
dual decay. It was for this, that in the summer of 172d, 
he went to Bath for the benefit of the waters, where he 
had the misfortune to be overturned in his chariot ; from 
which time he complained of a pain in his side, which was 
supposed to arise from some inward bruise. Upon his re- 
turn to London, his health declined more and more; and 
he died at his house in Surry -street in the Strand, Jan. 19, 
1729. On the 26th, his corpse lay in state in the Jerusa* 
lem chamber; whence the same evening it was carried 
with great solemnity into Henry VllthS chapel at West* 
minster, and afterwards interred in the abbey. The pall 
was supported by the duke of Bridgewater, earl of GodoU 
phin, lord Cobbam, lord Wilmington, the hon. George 
Berkeley, esq. and brigadier-general Chikrchill ; and colo** 
nel Congreve followed as chief mourner. Some time after, 
a neat and elegant monument was erected to his memory ^^ 
by Henrietta duchess of Marlborough, to whom he be« 

* It IS remarkable tliat on ibis mo- thinking that he was one of his coun* 

nnment he is said to be only fiffcy>si]c trymen (an Irishman). Jacob only, 

years old, wheVeas be had -nearly com- although not frequently q noted as a 

pleted, his sixtieth year ; but at that good authority, maintained arhat is 

time, neither the tiine of his birth was now known to be the truth, that he was 

known, nor even his country. South- bom in Yorkshire. - 
enie patronized him so warmly from 

160 C O N G R E V E. 

queathed a legacy of about 10^000/. tbe accumulation of 
attentive parsimony, which/ though to her superfluous and 
useless, might have given great assistance to the ancient 
family from which he descended, at that time, by tbe 
imprudence of bis relation, reduced to difficulties and 

It has been observed of Congreve, that no man ever 
passed thr6ugh life with more ease and less envy than be. 
No change of ministries affected him in the least, nor was 
he ever removed from any post that was given him, except 
to a better. His place in tbe Custom House, and his of- 
fice of secretary in Jamaica, are said to have brought him* 
in upwards of 1200/. per annum ; and though he lived >iiit« 
ably to such a fortune, yet by his economy he-raised from 
thence a competent estate. He was always upon good 
terms with the wits of bis time, and never involved in any 
of their quarrels, nor did he receive from any of them the' 
least mark of distaste or dissatisfaction. On the contrary, 
they were solicitous for his approbation, and received it as 
tlie highest sanction of merit. Addison testified his per- 
sonal regard for him, and his high esteem of his writings, 
in many instances. Steele considered him as his patron 
upon one occasion^ in dedicating his Miscellanies to bin), 
^aud was desirous of submitting to him as an umpire on an- 
other, in the address prefixed to Addison's ^^ Drummer.** 
Even Pope, though jealous, it is said, of his poetical cha- 
racter, has honoured him with the highest testimony of de- 
ference and esteem in the postscript to his translation of 
Homer's Iliad, and he preserved a high respect for him. 
About two years after his death, in a conversation with 
Tonson tbe bookseller, who happened to mention Congreve, 
Pope said with a sigh, *< Ay, Mr. Tonson, Congreve was 
vltimus Ronumorum ^ /" 

** Congreve,'* says Dr. Johnson, ** has merit of the 
highest kind; he is an original writer, who borrowed nei- 
ther the models of his plot, nor the manner of his dialogue. 
Of his plays I cannot speak distinctly, for since I inspected 
them many years have passed ; but what remains upon my 
memory is, that his characters are commonly fictitious and 
artificial, with very little of nature, and not much of life. 
He formed a peculiar idea of comic excdlence, which he 

* He afterwards added, that *' Garth, iDeo, of the poetical memhers of the 
Vanburgh, and Congirve, were tbe Kit-Cat Club." Spencers Anecdotes, 
three most hooes^earted, real good MSi 

<upp»&ed to consist in gaj redvdtkff aivd meitfpected arr^ 
swers ; but that which he endeavoured^ he sel^k)«n failed 
of performing. His 8«en«s eichibit not much of humour^ 
imagery^ or passion : his persronages are a kind of intel* 
lectual glaxliators ; every sentence is to ward or strike; tbpei^ 
ciDDtest of smartriess is netet intermitted ; Ws wit ii ^ 
meteor playing to and fro wkt^ alternate corrascations. 
His comedies have therefore, in some degree, the opetfi^ 
tion of tfagedies; they stirprise rather than divert, and 
raise admiratioit oftener than merrim«nC. Bnt they are the 
wcrrks of a mind replete wkb imstges, and (pick in combi- 
nation. Of bis miscelltoeowa poetry I eannot say any 
thiag very favourable. The pd^-rers of Congreve seem to 
desert him when he leaves the stage, as Ants&ns was n-o 
longer surong than he cotrkl touch ihe ground. It cannot 
be observed withoiiit woi^er, that a mind' i^ tigotous and 
fertile in dramatic compositions, should on any other occa- 
sion discover nothing but impotence and poverty. He h^ 
ia these little pieces neither elevaticsn of fancy, selection 
oflangaagev ivor skill m versilicatioft ; yet if I were ter 
quired to select from the whole Kias» of English poetry the 
ittost poetical paragraph, t know not what I could prefer 
to an exclimiatidn in * The M ourm^g Bride :' 


Aim. It was a faney*d noise -, for all is hush*d. 

Leon. It bore the acce/it of a human voice. 

AtM. It was thy ffear, or ebe some transient wind 
Whistling thro' hollows of thk vaulted isle : 
We'll Usten*-^ — i — 

Leon. Hark! 

Alm. Noj all is hush'dy and still as death. — 'Th^ drttidfalt ! 
How reverend is the fece of this tall pile ; 
Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads^ 
To bear aloft its arch'd sind ponderous roof^ 
By its own weijght made stead^sist and immoveable, 
LookiBg traaquilUtf ! it strikes sm awe 
And terror on mv aeloBg sij^t > the tombs 
And moaumeatai caves of death look cold» 
And shoc)t a c;hillness to my trembling heact. 
Give me thy Rand, and let me hear tl^ voice 5 
Nay, quickly spesik to me, and let me &ear 
Thy voicfe*-my ovfrn affrights me with its echoi^. 

'^ He who reads those lines enjoys for a mooient the 

Edwei's of a poet ; be feels what be remembers to have felt 
eforc^ biAkhe feels it wi^h great iacsease of sensibility; 
He recognizes a familiar image, but meets it again amplU 
Vol. X. ' M 

162 C O N G R E V E: 

fied and expanded, embellished with beauty, and enhirgedl 
with majesty. 

^* The * Birth of the Muse' is a miserable fiction. One 
good line it has, which was borrowed from Dryden : of his 
irregular poems, that to Mrs. Arabella Hunt seems to be 
the best: his ^ Ode for Cecilia's Day,' however, has some 
lines which Pope had in bis mind when he wrote his own. 
His Imitations of Horace are feebly paraphrastical, and the 
additions which he makes are of little value. He some- 
times retains what were more properly omitted, as when he 
talks of vervain and gums to propitiate Venus. Of his 
translations, the * Satire of Juvenal' was written very early, 
and may therefore be forgiven, though it have not the mas« 
siness and vigour of the original. In all his versions 
strength -and sprightliness are wanting : his Hymn to Ve- 
nus, from Homet*, is perhaps the best. His lines are weak- 
ened with expletives, and his rhymes are frequently im- 

''His petty poems are seldom worth the cost of criti- 
cism : sometimes the thoughts are false, and sometimes^ 
comnion. In his ' Verses on Lady Gethin,' the latter part 
is an imitation of Dryden's ' Ode on Mrs. Killigrew;' and 
' Doris/ that has been so lavishly flattered by Steele, has 
indeed some lively stanzas, but the expression might be 
mended ; and the most striking part of the character had 
been already shewn in * Love for Love.' His * Art of 
Pleasing' is founded on a vulgar but perhaps impracticable 
principle, and the staleness of the sense it not concealed by 
any novelty of illustration or elegance of diction. This 
tissue of poetry, from which he seems to have hoped a 
lasting name, is totally neglected, and known only as it is 
appended to his plays. While comedy or while tragedy is 
regarded, his plays are likely to be read ; but, except what 
relates to the stage, I know not that be has ever written a 
stanza that is sung^ or a couplet that is quoted. The ge- 
neral character of his ' Miscellanies' is, that they shew lit- 
tle wit and little virtue. Yet to him it must be confessed 
that we are indebted for the correction of a national error, 
and the cure of our Pindaric madness. He first taught the 
English writers that Pindar's odes were regular ; and though 
*:ertainly he had not the fire requisite for the higher spe- 
cies of lyric poetry, he has ishewn us that enthusiasm has its 
rules, and that in mere confusion there n noUier grace 
nor greatness/" 


W^ will conclude our account of Congreve, with the . 
character given of him by Voltaire ; who has not failed to- 
do justice to high merit, at the same time that he has freely 
animadverted on him, for a foolish piece of affectation. 
" He raised the glory of comedy,'* says Voltaire, ^^ to a 
greater height than any English writer before or since his 
time. He wrote onlya few plays, but they are excellent in 
their kind. The laws of- the drama are airictly observed 
in them. They abound wiib characters, atl Which are sha- 
dowed with the utmost delicacy; and we meet with not so 
much as one lower coarse jest. The language is every 
where that of men of fashion, but their actions are those of 
knaves ; a proof, that he was perfectly well acquainted urith 
human nature^ 'and frequented what we call polite com- 
pany. He was infirm, and come to the verge of life When I 
knew him. Mr. Congreve iiad one defect, which was his 
entertaining too mean an idea of his first profession, that of 
a writer; though it was to this he owed his fattie and for- 
tune. He spoke of his works as of trifles that were beneath 
him; and hinted to me, in our first conversation, that I 
should visit him upon no other foot than that of a gentle- 
man, who led a life of plainness and simplicity. I an- 
swared, that had he been so unfortunate as to be a mere 
gentleman, I should never have come to see him ; a:nd I 
was very much disgusted at so unseasonable a piece of 

CONNOR (Dr. !|Bernard), a physician and learned 
writer, was descended of an ancient family in Ireland, and 
born in the county of Kerry about 1666. His faonily being 
of the popish religion, he was not ^educated regularly in the 
grammar-schools or university, but was assisted by private 
tutors, and when he grew up, applied himself to the study 
of physic. About 1686 he went to France, and resided 
for some time in the university of IVJontpeli^r ; and from 
thence to Paris, where he distinguished himself in his pro- 
fession, particularly in the branches of anatomy and che- 
mistry. He professed himself desirous of travelling ; and 

as there were two sons of the high chancellor of Poland 


I • • '  

1 Biog. Brit. — Malone's Dryden, vol. J. p. 233.— Memoirs of the Life, &c. of 
W.CoD|;reve, by Chiirles^ Wilson, esq. 8vb» 1730. This Charles Wiisoii, esq. 
was one of Curll'e writers, and probably Oidmixoa; Tlie work contains very 
little life, butbasiAaiiy of Conjrrei^e'K Wtters. tlis E»say on Qurnour, and a 
few other misMUaoies, Lord Or^ord has a jiuiicions* character of Congreve in 
bis Works, vol; II. p. Sid— See also Fitzo«borne*s Letters, Letter 70. — Kamf^s's 
fiWmenU, voL L p. 57,-*Blair*s Lcct«ir«s.— Bowlcs*s edition of Pope, &c. &c. 

M 2 . 

164 CONNOR. 

then on the point of returning to their own country, it Was 
thought expedient that they should take that ioog journey 
under the care and inspection of Connor. He accordingly 
conducted them very safely to Venice, where, having aa 
opportunity of curing the honourable William Legge, af- 
terwards earl of Dartmouth, of a fever, be accompanied him 
to Padua; whence he went through Tyrol, Bavaria, and 
Austria, down the Danube, to Vienna; and after having 
made some stay at the court of the emperor Leopold, passed 
through Moravia and Silesia to Cracow, and tJnence in eight 
days to Warsaw. He was well received at the court of 
king John Sobieski, and was afterwards madel^is phy^ian^ 
a v|j^y extraordinary preferment for a young man of only 
twenty-eight. But his reputation in the court of Pcdaiut 
was raised by the judgment he made of the duchess €>f 
RadzeviPs distemper, which the physicians of the court 
pronounced to be an ague, from which she might easily be 
recovered by the bark 'y and Connor insisted, that she bad 
an abscess in her liver, and that her case was desperate^ 
As this lady was the king^s only sister, bis predictioii made 
a great noise, more especially when it was justified by the 
event ; for she not only died within a month, but, upoia 
the opening of her body, the doctor's opinion of her ma-r 
l^dy was fully verified. Great as Connor's fame was ia 
Poland, he did uot propose to remain longer there thanf 
was requisite to finish bis inquiries into the natural history^ 
and other curiosities of that kingdom ; and foreseeing the 
king's decease, and that he bad no prospects of advantage 
afterwards, he resolved to quit that country, and to return 
to England, for which a very advantageous opportunity oc- 
curred. The king had an only daughter, the princess Te- 
resa Cunigunda, who had espoused the Elector of Bavaria 
by proxy in August 1694« As she was to make a journey 
fpm Warsaw to Brussels, of near 1000 nules, amd in the 
midst of winter, it was thought necessary that she should 
be attended by a physician. Connor procured himself to 
be nominated to that employment; and, after reaching 
Brussels, took leave of the princess, set out for HoUand^^ 
and thence to England, where he arrived in Feb. 1695. 

He staid some short time at London, and then went to 
Oxford, where he read public lectures upon the animal oeco* 
noniy. In his travels through Italy, he bad conversed with 
Maipighi, Bellini, Redi, and other celebrated persons, of 
whose abilities he availed himself ; and he now explained 

CONNOR. l«i 


the De# discoveries in an&tomy, chemistry, and physic, in 
so clear and judicious a manner, that his reputation was 
soon raised to a considerable height. It was increased by 
printing, during bis residence at Oxford, some learned and 
accurate dissertations in Latin^ under the following general 
title, ** Dissertationes medico-physicee.'* Many curious 
'questions are discussed, and curious facts related, in these 
dissertations, which discover their author to have been a 
man of much thought and observation, as well as of great 
xeading and general knowledge. He returned in the sum- 
mer o/f 1695 to London, where he read lectures as he had 
<lone at Oxford ; and became soon after a member of the 
Aoyal Society, and also of the college of physicians. In 
169€ he weiit to Cambridge, and read lectures th^re ; and 
^pon his return to London was honoured with a letter from 
the bishop of Pleskof, in which was contained the case of 
his old master the king of Poland. His advice was desired 
aipoQ it ; but before he could send it, the news came of 
that monarch's death. 

In 1697 he published his ^^ Evangelium medici : seu 
viedicina mystica de suspensis naturae legibus, sive de mi- 
raculis, reiiquisque tv r6i$ ^t^mg memoratis, quse medicee in- 
ilagini subjici possunt.** This little treatise, containing 
16 sections only, was reprinted within the year, and pro- 
cared the author a mixed reputation. Some admired Ms 
ingenuity, but bis orthodoxy and religion were called in 
question by o^ers, as he attempts in this work to account 
lOt the miracles of the Bible upon natural principles. 

The Perish election, upon the death of Sobieski, having 
a strong influence upon the general system of affairs in Eu- 
4rop€, and being a common topic of discourse at that time, 
induced many considerable persons to seek the acquaint- 
ance of Connor, that they might learn from him the state 
)&f that kingdom : which being little known, he was desired 
40 publish what he knew of the Polish nation and country. 
In compliance with this request, he wrote ** The History of 
Poland, in several letters,*' &c. The two volumes, of 
which this work consists, were published separately : and 
the last evidently bears many marks of precipitation, but 
the information was new and interesting. Connor would 
'pTchahly have become eminent in his profession ; but in 
the flower of his age, and just as he began to reap the fruits 
of his learning, study, and travels, he wa^ attacked by a 
fever, which after a short illness carried him off, Oct. 1698, 

166 CONNOR. 

when he was little more than 32 years of age, He had, 
as we observed before, been bred in the Romish religion ; 
but b^d embraced that of the church of England upon his 
Ar$t coming over from Holland.-^ It has nevertheless been 
a matter of doubt, in what communion he died ; but from 
his funeral sermon preached by Dr. Hayley, rector of St. 
jGiles's in the Fields, where he was inteirred, it has been in- 
ferred that, apcording to every appearance, he died in the 
protestant profession. ^ 

CONON was a mathematician and philosopher of Samos, 
who flourished about the 130th olympiad, being a contem- 
porary and friend of Archimedes, to whom Conon commu- 
fiicated his writings, and sent him some problems, which 
Archimedes received with approbation, saying they ought 
tQ be, published while Conon was living, for be compre- 
hended them with ease, and could give a proper demon- 
stration of them. At another time be laments the loss of 
jConon, thus admiring his genius : ^^ How itaany theorems 
in geometry,*' says he, ^' which at first seemed impossible, 
would in time have been brought to perfection! Alas! 
Conon, though he invented many, with which he enriched 
geometry, had not time to perfect; them, but left many in 
the dar}(, bejng prevented by death." He had an uncom- 
mon skill in mathematics, joined to an extraordinary pa- 
tk nee and application. This is farther confirmed by a let- 
ter sent to Archimedes by a friend of Conon*^. *• Having 
heard of Conon's death, with whose friendship I was ho- 
noured, and with whom you kept an intimate correspond- 
ence ; as he was thoroughly versed in geometry, I greatly 
lament the loss of a sincere friend, and a person of surpri- 
sing knowledge in mathematics. I then determined to send 
to you, as I had before done - to him, a theorem in geome- 
try, hitherto observed by no one.-' 

Conon had ^ome disputes with Nicoteles, who wrote 
against him, and treated him with too mucn conteo(ip.t. 
Apollonius confesses it ; though he acknowledges that Co? 
non was nqt fortunate in his demonstrations. Conon in- 
vented a kind of volute, or spiral, different from that of 
Pynostrat^s ; but because Archimedes explained the pro- 
perties of it more clearty, the name of the inventor wa$ 
forgotten, and it was hence called Archimedes's volute o^ 
spiral. As to ponon's astrological or astronomical knpw- 

1 Eiog. BriU 

C O N O N. 1«7 

Itedge, it may ia some measure be gathered from the poem 
of Catullus, who describes it in the begioning of his verses 
on the hair of Berenice, the sister and wife of Ptolomy 
Euergetes, upon the occasion of Conoii having given oat 
that it was changed into a constellation among the stars, to * 
console the queen for the loss, when it was stolen out of 
tbe temple, where she had consecrated it to the gods* ' , 

CONilART (Val£Ntin), secretary of the French king's 
council, was born at Paris 1 603. The French Academy, 
to which he was perpetual secretary, considers him as its 
father and founder. It was in his house that this illustrious 
society took its birth in 1629, and continued to assemble 
till 1634; and be contributed much to render these meet- 
ings agreeable by his taste, his a£EEibility, and politeness. 
He therefore deservedly stiU enjoys a degree of celebrity 
in the republic of letters, though he does not rank among 
eminent scholars, being unacquainted with Greek, and 
knowing but little of Latin. He published some pieces 
of no great merit; as, 1. << Letters to Felibien," Paris, 
1681, l2mo. 2. ^^ A treatise on oratorical action," Paris, 
1657, 12mo, reprinted in 1686, under the name of Michel 
le Faucheur. .3. ^^ Extracts from Martial," 2 vols. 12mo, 
and a few otber trifles. He died Sept. 23, 1675, at the 
age of 72. Conrart managed his estate without avarice 
and without prodigality. He was generous, obliging, .and 
constant in his friendships. He was in habits of intimacy 
with tbe principal people in the several departments of the 
government, who consulted him in the most important af- 
fairs ; and, as he had a complete knowledge of the world, 
they found great resources in his judgment. He kept in- 
violably the secret of others, as well as his own. Being 
brought up a protestant, he continued firm to bis profession. 
It is said that he revised the writings of the famous Claude, 
before they went to press. . Conrart w^s related to Godeau, 
afterwards bishop of Vence, who, whenever he came to 
town, lodged at his house : several men of letters came 
there also, for the sake of conversing with the abb^ : and 
this was the first origin of the acadepiy. ' 

CONRINGIUS (Hermannus), one of tbe eminent pub- 
licists of Germany, and one of the most illustriotis orna- 
pients of tbe German schools, was born at Embdeii Nov. 3, 

} HuttoD'8 Math. Diet.— -Gen. Diet.— MorerK 
I Moreri. — Diet. Hist. 

16« C O H H I N 6 I U S. 

lt06f 9mA Wfs educated at Leydeo, wiiere be made hioiaelf 
acqaaUited with tiie whole circle of scicoees, but chiefly 
applied to theology and medicine; and during his re^^^ 
dence here* is said to have been supported by Matthiais 
OrerbelCy a Dutch neiiehaat, and by G. Calixtus, one of 
jbhe ptofessors. His eminent attainments sopn procured 
hiox disdn^ion ; and he was appointed professor, first of 
Itataral philosppby, and afterwards of medipine, in the uni* 
jvtersity of Brimswick. Turaiog his attention to the study^ 
of history and policy, he became so famous in these branches 
of knowledge, as to attract the attention of princes. Chris^ 
tina, queen of Sweden, who professed to be a general pa^^ 
troness of learned men, invited Conrtngius to her court, 
and upon his arrival received him with the highest marks of 
respect. The offer of a liberal appointment coukl not, 
however, induce him to relinquish the academic life, and 
after a short time he returned to Juliers. But his uncom- 
mon talents for deciding intricate questions on policy were 
not long suffered to lie dormant The elector Palatine, 
the elector of Mentz, the duke of Brunswick, the emperor 
pf Germany, and Louis XIV. of France, all consulted and 
conferred upon him honours and i^war^s. And, if univer-^ 
sai learning, sound judgment, and indefatigable applica* 
tion, can entitle a man to respect, Conringius merited all 
^ the distinction he obtained. The great extent of his abi- 
lities and learning appears from the number and variety 
of his literary producticins. His polemic writings prove him 
to have been deeply read in theology. His medical know- 
ledge appears from his ^^ Introduction to the medi<ial art," 
and his *^ Comparison of the medical practice of the ancient 
Cgyptiand, and the nK>dem Paracelsians.*' The numerous 
^reatis^ which he has left on tlie Germanic institution^ and 
other subjects of policy and law, evince the depth c^nd ac- 
curacy of his juridical learning. His book, ** De herme- 
tica Medicina,^' and bis ** Antiquitates academica,*' discor 
ver a porrect acquaintance with the history of philosophy. 
It is tq be regretted, that this' great man was never able 
wholly to disengage himself from the prepossession in fa- 
vour of the Aristotelian philosophy, which he imbibed in 
his youtn. Although he had the good sense to correct the 
more barren parts of his philosophy, and was not ignorant 
that his system was in $ome particulars defective, he still 
looked up to the Stagyrite as the best guide in the pursuit 
pf truth. It was owing to his partiality fqr ancient pbilo- 

C O N R I N G I U S. 169 

Wfky^ parttcularly for that of Aristotle, that Conringius 
was a violent opponent of the Cartesiarf system. He died 
Dec. 12, 1681. Jiis works were published entire in six 
Totumes folioy Brunswick, 1730, which renders it unneces- 
sary to specify his separate publications. Bibliographers place 
a considerable value on his " Bibliotheca Augaista," Helm- 
stadt, 1661, 4to, an account of the library of the duke of Bruns- 
wick, in the castle of Wolfenbuttle, which then contained 
2000 MSS. and 1 1 6,000 printed volumes. The history of 
literature is yet more illustrated by his " De antiquitatibus 
acmdemicts dissertationes septem," the best edition of which 
is that of Gottingen, 1739, 4to, edited by Heuman, in all 
respects a most valuable work. Of Conringius's enthusiasm 
in the cause of learning, and his love of eminent literary 
characters, we have a. singular instance, quoted by Dr. 
Douglas, from Pechlinus's ** Observationes Physico-me- 
dicae.*' It is there said, on the authority of his son-in-law, 
that Conringius, when labouring under an' ague, was cured, 
without the help of medicines, merely by the joy he felt 
from a conversation with the learned Meibomius. * 

CONSTABLE (Henry), an English poet of the 16th 
century, is said to have been born, or at least descended 
from a family of that name, in Yorkshire, and was for some 
time educated at Oxford, but took bis bachelor's degree at 
St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1579. Edmund Bolton, 
in his " Hypercritica,*' Says, ** Noble Henry Constable 
was a great master of the English tongue ; nor had any 

fentleman of our nation a more pure, quick, or higher de** 
very of conceit : witness, among aU other, that sonnet of 
his before his Majesty's Lepanto." He was the author of 
" Diana, or the excellent conceitful sonnets of H. C. aug- 
mented with divers quatorzains of honorable and learned 
personages, divided into eight decads,'* 1594, 8vo. Of 
these sonnets Mr, Ellis has given three specimens, but 
which he thinks can hardly entitle him to be denominated 
^ the first sonneteer of his time." The most striking of his 
productions is that entitled " The Shepheard's song of Ve- 
nus and Adonis," which is elegantly and harmoniously ei5* 
pressed. Mr. Malone, who reprinted it in the notes to thtt 
loth volume of his Shakspeare, p. 74, thinks it preceded 
Shakspeare's poem on the same subject, which it far excels^ 

. * MbrerL-^Bracker.-p-Morhoff Polyhift.— DoHglsw's Criterion, p. 170.— 
Bibdin's Biblioniai^ia.-»SaxU Onomast.— Epistelaj, with his L'tfe. lielmbtadt. 
1694, 4to. 



at least in taste and natural touches. Of bis life, ^no me*' 
morials have been discovered. Dr. Birch, in his Memoirs pf 
queen Elizabeth, thought him to be the same Henry Con-. 
stable, who was a zealous Roman Catholic, and whose re^ 
ligion seems to have obliged him to live in a state of ba* 
nishment from England. Sir £. Brydges is inclined to the 
same opinion. Constable afterwards came privately to 
^London, but was soon discovered, and imprisoned in the 
Tower of London, whence he was released in the latter end 
of the year 1604. There was another of the name in the 
early part of the 16th century, a John Constable, the 
son of Roger Constable, who was bora in. London, and 
educated under the celebrated William Lilye. From 
thence he was sent to Byham Hall, opposite Merton col- 
lege, Oxford, where, in 1515, he took the degree of M.A. 
and was accounted at that time an excellent poet and rhe- 
torician^ He obtained some preferment, but of that, or of his 
subsequent history, w^ have no account. He published, in 
Latin, ^^ Querela veritatis,"and " Epigrammata," 1520, 4to, 
Like Henry Constable, he was of the Roman Catholic per- 
suasion. ^ 

CONSTANTINE, usually called the Great, is memo- 
rable for having been the first emperor of the Romans who 
established Christianity by the civil power, and was born 
at Naissus, a town of Dardania, 272. The emperor Con- 
stantius Chlorus was his father; and was the only one of 
those who shared the empire at that time, that did not per- 
secute the Christians. His mother Helena was a womau of 
low extraction, an4 the mistress of Constantius, as some 
say; as others, the wife, but never acknowledged publicly : 
^nd it is certain, that she never possessed the title of em- 
press, till it was bestowed on her by her son, after the de- 
cease of bis father. Constantino was a very promising 
youth, and gave nvauy proofs of his conduct and courage ; 
which however began to display themselves more openly a 
little before the death of his father; for, being detained at 
the court of Galerius as an hostage, and discerning .that 
Galerius and his colleagues intended to seize upon that 
part of the empire which belonged to his father, now near 
his end, he made his escape, and went to England, where 

I Warton's Hist, of Poetry, toI. III. S'JT, 280, 2«1, 286,292, 386.— Philips's 
Theafcrum, by Sir E. Brydges, p. 228. — Ellis's Specimens. — Cens. Lit. I. 235.— 
Bil)liofrrapber, vol. III. Helicon, p. xt.— 'Ath. Ox. vpl. I.-i-Lodge> lUaftrati^ns, 
Tol. Hi — Dodd's Ch. Hist.— Tanaer. 


Constanttus then was. When he arrived there, he found 
Constantaus upon his death-bed, who nevertheless was glad 
to see faimi and nuned him for his successor. Constantius died 
at York in 306, and Constantine was immediately proclaimed 
emperor by the soldiers. Galerius at first would not allow 
him to take any other title than that of Csesar, which did 
not hinder him from reigning in England, Gaul, and Spain : 
but having gained several victories over the Germany and 
Barbarians, he took the title of Augustus in 308, with the 
consent of Galerius himself. Some time after, he marched 
into Italy, with an army of 40,000 men, against the em- 
peror Maxentius, who had almost made desolate the city 
of Rome by his cruelties ; and after several successful en- 
gagements, finally subdued him* Eusebius relates, that 
Constantine had pretested to him, t)iat he had seen in that 
expedition a luminous body in the heavens, in the shape 
of a pross, with this inscription, T£a vwa, *^ By this thou 
sbalt conquer :'' and that Jesus Christ himself appeared to 
hiip afterwards in a dr^am, and ordered him to erect a 
iitandard cross-like; which, after his victory, he did in 
the midst of the city of Rome, and caused the following 
words to be inscribed on it : ^* By this salutary sign, which 
is the (emblem of real power, I have delivered your city 
from the dominion of tyrants, and have restored the senate 
and people of Rome to their ancient dignity and splen- 
dour." This, which is pne of the most striking events in 
ecclesiastical history, has also been one of the most coii«- 
tested. Gibbon endeavours to explain it thus :— While (says 
this historian) his anxiety for the approaching day, which 
must decide the fate of the empire, was suspended by a short 
and interrupted slumber, the venerable form of Christ, and 
the well-known symbol of his religion, might forcibly offer 
themselves to the active fancy of a prince who reverenced 
the name, and had perhaps secretly implored the power of 
the God of the Christians ; and with regard to the credit 
due to Eusebius, he thinks Eusebius sensible, that the re- 
cent discovery of this marvellous anecdote would excite 
some surprize and distrust amongst the most pious of his 
readers. Much has certainly been said against t^ie credibi- 
lity of this story by authors less prejudiced against the 
Christian religion tb^n Gibbon. By 'some the whole is 
regarded as a fiction, a stratagem and political device of 
^k>nstantine, yet it is related by Eusebius, ft grave historian, 
who declares that he had. it from the emperor, who pon- 

172 C O N S T A N T I N E. 

firmed the narration by an oath. By Fabricttts^ we am 
told, that the appearance in the heavens vras generally 
looked upon as a reality, and a miracle :» but for his own 
part, he is inclined to consider it as the result of a natural 
phenomenon in a solar halo ; he accordingly admits of the 
reality of the phenomenon, but does not suppose it to be 
properly miraculous. Upon a full and candid review of the 
eTidence, Dr. Lardner seems inclined to doubt the rela- 
tion given by the emperor, upon whose sole credit the 
story is recorded, though it was twenty years afiter the 
event, when Eusebius wrote his account, during which 
period he must have heard it frequently from eye-witnesses, 
]f the emperors relation were accurate that the appearance 
was visible to his whole army as well as to himself. The 
oath of Constantine, on the occasion, with Dr. Lardner, 
brings the. fact into suspicion, and another striking circiun- 
stance is that Eusebius does not mention the place where 
this wonderful sight appeared. Without^ however, enter- 
ing, at present, farther into the discussion, we may ob- 
serve, that Eusebius has led us to the period, when the 
sign of the cross began to be made use of by Constantine, 
among his armies, and at bis battles; this was probably 
the day before the last battle with Maxentius, fought on 
the 27th of October, 312. About this period, it is ad- 
mitted, that Constantine became a Christian, and con- 
tinued so the remainder of his life, taking care also to have 
his children educated in the same principles. His conver- 
sion seems to have been partly owing to his own reflections 
on the state of things, partly to conversation and discourse 
with Christians, with whom, the son of Constantius, their 
friend and favourer, must have been some time acquainted, 
but perhaps, chiefly to the serious impressions of his early 
years, which being once made can never be wholly obli- 
terated. Constantine was however a politician as well as a 
Christian, and he probably hit upon this method to recon- 
/cile the minds of his army to the important change in 
their religious profession and habits, as well as making use 
iof it as a mean of success in his designs against his ene- 
jnies, for which purpose he rightly judged, that the stan- 
dard of the cross, and the mark of it as a device on his 
soldier^s shields, would be of no small service. 

Such appear to be the general sentiments of modern 
historians on this subject. Others, however, find it mofli^. 
difficult to dispute the fact. .<<He,V $ays Mr. Milner, 

C O N S T A N T I N E. 173 

^^ who is determined not to believe Christiaoity to be di«» 
vine, will doubtless disbelieve this miracle^ from the same 
spirit which has iadaced him to ha).rden his hieart against 
much more striking evidence. With such a one i would 
not converse on the subject. But to those who admit the 
divine origin of Christianity, if any such doubt the. truth of 
the miracle, I would say, that it seems to me nK>re reason** 
^ble to admit a divine interposition in a case like this, espe- 
cially considering the important consequences, than to 
deny the veiracity oi Eusebius or of Constaotine. On the 
foniier viiw, God acts like hui]iself, condescending to hear 
prayer, leadiiig the mind by temporal kindness to look ta 
Iml £ov spiritual blessings, and confirming the truth of ^ his 
own religion ; ou the latter, two men not of the best, but 
surely l>y no means of the worst character, are unreason- 
ably suspected of deliberate perjury or falsehood/' Much 
of this passage must be supposed to allude personally to 
Gibbon ; but on the other hand, thece are certainly many 
who^ believe Christianity to be divine, and yet cannot ac- 
quiesce in this ipiracle ; not from a doubt that such might 
have tak^n place in the order of providence^ but from a 
If ant of ample testimony that it really did take place. 

After Constantine had settled', the affairs of Rome^ he 
went to Milao^ where he celebrated the marriage of his 
sister with the emperor of the East, Licinius. I» this 
town it was that these two emperors issued out the first 
edict in favour of the Christian religion, by wbicb they 
granted liberty of conscience to all their • subjects: and a 
second soon after, by which they permitted the Christians 
to hold religious assc«kblies in public, and ordered all the 
places, where they had been accustomed to assemble, to 
be given np to them. A war broke out in 314,, between 
Constantine and Licinius, which subjected the Christians 
to a perseeutiott from the latter; but after a battle or two^ 
in which neither had any reason to triumph, a peace en-^ 
sued^ and things returned to their usual course. Constan* 
tine now applied himself entirely to regulate and adjust 
the affairs of the churchb He called councils,, heard dia-< 

Sates and settled them, and made laws in favom* of the 
hristiaoa. In 324, another war broke out between these 
two ea^perors ; the result of which was, that Constantine 
at le»gth overcame Licininsi and pot him to deaths. He was 
BOW sole master of the empire, without any controul, so 
that tht Christians had every thing to hope, and apparentl^jr 

17* C O N S t A N T I N fi. 

nothittg to fear: nor were they disappointed. But the 
misfortune was, that the Christians were no sooner secure 
against the assaults of enemies from without, but they fell to 
quarrelling among themselves. The dispute between Arius 
and Alexander was agitated at this time ; and so very 
fiercely, that Constantino was forced to cajl the council of 
Nice to put an end to it. He assisted at it himself^ ex- 
horted the bishops to peace, and would not hear the accu- 
sations they had to offer against each other. He banished' 
Arius and the bishops of his party, ordering at^the same 
time his books to be burnt ; and made the rest submit to 
the decision of the council. He had founded innumi^rable 
churches throughout the empire, and ordered them to be 
furnished and adorned with every thing that was neoeasaty. 
He went afterwards to Jerosaleoi, to try if he could disco-' 
ver the sepnlchre of Jesus Christ ; and caused a most mag^ 
nificent church to be built at Bethlehem. About this time 
be gave the name of Constantinople to the town of Byzan* 
tium, and endowed it with all the privileges, of ancient 
Rome. After this he laboured more abundantly than ever 
he had done yet, in aggrandizing the church, and publish- 
ing laws against heretics. He wrote to the^ing oif Persia 
in favour of the Christians, destroyed the heathen temples, 
built a great many churches, and caused innumerable copies 
. of the Bible to be made. In short, he did so much for re* 
ligion, that he might be called the head of the church, in 
things which concerned its exterior policy. The orthodox 
Christians have nevertheless complained of him a little for 
listening to the adversaries of Athanasius, and consenting, 
as he did, to banish him : yet he would not suffer Arius or 
his doctrines to be re-established, but religiously and con- 
stantly adhered to the decision of the council of Nice; 

It must needs, however, seem extraordinary, that this 
emperor, who took such a part in the affairs of the Chris- 
tians^ who appeared to be convinced of the truth and divi- 
nity of their religion, and was not ignorant of any of its 
doctrines, should so long defer being initiated into it by 
the sacrament of baptism. " Whether," says Dupin, " -be 
/ thought better not to be baptized till the time of his death, 

with a view of washing. away, and atoning for all his sins at 
once, with the water of baptism,' and being presented pure 
and unspotted before God, or whatever his reasons were,' 
he never talked of baptism till his last illness." When 
that began, he ordered himself to be baptized ; and £use- 

C O N S T A N T I N E. 175 

bius of Csesarea relates, that the ceremony was performed 
upon him by Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia. 

He died io 337, aged 66 ; and divided the empire 
among his three sons, Constantine, Constantius, and Con- 
stans. Eusebius has written the life and acts of this em- 
peror, in which he makes him «very thing that is great and 
good : it is rather a panegyric than a life. Whatever great 
and good qualities Constantine possessed, he certainly 
possessed some which were neither great nor good ; and it 
is allowed that he was guilty of many private acts of a very 
atrocious nature. 

Several epistles relating to ecclesiastical matters, written 
^ either by hina, or in his name, are still extant ; as are his 
several edicts, as well concerning the doctrines as disci- 
pline of the church* Among these edicts is still to be 
seen, the noted one by which he bequeaths to Sylvester 
bishop of Rome, and to his successors for ever, the sove- 
reignty of Rome and all the provinces of the Western em- 
pire. But this, though it carries the name of Constantine, 
is manifestly spurious ; and though it might be df some use 
in supporting the authority of the Roman pontiff in dark 
and ignorant ages, yet since the revival of letters it has 
been given up even by the papists as a forgery too baro- 
faced to be defended. ^ . 

CONSTANTINE VII. (Porphyrogeneta), son of Leo 
the Wise, was born at Constantinople in 905, and ascended 
the throne at the age of seven years, under the tutelage of 
his mother Zoe, the ilth of June 911. No sooner -had he 
taken the reins of government in his hand, than he chas- 
tised the tyrants of Italy, took Benevento from the Lom- 
bards, and drove off, by means of money, the Turks who 
were pillaging the frontiers of Epire ; but he afterwards 
allowed himself to be entirely governed by Helena his wife, 
daughter of Romanus Lecapenes, grand-admiral of the 
enlpire. She sold the dignities of the church and the state, 
burdened the people with taxes, and exercised towards 
them every species of oppression, while her husband was 
employing his time in readings and became as able an ar- 
chitect and as great a painter as he was a bad emperor. 
Romanus, the son of* this indolent prince by his wife He- 
lena, impatient to govern, caused poison to be mingled 
with some medicine prescribed to him ; but Constantine; 

^ UoiT. Hiftory.— Mosheim and MUaer*8 Church Histories.— Gibhon^ His- 
lory.— Lardner's Work?.— -CrcTier's Romaa Emperors.— Cave^ vol, I.— Saxii 

176 C O N S T A N T I N E. 

having rejected the greater part of it, survived till a year 
afterwards, and died Nov. 9, 959, at the age of 54, after 
a reign of 48 years. This prince, the patron of learning, 
and the friend of the learned, left behind him several work$ 
whicli would have^done honour to a private person. Tbo 
principal of them are : 1 . The Life of the emperor Basilius 
the Macedonian, his grandfather, inserted in the coUec* 
tion of AUatius. It is sometiines deficient in point of trittb^ 
and savours too n>uch of the panegyrical. 2. Two boohs 
of ** Themata,'' or positions of the provinces and tb^ 
towns of the euipire, published by father Bandutri in the 
" Imperium Oriemale," Leipsic, 1754, folio- We have 
few works preferable to this for the geography of the mid'^ 
die agesy particularly as to the state and condition of 
places as tbey were in his time. 3, A Treatise on the 
Affairs of the Empire ; in the above-mentioned work of 
Banduri, containing the origin of divers nations, their 
forces, their progress, their alliances, their revo^utionsy afid 
the succession of their sovereigns, with other interesting 
particulars* 4. *^ De re Busoca," Cambridge, 1704, 8vow 
5, *< Excerpta ex Poly bio, Diodoro Siculo/' fcc. Paris^ 
1634,^ 4to. 6. ^< ExcerpU de legatis, Graec. & Lat." 1 64a, 
fol making a part of the Byaantiiie historians. 7. <^ De 
caeremoniis aulffi Byzantinae,** Leipsic, 1751, foUo. 8. A 
Body of Tactics, 8vo. * 

CONSTANTINE of Afri^^a, and surnamed the African, 
waa born at Carthage in the eleventh century, an<l travel* 
led into the east, where be lived thirty years, chiefly at 
Babylon and Bagdad, studied the medical art, and inade 
himself master of the Arabic and the other oriental Ian* 
guages, and then returned to Carthage ; from whence he 
went into Apulia, and lived at {leggio, and at last became 
a monk of Monte Csi^ino. He is said to have been the first 
that brought the Greek and Arabian physic into Italy 
again. He compiled several books; and has given us a 
translation of Isaac Israelitus on fevers, out of Arabic intd 
Latin ; and another book, which be calls ^^ Loci Com* 
munes," contains the theory and practice of physic, and is 
chiefly co|Hed from Uali Abbas^ After a residence of 
thirty-nine years at Babylon, he returned to Carthage, bat 
toon feU into such disgrace with his countrymen, whom be 
suspected of intending to destroy h>B», th%t he went to 

* Univ. Hist, — ^MQferi.«^I>ut>in.<— Saxii OBomastitiOB. 


S»Ieni\iin. 'Thdugblfie waa tIi^re.iiitrodttced!l'aduke'Rd»> 
b^cty who mshed to retaia hilu about bis person, preferring 
a life of. ease and. retirement, he entered into a monasteiry 
of the Benedictines^ St^fAgatha,. ia Avecsa, where he.diied 
iaJ087.* .^ 

CONST ANTIN (Robert), doctor of physic, and pror 
fessor of t\h beltesJettresin the university ofCa^n, was 
bom in 1302, and acquired great reputation by his skill ia 
the Greek, Latiii, alkd oriental languages. He lived /to 
103 years of age, and, 'it is said, without any failure of 
powers in either body or mind, died of a pleurisy in • 1 605^ 
hut others. have reduced. his age to 75. He has Mt, ^^ A 
Lexicon, Greek and Lading'' better digested, as some think, 
than that of Henry Stephens : Stephens^ ranging the Greek 
words according to. thfc&r rootsj Conatantin in alphabetical 
ocder.i , The first editioii, of little value, appeared in 156^, 
but the best is. the second, Geneva, 1592, 2 vols, folio* 
Those o£. Genev^. 1607 ^ and Leyden^ 1637, are only the 
preceding with new Utle^-pages. His editions, with anno-^ 
tations, of the works of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Celsus^ 
and Quintus 'Sereaus, gained him much credit. They 
were published. between the years 1554 and 1566, as was 
also his ^'Nomenclatorinsignium Scriptorum, quorum libri 
extant, vel manuscripti vel impressi,'' 8vo.f 

CONTANT (P^TEa),. an eminent French architect, was 
bom. March 11, 16d8, at Ivri sur Seine. He studied draw* 
iag under the celebrated Watteau, and having occasion 
afterwards to go into the office of M. Dulin, an architect, 
he made so great a progress in that art, as to be admitted 
a member of the ao^demy at the age of twenty-eight. M. 
CoQtant had more business than any other architect of his 
^ime, if we may judge from, the great number of buildings 
in which he was employed. Among these we may enume-* 
rate, the houses of M. Grozat^de Tugny, and of M. Crozat 
de Thiers; the stables of Bissey, where he first tried those 
brick arches, which. einen to! connoisseurs • appear so bold 
and astonishing ; the church of Panthemont ; the royal pa-» 
Jace ; the amphitheatre at St. Cloud ; the church of Conde 
in Flanders; Lta.Gouvernance at Lisle; the church de Ia 
Madelene, which he' could not finish. He had a paralytic 
stroke on the right side, three years before his death ; but 

• * Moreri.— Haller, Bibl. Bot.— Cave, vo], Il-t^Saxii Onomast. 
" • Mor^ri.— Clement Bibl. Curieuse.^-Saxii Onomast 

Vo^X. . N 

178 C O N T A N T. 


during bis iihidw, and iiodi^ tanome tiis handy bapUmied 
the eburch of St. Waast at Airas.. This be»iti£tti edifice 
has been sw much admired as^tbe ohnecb of St. Madelene^ 
This celebrated artist died at Ppiity Oqtober J, 1777^ aged 
79. He left a folio volume of his system of architectuve 

. CONTARENI (Gmpak), a learned cardinal in the six* 
teenth centary, ivas one of the ilkisticious. £unily of that 
name at Venice, which has produced so many gp^eat men. 
He was ambassador 'from the sepuUic to the empo'or 
Chades V. and employed in several tmpostant negotiattons. 
PauMIL created him cardinal 1535, sent him as: legate 
into Germany, and^fterwards to Bnlegna. Oonltsreiii ^nus 
eminent for bis learning, and skill in public affnm^ He 
died 1542, at Bologna^ aged 59« He left several tbeolo* 
gical works, written in. good Latvn^ and a treatise on. the 
immortality of the Soot-, again^t'Poratponatios^ collected in. 
one volume fol. 1571. His most esteemed work^ are, '* De 
Optimi Antistitis o£ck>,'' and his notes^ on the obsenre 
passages in St. Paul's epistles.<^ 

CONTARINI (Vinobnt), a. profisssor of eloquence at 
Padua, who died at Venice, his nadve place, in 1617, at 
the age of 40, coltivated. the- belles leures, like his friend 
Muretus, with great application and success. Of the 
sevemt WEOrks'be left behind him, the most esteemed are, 
his tract ^^ l>e re frumentaria,'^ and that '< D<fe militari Ho^ 
manornm stipendio/^ Venice, 1609,: in 4to, both of them 
against Ju.<tus Lipsius^ and his ^ VarisD Lectiones," '160(^ 
4U>, which contain very learned reqierks.' 

CONTl <AasE Anthony), a noble Venetian, was bom 
in 1678, and after a suitid>le education, travelled into mos| 
of the countries of Europe^ and conciliated the esteem of 
all men of tetters by the eietent of his knowledge and the 
amiabieness of his manners. He- wrote some tr^gedieff^ 
printed at Lucca, 1765, which, however, were found more 
agreeable in the closet, than interesting on the stage $ and 
his poems are:rather unfinished sketches of the metaphy* 
sical kind, than genuine productions of die muse. On 
a visit he made to London, he formed a great intimacy 

with sir Isaac Newton, who, though very reserved in ge« 

i' • ' 

1 I/AvQcat't Diet. Hist 

'« iDupin. — Freher} Theatram. — ^Blfont's Censura. — Life by Casa^ in ''.J. 
Cas£e Monimenta,'* an4 iu Bates's Vitse Select Virorum.— *Clem. BibU Car^ 
Saxii Onomast ' Moreri.— Diet Hist* 

C O N T L 179 

vemly* used fireely to discourse with bim on his discoveries 
irr the several braixches of science to which he was so hap- 
pily devoted. He carried back with him into Italy a heart 
and a mind entirely English. His works in prose and verse 
were collected at yenice,» 1739, 2 vols. 4t09 and his post- 
humous performances in 1756, 4to. Though the opuscula 
of the abb^ Cxinti are no* more than embryos, as one of the 
Itaii^tt journalists said of them, yet they give a very advan^ 
tageoos idea of their father. They consist of thoughts^ 
reflections, and dialogues on several important subjects. 
The abb6 died in 1749. ^ * 

CONTI (Armand DEBotlRftON), prince of, the second 
son of Henry II. .prince of Cond^, first prince of the blood 
royal of France, was bom in 1629, and appears to have 
devoted himself to serious 'Studies from his infancy, bein^ 
at the age of sixteen able to dispute with learned divines 
on theological topics. It was. probably this disposition 
which' inclined his &fher to devote hitn to thechurch, and 
to procure for him the abbeys of St. Dennis, Cluhi, &c. a 
mode of preferment common in those days. But having 
the misfortune to lose his father and mother in his infancy, 
he abandoned his pious pursuits, and engaged in the civil 
wars on the side which opposed the king; and became 
above all things attached to theatrical amusements^ 
and even to the company of the players. In his twenty- 
fourth year be married' a niece ci the cardinal Mazarine^ 
who zppesLn to have in some measure recalled bim to his 
farmer way of thinking. After the troubles of the king* 
dom had been composed,- and he received into favour, be 
was made governor of the province of Languedoc, and 
sent into Catalonia, to command the royal army as viceroy, 
where he distinguished himself for bravery and prudence. 
On his return from his last campaign, he had some con- 
ferences with the bishop of Aiet, a man of great piety, who 
effectually revived in htm the sentiments of bis youth, and 
Irom this time the prince lived an example of regularity in 
religions matters, such as was rare in his family, or in the 
court. With respect to those of the reformed religion, 
liowever, be extended" bis liberality no farther than the 
strict letter of the law, and wfaenr any of them built churches 
in his government, contrary to the king's edicts, he caused 
them to be demolished, at the ^ame time endeavouring^ 

1 Diet. Hist. 
N 2 

180 C O K T I. 

wlmt wad at that time a favourite object, to bring about an 
.union between the catholics and protestants. His wealth 
he employed in acts of benevolence, and his time in the 
iustruction of bis children and dependents in piety and 
virtue* He died at Pezenas in 1666, in the thirty-seventh 
year of his age. His /^ Life and Works" were translated, 
and published in English, in. 1711, 8vo.. The latter con- 
sist of treatises on the duties of, the, great; on the obli- 
gations of a governor of ,a province ; instructions for various 
officers under government ; and two treatises against plays 
and shews, with an appendix of the septiments of the 
fathers, &c. on the same subject. ^ 

CONTI (GiusTO j>i), an Italian poet, of an ancient fa- 
ipily, was. born about the end of the fourteenth, and died 
•at Rin)ini about the middle of the fifteenth centaury. We 
have few particulars of his life. He appears to have been 
a. lawyer by profession, and being at Bologna in 1409, he 
fell in love with the beauty whom he has celebrated in his 
verses. There is a collection of his poems, much esteemed, 
under the title of ^'La bella Mano," Paris, 1595, 12mo, 
with some pieces of poetry by several of the old poets of 
.Tuscany. This collection had been published for the first 
time at Venice, in 1492, 4to, and the abb6 Salvini gave a 
new edition of it at Florence in 1715, accompanied with 
prefaces and annotations ; but thi&is not so complete as 
.either the edition of Paris, or that of Verona, 1 753, in 4to. 
He was a professed imitator of Petrarch, but, although not 
destitute of merit, is greatly inferior to his model. * . 

CONWAY (Henry Seymour), an English officer and 
statesman, the second son of Francis, first lord Conway, 
.was born in 1720, and appeared first in public life in 1741 
.as one of the kjiights for the county of Antrim, in the par- 
.lia,ment of Ireland; and in the. same year was elected 
for Higham Ferrers, to sit in the ninth parliament of Great 
^Britain. He was afterwards chosen for various other places 
'from 178P, when he represented St.. Edmund's 
Bury. In 1741 he was constituted captain-lieutenant in 
the .fir^t regiment of foot-guards, with the rank Qf lieute- 
:nant-colonei; and in April 1746, being then aid-de-camp 
,to the duke. of Cumberland, he got the command of the 
.forty-eighth regiment of foot, and the twenty^ninth in July 

^ Life as above. — Diet. Hist > Diet. Hist.— Ginguene Hist. JaU d*Italie. 

C O N W A Y. 18t 

1749. He was constituted colonel of the thirteenth regi- 
ment of dragoons in December 1751, which he resigned 
upon being appointed colonel of the first, or royal regi- 
ment of dragoons, Septembers, 1759. In January 1756 
he was advanced to the rank of major-general ; in March 
1759, to that of lieutenant-general; in May 1772, to that' 
of general; and in October 12, 1793, to that of field 
marshal. He served with reputation' in his several military 
capacities, and commanded the British forces in Germany, 
under prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, in 1761, during the 
absence of the marquis of Granby. He was one of the 
grooms of the bed-chiambor to George II. and likewise to 
his present majesty till April 1764, when, at the end of 
the session of parliament, he resigned that office and his 
military commands, or, more properly speaking; was dis- 
missed for voting against the ministry in t\\e question of 
general warrants. His name, however, was continued in 
the list of the privy counsellors in Ireland ; and William, 
the fourth duke of Devonshire, to whom he had been se- 
cretary when the duke was viceroy in Ireland, 'bequeathed 
him at his death, in 1764, a legacy of 5000/. on account of 
his conduct in parliament. On the accession of the Rock- 
ingham administration in 1765, he was sworn of the privy 
council, and appointed joint-secretary of state with the 
duke of Grafton, which office he resigned in January 1768. 
In February following, he was appointed colonel of the 
fourth regiment of dragoons; in October 1774, colonel of 
the royal regiment of horse-guards ; and in October 1772, 
governor of the island of Jersey. On March 30, 1782, h% 
was appointed commander in chief of his majesty's forces, ' 
which he resigned in December 1783. He died at his seat 
at Park-place, near Henley upon Thames, Jdly 9, 1795. 
General Conway was an ingenious man, of considerable 
abilities, but better calculated to be admired in the pri- 
vate and social circle, than to shine as a great public cha- 
racteh In politics, although we believe conscientious, he 
was timid and wavering. He had a turn for literature, and 
some talent for poetry, and, if we mistake not, published, 
but without his name, one or two political pamphlets. In 
his old age he aspired to the character of a dramatic writer, 
producing in 1789, a play, partly from the French, entitled * 
" False Appearances," which was not, however, very suc- 
cessful. His most intimate friend appears to have been . 
the late lord Orford, better known as Horace Walpole, 

182 G p N W A Y> 


who was his cousin, and addressed to hiiu a considerable 
part of those letters which form the fifth volume oif bis 
Iprdship^s works. This correspondence commenced in 
1740, when Walpole was twenty-three years old, and Mr. 
Conway twenty. They bad gone abroad together with the 
celebrated poet Gray in 1739, bad spent three months 
together at Rheims, and afterwards separated at Geneva. 
I^rd Orford's letters, although evidently prepared for the 
press, evince at least a cordial and inviolable friendship 
for his porrespondent,. of which also he gave another proof 
in a letter published in defence of general Conway when 
dismissed from his oiBces^ and a testimony of affection 
yet o^ore decided, in bequeathing his fine villa, of Straw- 
berry Hill to Mrs. Damer, general Conway^s daughter, for 
her life. * . 

CONYBEARE (John), a learned divine and prelate of 
the church of ^England, was born at Pinhoe, near Exeter, 
on the 3ist of January, 1 6a 1-2. His father wa& the rev. 
John Conybeare, vicar of Pinhoe ; and his mother, Grace 
Wilcocks, was the daughter of a substantial gentlecdan 
farmer of that place. . At a proper age, he was sent to the 
free-school of Exeter for grammatical education, where 
Haliet and Foster, afterwards two eminent dissenting di- 
vines, were his contemporaries. On the 23d of February^ 
1707-8, Mr. Conybeare was admitted a battler of Exeter 
college, Oxford, under the tuition of Mr. Thomas Rennel, 
afterwards Dn Rennel, many years rector of Drew^s 
Teington, Devon. Mr. Conybeare, on his coming to the 
university, was, according to the language of that place, 
chum with Mr. Richard Harding, who was elected fellow of 
Exeter colliege in 1709, and died rector of Marwood in 
Devonshire, in 1782, in the ninety- fifth year of his age. 
How early our ypung student obtained, the esteem of the 
learned society with which he was connected, appears from 
his having been chosen on the 30th of June, 17 10, and 
a^dmitted on the 8th of July following, a probationary fel- 
low of his college, upon sir William Petre's foundation, in 
the room of Mr. Daniel Osborne. When he was proposed 
as a candidate, it was only with the design of recommend- 
ing him to future notice ; but such was the sense entem 
tained of bis extraordinary merit, that he was made the ob« 

* Sir E. Brydges'i edition of Collins'a Feerase.-.*Lord Qrford*8 Works, Pre- 
face, an4 toI. V. |»as8iiii. 

C O N Y B £ A R E. iSS 

ject of iRHiiediate election. Mr. Harding used to say, that 
Mr. Cooybeare had every way the advantage of him, ex* 
cepting in seniority; and that be should have bad no 
chance in. a competition with, him, if they had both been 
eligible at the same time. The patronage of Dr. Rennel) 
Mr. Conybeare's worthy tutor, concurred with his own 
desert, in bringing him forward thus early to academical 
advantages. On the 1 7th of Jul}', 1713, he was admitted 
to the degree of bachelor of arts; and at the next election 
of college officers, upon the 30th of June, 1714, he was 
appointed prselector, or moderator, in philosophy. On 
the 19th of December following, he received deacon's 
orders from the hands of Dr. WUIiam Talbot, bishop of 
Oxford ; and on the 27th of May, 1716, he was ordained 
priest by sir Jonathan Trelawny, bishop of Winchester. 
On the 16th of April, 1716, he proceeded to the degree of 
master of arts ; soon after which he entered upon the cu« 
ncy of Fetcham, in Surry, where he continued about a 
year. He was advised to this change of scene for the 
benefit of his healthy which was always delicate, and had 
been greatly impaired by the intenseness of his application. 
Upon his return from Fetcham to Oxford, he became a 
tutor in his own college, and was much noticed in the ttni<>> 
versigr as a preacher. In the beginning of the year 1722, 
he published a sermon, which he had delivered before the 
university, on the 24th of December preceding, from 
Hebrews ii. 4, entitled ^^The nature, possibility, and cer* 
tainty of Miracles, &c.^' This discourse was so well re* 
chived, that it went through four editions. Mr. Cony- 
beare was hence encouraged to commit to the press a se« 
cond sermon, &om 1 Corinthians xiii. 12^ which he had 
preached before the university, on the 2ist of October, 
1724, . and the title of 'which was, '^ The Mysteries of the 
Christian Religion credible^'* It is probable, that the 
reputation our author gained by these discourses, recom* 
mended him to the notice of the bishop of London (Dr. 
Gibson), who appointed him one of his majesty's preachers 
«t Whitehall, upon the first establishment of that institu- 
tion. The esteem in which hisabiiities and character were 
held, procured him, also, the favour of the lord chancellor 
Macclesfield, who^ in May 1724, presented him to the 
jrectory of St. Clement's in Oxford ; a preferment of no 
great value, but which was convenient to him from his con- 
sti^ot residence at that place, and from its being compatible 

• 1 


18i C O N y B E A R E. 

jvitb ,bi£i fellowship. In 1725, be was chosen saiior proc« 
tor^of the university, which oiBce he served in conjunctiou 
with Mr. Barnaby Smyth, fellow of Corpus^Chriati college, 
fvnd a scholar of eminence. In the same year, Mr. Cony- 
b^are Was called upon to preach a visitation sermon before 
the bishop of Oxford, at whose request it was published, 
under the title of " The Case of Subscription to Articles 
pf Religion considered," and obtained no small degree of 
celebrity, being referi:;ed to in the controversy relatii^g to 
subscription. The position of Mr. Conybeare is, that 
^' every one who subscribes the articles of religion, does 
thereby engage, not only not to dispute or contradict 
them ; but his subscription amounts to an approbation of, 
and an ^ssent to, the truth of the doctrines therein con- 
tained, in the very sense in which the compilers are sup- 
posed to have understood them.'' Mn Conybeare^s next 
publication was aa assize sermon, preached at St. Mary's, 
Oxford, in 1727, from Ezra vii. 26, and entitled ." The 
Penal sanctions of l^ws considered." This discourse, was 
dedicated by him to the honourable Charles Talbot, at 
that tiipe solicitor-general, afterwards lord high chancellor 
of Great Brits^in, who had honoured our author with the 
care of bis two eldest sons, Mr. Charles Talbot, celebrated 
by the poet Thomson, and the late earl Talbot, steward 
of his majesty's household. On the lith of July, 1728, 
Mr. Conybeare was admitted to the degree of bachelor of 
divinity ; and on the 24th of January foUowing> be took 
his doctor's degree. In the year 1729, be again appeared 
from the press, in a sermon that had been preached before 
the lord mayor and. aldermen at St. Paul's cathedral, and 
which was entitled "The Eippediency of a Divine Revela- 
itioa represented." It was acc^mp^tnied with a dedication 
to bishop Talbot, father of tbe sf»licitor^general. From 
Dr. Conybeare's introduction to this family, and the re- 
putation be had acquired as a divine, it was expected that 
he would sQon have been promoted to some dignity in the 
church. But the good bishop was taken oif before be had 
a proper opportunity of carrying bis benevolent intentions 
in our author's favour into execution. In 1730, the bead- 
ship of Exeter cqllege becoming vacant, by the death of 
Dr. Hole, Dr. Conybeare was chosen to succeed him. His 
competitor, on this occasion, was the rev. Mr. Stephens, 
vicar of St. Andrew's, Plymouth, a truly worthy clergyr 
mWf »and the author of several ingemous disoomrses. 

C O N Y B E A R E. 185 

NeTerthelessi as he bad retired early from the society, he 
coatd not be supposed to carry such weight with him as 
Dr. Conybeare, who had resided constantly in the college. 
Ill this year Dr. Tindats famous deistical book had ap« 
peared, entitled '^ Christianity as old as the Creation, or 
the Gospel a Republication of the Law of Nature." This 
work excited the greatest attention, and drew forth the 
pens of some of the ablest divines of the kingdom, both in 
the church of England, and among the protestant dissen- 
ters. Bishop Gibson, who had himself engaged in the 
controversy in his " Pastoral Letters," encouraged Dr. 
Conybeare to undertake the task of giving a full and par? 
ticular answer to Tindal's ptoduction. Accordingly, he 
published in 1732, his <^ Defence of Revealed Religion," 
London, 8voj by which he gained great credit to himself^ 
and performed an eminent' service to the cause of Chris-* 
tianityw- In his dedication to the learned prelate now men-r 
tinned, he observes, that if he has pot succeeded in his 
book according to his wishes, he may plead that it was 
drawn up amidst a variety of interruptions, and under a 
bad state of health. ** This," says he, << will in some sort 
excuse the author, though it may detract from the per^ 
formahce." But Dr. Conybeare^s work did not stand in 
need of an apology. It i$ distinguished by the perspi- 
cuity of its method, and the strength of its reasoning ; and 
is, indeed, one of the ablest vindications of revelation 
which England has produced. So well wa^ the work re- 
ceived, that the third edition of it was published in 1733. 
Dr. Warburton jti^ly styles it one of the best reasoned 
books in the world. It is likewise recommended by the 
temper and candour with which it is composed. Dr. Cony- 
beare's Defence will always maintain its rank, and perhaps 
be thought to sustain the first place among the four capital 
answers which ^Tindal received. The other three werej 
Foster^s ^^ Usefulness, Truth, and. Excellency of the 
Christian Revelation ;" Leland's *^ Answer to a late book, 
entitled Christianity as old as the Creation ^" and Mr. Si- 
mon Browne's ** Defence of the Religion of Nature and 
the Christian Revelation." 

Though Dr. Conybeare, by his promotion to the head-' 
ship of Exeter college, had obtained a considerable rank in 
the university, he did not, by the change of his situation, 
make any addition to his fortune. Indeed, the emolu<« 
ments of bis nevir place yr^te so small, that he n as inuch 

186 C O N Y 8 E A R E. 

rkhet is a prh^e fellow and tutor, tbaa ss the - gmremor 
of his eoU^ge. It may be presumed that this circamstance 
in party mod still mofse the reputation he had acquired by 
his answer to Tindal, loduced the bishop of London, who 
at that time had great influence in tlie disposal of, eccler 
siastical pr^erments, to exert himself more Tigorously in 
our author?s behalf. This the good prelate so effectually 
did, that on the deAth of Dr. Bradshaw, bishop of Bristol^ 
and dean of Christ church, Oxford, in December, 1732^ 
Dr. Coiiybeare was appointed to succeed him in the latter 
dignity. Accordingly the doctor was installed dean of 
that cathedral in the month of January following. On 
this joccasion, he resigned th^ headship of Exeter college ; 
and not long after, he gave up likewise the rectory of St., 
Clement's, in favour of a friend, the rev. Mr. Webber, one 
of the fellows of Exeter. On the 6th of June, 1 733, dean 
Conybeare married Miss Jemima Juckes, daughter of Mr, 
William Juckes, of Hoxton-rsquare, near London .; ^nd in 
the same year he published a sermon, which he bad 
pfeached in the cathedral of St. Peter, Exon, in August 
1732, from 2 Peter iii. 16, on xh6 subject of scriptur^^ 
diScultiea. In the beginning of the next year, he had the 
honour of entertaining the prince of Orange at the deanery 
of Chrbt church. The prince^ who had come into Eng- 
land tO: marry the princess royal, being desirous of visiting^ 
Oxford, and. some of the places adjacent, took up his resi-> 
dence at Dr. Conybeare's apartments ; and how solicitous 
the dean was to treat his illustrious guest with a proper 
splendour atld dignity, appears from hif. havihg received, 
by the bands of one of her servants, the especial thanks 
of queen Caroline on the occasion. 

When in 1737, Morgan had published his '' Moral Phi- 
losopher,^' the dean had it in contemplation to answer that 
work^ so far as the general scheme of the writer might be 
thought to deserve it ; and he had prepared many materials 
for this purpose. The design, for what reason we knovi^ 
not, was never carried into execution; and the omission 
mifty be regretted, though it must at the same time be ac^ , 
kqowledged, that Dr. Morgan was encountered by a numbev 
of very able and 'successful antagonists. It is to the ho- 
nour of dean Conybeare*s temper, that he expressed . hja 
hope, that none of the animadverters on the '^ Moral Phi- . 
losopher'' would be provoked to imitate bis scurrilities. In 
173&, th.* iean was requested to preach the sermon at tbo 




annual meetidg of the several charity-niehoQlf in LoadoQ^ 
vbich he did from Galatiaos vL 9 ; and tlie discoufae waa 
published. In 1747, he met with a great domestic afflio 
tion, in the loss of his lady, who departed this life on the 
29th of October, after their union bad subsisted not much 
longer than fourteen years. When, on the SSth of April^ 
1749, a day of solemn thanksgiving was held, on account 
of the treaty of Aix-la-Cbapelle, which had been signed 
on the 18th of October in the preceding year. Dr. Cony- 
beare was fixed upon to preach before the honourable house 
of commons on thb occasion^ The subject was, ** True 
Patriotism." ' 

Aa Dr. Conybeare was raised early in life to so conspi- 
cuous a station as that of the deanery of Christ church, 
it might have been expected, from his eminent merit and 
learning, that he would sooner have been called to the 
higher honours of his profession. But it is to be remem- 
bered, that not long after his promotion to the deanery, his 
good ftiend, the bishop of London, lost his influence at 
c6urt ; and the lord diancellor Talbot dying in the year 
1737, our author had mo particular patron to recommend 
him tq royal favour. It was not, therefore, till the latter 
end of 1750, that be attained the imtre; and this was 
more owing to his acknowledged abilities and character, 
than to any personal interposition. On the translation of 
Dr. Joseph Butler to the see of Durham, Dr Conybeare 
^as appointed to the bishopric of Bristol; and Was conse- 
crated at Lambeth chapel, on the 23d of December. The 
consecration sermon, which was soon afterwards published, 
was preached by Francis Webber, D. D. rector of Exeter 
college. The promotion of Dr. Conybeare to the prelacy, 
whilst it raised him to the highest order of the church, and 
enlargefd his sphere of usefulness, was injurious to his pri* 
vate fortune. The slender revenues of his bishopric were 
not equal to the expences which accrued from bis neces« 
sary residence sometimet at Bristol, and sometimes at 
Loildon *. Four discourses were published by our author 
after be became a bishop. The first was the Easter Mon* 
<bty sermon, in 1751, from Proverbs xL 17, before tbe^ 

* By a Ms letter froii^ Dr. tytfcel- he was bwhop, except one Urn of wt' 

|0B,< afterwards bishop of Carlisle, we guineas, which was all he reoehrod. 

leant that bishop Conybeare made no Bishop Newton's account of this bi« 

nore than d30/. clear per annuni of sbopric is, we belieTe» nmch the SttM* 
Uiis bishopric 4uring; the whole time 

1 88 C O N Y B E A R E. 

lord mayor and aldermen of the city of London, in which 
die virtue of being merciful was stated and enforced. The 
second was preached before the house of lords, on the * 
1 1th of June, in the same year, from Psalm IxxviiL 72, 
upon occasion of his majesty's accession to the throne: 
the subject treated of, was civil government The third 
was from Matthew xviii. 10, 11, in favour of the Irish pro- 
testant schools ; and the fourth, from James i. 27, was be- 
fore the sons of the clergy, at Bristol. Both these dis- 
courses were printed in 1752. It may be observed, with 
regard to the twelve single sermons published by our pre- 
late, that they were not vague, declamatory essays, calcu* 
lated only to answer a present purpose, but judicious and 
solid compositions, in which important topics were dis- 
cussed with great perspicuity of method and language, and 
with equal strength of reasoning ; so that it is not a little 
to be regretted, that they have not been collected toge- 
ther in a volume. Dr. Conybeare did not long enjoy a 
good 6tate of health, after his being raised to the bishopric 
of Bristol. He was much af&icted with the gout ; and, 
having languished about a year and a half, was carried off 
by that disorder at Bath, on the 13th of July, 1755. He 
was interred in the cathedral church of. Bristol, where^ 
some time after his death, an inscription was erected to 
his memory. 

Bishop Conybeare had by his lady five children, three 
of whom died in their infancy. A daughter and a son sur-' 
vived him. The daughter, Jemima, departed this life at- 
Oxford, on the 14th of March 1785. The son, William,' 
is the present Dr. Conybeare. As our worthy prelate died^ 
in but indifferent circumstances, and consequently left be- 
hind him a very slender provision for his children^ it was 
proposed by some friends of the family, to publish two 
volumes of sermons by subscription. The scheme suc- 
ceeded so w^U that the number of subscribers amounted to 
nearly four thousand six hundred^ persons, many of whom- 
t(K>k mor^ than one copy. Such an almost unparalleled 
subscription can only be accounted for from Dr. Cony- 
beare*^ numerous connections, in consequence of his having' 
presided over such a society as that of Christ-church, with 
the greatest reputation, for twenty-two years and a half; 
from the^eneral estimation in which his abilities and cha- 
racter were held in the world, among men of all denomi-i- 
nations] and from the disinterestedness of his temper m' 

C O N Y B E AR E. 189 

^akiBg but a small provision for his family. Besides this, 
his majesty, king George 11. was pleased, in cpnsideration 
* of the bishop's merits, to bestow upon the family, for the 
life of miss Jemima Conybeare, a pension, .the clear pro- 
diice of which wa3 about one hundred pounds a year. 

Dr. Conybeare's connection with bbhop Gibson, and 
the Talbot family, has already been mentioned* Amongst 
his most intimate private fnends may be reckoned Dn 
Hayter, successively bishop of Norwich and London, Dr. 
Atwell, and the famous Dr. Bundle (afterwards bishop of 
Derry.) . The latter gentleman is understood to have been 
instrumental in recommending our author to the notice of 
tb.e Talbots^ There subsisted, likewise, a great intimacy 
between Dr. Conybeare and Dr. Seeker. When Seeker 
entered himself a gentleman commoner at Exeter college, 
with a view of taking a degree at the university of Oxford, 
Mr. Conybeare was appointed his nominal tutor. The 
present Dr. WiUiam Conybeare enjoys the rectory of St. 
Botolph- s, Bishopsgate, as an option of archbishop Secker^s. 
. Bishop Cpnybeare's character appears to have been^ in 
every view of it, respectable and excellent. Whilst he 
wafli a firm and faithful adherent to th6 doctrine and con- 
stilution of that church of which he was so great an orna- 
ment, he was caqdid in his sentiments, and friendly in hit 
conduct with regard jto the protestant dissenters. * 

COOK (Jam£s), an eminent navigator^ and justly the 
pride of his country in that character, was born at Marten 
in Cleveland, a village about four miles from Great Ayton, 
in tbe.coujDty of York, and was baptised there, as. appears 
from the parish regisiier, Npv. 3, i7j^S. His father, whose 
name, was likewise James, was a day*labourer to Mr. Mew-« 
burn,, avery respectable farmer, and lived in a small cot- 
tage, the walls .chiefly of mud, as was generally tbi^ case at 
that time. in the northern parts of the kingdom. In 1730, 
when our navigator was about two years old, his father re- 
moved with his family to Great Ayton,* ^nd was employed 
as a bind to. the late Thomas Scottovire, esq. haying the 
charge of a considerable farm in that neighbourhood known 
by .the name of Airy holm. ' 

As/theiatber continued long in that trust, captain Cook 
was. employed in assisting bim. in various kinds, of hus-* 
bandry suited to his years until the age of thirteen, when 
■.'■.. • . " 

' Biog. Brit.— Leland's Deistical Writers.' 

190 COOK. 

he^was put under the care of Mr. PuUen, a sdioblmart6r9 
who taught at Ayton, where he learned arithosetic, bbok* 
keeping, &c. and is said to bare ahewn a very early genius 
for figures. About Jaauary 1 745, at tke age «f seventeen^ 
his father bound him apprentice to Williaaa Saunderaon for 
four years^ to leani the j^rocery and haberdashery business, 
at Soaithy a populous nsbing^town about ten miles from 
Wiiitby ; but after a year and half's servitude, having con-* 
tracted a very strong propensity to the sea (owing, pro* 
bably, to the maritime situation of the place, and the great 
number of ships almotit constantly passing and' repa^ssing 
within sight between London, Shields, and Sunderland)^ 
Mr. Saunderson was willing to indulge him in following 
the bent of his inclination^ and gave up his indentures; 
While he continued at Snaitii, by Mr. 8aunderson*s uc* 
count, he discovered much solidity of judgment, and was 
remarkably quick in accounts. In July 1 746 he was bound 
apprentice to Mr. J. Walker, of Whitby, for tiie term of 
three years, which time he served to his master's full satis- 
fiiction. He first sailed on board the ship Freelove, bur« 
then about 450 tons, chiefly employed in the coal trade 
from Newcastle to London. In May 174d, Mr. Walkcfr 
ordered him home to assist in rigging and fitting for sea^a 
ine new ship, named the Three Brothers, about 600 tons 
burthen. This was designed as a favour to him, as it 
would greatly contribute to his knowledge in his -business. 
In this vessel he sailed from Whitby in the latter end of 
June. After two coal voyages, the ship was taken into the 
^rvice of government, and sent as a transport to Middle* 
burgh, to carry some troops from thence to Dublin. When 
these were landed, another corps was taken on boards and 
brought over to Liverpool. From thence the ship pro- 
ceeded to Deptford, where she was paid off in April L749j 
The remaining part of the season the vessel was employed 
in the Norway trade. 

In the spring of 1 750, Mr. Cook shipped himself as a sea-? 
man on board the Maria, belonging to Mr. John Wilkin- 
son, of Whitby, uqder tbe command of captain Gaskin. In 
her he continued all that year in the Baltic tmde. Mr. 
Walker is of opinion he left this ship in the winter, and 
sailed the following summer, viz. 1751, in a vessel belong* 
ing to Stockton ; but neither tbe ship's namot nor that of 
the owner^ is now remembered by Mr, Walker. Early in 
February 1752^ Mr. Walker sent for|iim, and made bisk 

C OK. 191 

mftte of onexriFlus vessek, called the Fnetuhhip, aliont 406 
torn .burtbea. In tbts station he contiDwed till May oflr 
Juae, 17JS, in the coal trad«« At ihat period Mr. Walfcer 
Blade \nm aa 6ffer to go cooiinander of that ship ; bat he 
declined it^ soon after left her at London^ and entered on 
board his majesty^ s ship Eagle, a frigate of 28 or 30 gnnsi 
^< having: a mind/' as he expressed himself to bis master, 
to '^ try his fortune that way.'^ Not long after, he applied 
t0 Mr. Walker lor a letter of recommendation to the cap- 
tain of the. frigate, whish was readily granted* On tise 
feceipt of this he got some small pcefarment, which he 
gnuteftilly acknowledged, and ever retnembened. Some 
time after,, the Eagle sailed with anodier frigate on a 
crnis^ in. which they wece very successfuL After this 
Mr« Walker beard no more of Mr. Cook until August 1758^ 
when he received from him a letter dated Pembroke, be* 
foM Lenishiirgh, July 30, 1758, in which be gave a dis*> 
tinet acconot of our success in that expedition, but doek 
not say. what station he then filled. 

He received a commission, as lieutenant, on the first day 
of April 1760; and soon after gave a specin^n of those 
abilities which recommended htm to the commands whiek 
he executed so highly to his credit, that his name will go 
down to posterity as one of the most skilful navigatonf 
which this country has produced. In 1765 he was widi 
sir William Buroaby on the Jamaica station ; and that of- 
ficer having occasion to send dispatches to the governor of 
Jucatan, relative to the logwood*cuttersin the bay of Hon* 
duras, lieutenant Cook was selected for that employment } 
and be performed it in: a manner which entitled him to dbe 
approbation of the admiral. A relation of this voyage and 
journey was published in t769, under the title of ^^ Be-* 
marks on a passage ^ from the river Balise in the bay of 
Honduras, to Merida, the capital of the province of Jnea-^ 
tan,' in, the Spanish West-Indies, by lieuitenant Cook/' in 
an 8 vo pamphlet. " 

• To a perfect knowledge of all the duties bebcigihg to a 
sea-life, Mr« Cook had added a great skill iu astronomy^ 
In 1767 the royal society resolved, -that it would be pcoper 
to send persons into some part of the South Seas, to ob« 
s^ve the transit of the planet Venus over the sun's disk ; 
and by a memorial delivered to bis majesty, they recom** 
mended the islands of Marquesas de Mendoza, or those of 
Eotterdam or Amsterdam, as the properest plaqe> tb^q 

192 COOK. 

.known for making such observation. To this roeiiioriftl a 
-£»v6urable. answer was returned ; and the Endeavour, a 
^ip built for the coal-trade, was put in commission, and 
the. command of her given to lieutenant Cook. But before 
the vessel was ready to sail,- captain Wallis returned from 
Jiis voyage, and pointed out Otaheite as a place more pro<*> 
per for the purpose of the expedition than either of those 
mentioned by the royal society. This alteration was ap4 
proved of, and our navigator was appointed by that learned 
body, with Mr. Charles Green, to observe the transit. 

On. this occasion lieutenant Cook was promoted to be 
captain, and bis commission bore date the 25th of May 
.1768. He immediately hoisted the pendant,- and took 
command of the ship, in which he sailed down the river 
on the 30th of July. In this voyage he was accompanied 
by Joseph Banks, esq. (since sir Joseph, bart< knight of the 
bath, and president of the royal society) and Dr. Solander. 
On the 1 3th of October he arrived at Rio de Janeiro, and 
on the 13th of April 1769 came to Otaheite, where the 
transit of Venus was observed in different patts of the 
island. He staid there until the 13th of July, after which 
he went in search of several isltinds, which be discovered* 
tie. then proceeded to New Zealand, and on the 10th of 
lOctober 1770, arrived at Batavia with a vessel almost 
worn, out, and the crew much fatigued and very sickly. 
The repairs of the ship obliged him to continue at this im- 
healthy place until the 27th of December, in which time 
hjet lost many of his seamen and passengers, and more in 
the passage to the Cape of Good Hope, which place he 
reached on the 15ih of March 1771. On the 14th of April 
be left the Cape,, and the 1st of May anchored at St. He- 
lena, from whence he sailed on the 4th, and came to an- 
chor in the Downs on the 12th of June, after having been 
absent almost three years, and in that time had experienced 
every danger to which a voyage of such a length is inci- 
dent, and in which he had made discoveries equal to .those 
pf all the navigators of his country from the time of Co- 
lumbus to the present. The narrative ^f this expedition 
was written by Dr. Hawkeswortb, who, although the fiicts 
contained in it have not been denied, nor the excellence 
of the .-composition disputed, was, on its publication^ treated 
with peculiar severity, owing to' some opinions' on die na- 
ture of providence, v.4iich Dr. Hawkeswortb incautiously 

C O (J Ki i9i 

'- 'Soon after captain Cook's return id England^ rt ^as f6-^ 
tolled to equip two diips to complete the discot^ry of th^ 
s6dtfaern hemispherie. It had long beet) a prevailing idea^ 
that the wfiexpiored part oontained another continent ; and 
Alexander Dairymple^ e^c}. a gentlemati of great skitl and 
an enterprising spirit^ had been very firmly persuaded of 
its existence. To ascertain the fact was the principal 6b^ 
ject of thisf expedition ; and that nothing might be omlfted 
that codld tend to facilitate th^ enterprise, two ships v^&fe i 
provided, furnished with every net^essary which conid pro- 
mote the success of the nnctertaking. The first of these 
ships was called the Resolution, utider the <;omniand of 
captain Cook ; the oth^^ the Adventure, commaiided by 
captain Furneaux* Both of them saited from Deptford oii 
the 9th of April i7l2f and Arrived at the Cape of Good 
Hope on the 90th of Oetbber. They depsfrted hoxh thence 
on the 22d of Noveihber, and frodi tbsct tiMe until the 
1 7th of January l77Sy contained ^ndeavodring to discover 
the continent, when they were obliged to relinquish the 
design, observing the whole i^a C^verdd with ice from the 
direction of S. E. round by the somh to west. They* theft 
proceeded into ttie Sooth Seas^ and madd inany other dis- 
coveries, and retilrmed to the Gape of G6^ Hope on the' 
21st of March 1774, aftd frotfl thefi^e tta England oh the , 
1 4th of July ; haviirg during thtee yeart and eighteen 
days (in which time the voyage wad performed) lost but 
one* man by sickness,- in captain Codk'i^ ship; although 
be had navigated throughout all the (Climates fronft fifty-two 
degrees north to seventy-one' degrefes south, with a com- 
pany of an hundred and eighteen m<6n. Ttie relation of 
this .voyage was given to the poblic by captain Cook him-'' 
self, and by Mr. George FoWCftr, son of Dr. Forstef, who 
had been appointed by governftieAt to afecompany him for 
the purpose of making obseytations on ^u€h natural pro- 
ductions as might be foand in the course of the' navigatiofk ^ 
but the publication was superinteYided by I>r. Douglas, the 
late bishop of Salisbary. 

The want of success which attended cafptain CookV at- 
tempt to discover a southefi^ oofitinent, did not discourage 
anotlYer plan being, resolvfed ott. Which hiad beet^ recom- 

* This was a conBumpiion termU. a cough and other consumptive symp-. 

naCing in a dropsy. l^Ir. Patten, sur- toms, which had never left him, that 

f eon of IJhe Resolatbn, observed that Ms long? nlust have been ' Kffected be- 

this npAn began-so e|ii-ly to' cooipilrin of fore he came on board. 

Vol. X. O 

194 COOK. 

mended sottie time before. This was no other than the 
finding out a north-west passage, which the fancy of some 
chimerical projectors had conceived to be a practicable 
scheme. The dangers which our navigator had twice 
braved and escaped from, would have exempted him froxn 
being solicited a third time to venture his person in un- 
known countries, amongst desert islands, inhospitable cli* 
mates, and in the midst of savages ; but, on his opinion 
being asked concerning the person who would be most 
proper to execute this design, he otice more relinquished 
the quiet and comforts of domestic life, to engage in scenes 
of turbulence and confusion, of difficulty and danger. His 
intrepid spirit and inquisitive mi^>d induced him again to 
offer his services ; and they were accepted without hesita- 
tion. The manner in which he had deported himself on 
former occasions left no room to suppose a fitter inan 
could be selected. He prepared for his departure with 
the utmost alacrity, and actually sailed in the month of 
July 1776. 

A few months after his departure from England, not- 
withstanding he was then absent, the Uoyal Society voted 
him sir Godfrey Copley's gold medal, as a reward for the - 
account which he had transmitted to that body, of the me* 
thod taken to preserve the health of the crew of his ship : 
and sir John Pringle, in an oration pronounced on the 30th 
of November, observed, " How meritorious that person 
must appear, who had not only made the most extensive, 
but the most instructive voyages ; who^had not only d is* 
coveredr but surveyed vast tracts of new coasts ; who had 
dispelled the illusion of a terra australis incognita, and 
fixed the bounds of the. habitable earth as well as those pf 
the navigable ocean in the sonthern hemisphere ; but that, 
however ample a field for praise these circumstances would 
afford, it was a nobler motive that had prompted the so- 
ciety to notice captain Cook in the honourable manner 
which had occasioned his then address.'' After descanting 
on the means used on the voyage to preserve the lives of 
the ^saiTo^s, he '^concluded his discourse in these terms : 
" Allow me then, gentlemen, to deliver %\i\i medal, with 
his unperishing name engraven upon it, i^to the hands pf 
one who will be happy to receive that trust, and to bear 
that this respectable body never more cordially, npr^ move 
meritoriously, bestowed that faithful symbol of their esteem 
and affectioi^. For if Rome decreed the civic crbwh to 

, COOK. 195 

him who isaved ttie life of a, single citizeti, what wreaths are 
due to that man who, having himself saved many, perpe- 
tusifteft tn your transactions the means by which Britain may 
WoV> on the most distant voyages, save numbers of her in- 
trepid sons, her mariners ; who, braving every, danger, 
have so liberally contributed to the fame, to thie opulence, 
and to the maritime empire of their country ?" 

It will give pain to every sensible mind to reflect, that 
this honourable testimony to the merit of our gallant com- 
mander never came to his knowledge. While his friends 
were waiting with the most earnest solicitude for tidings 
concerning him, and the whole nation expressed an anxi- 
ous impatience to be informed of his success, advice was 
received from captain Clferke *, in a letter dated at Kamt- 
shatca, the 8th day of June 177.9; from which and from 
other accounts, we learnt, that captain Cook was killed on 
the 1 4th of February 1779. His death happened in the 
following manner ; which we shall give in the words of Mr. 
Davi4 Samwell, surgeon of the Discovery. 

** Some of the Indians of pu,why,ee in the night took 
away the Discovery's large cutter, which lay swamped at 
the buoy of one of her anchors : they had carried her off 
so quietly that we did not miss her till the morning, Sun- 
day, February 14. Captain Clerke lost no time in waiting 
upon captain Cook to^ acquaint him with the accident : he 
returned on board, with orders for the launch and small 
cutter to go, undqr the command of the second lieutenant, 
and lie off the east point of the bay, in order to intercept 
-all canoes that might attempt to get out ; and, if he found 
it necessary, to fire upon them. At the same, time, the 
third lieutenant of the Resolution, with the launch and 
small cutter, was sent on the same service, to the opposite 
point of the bay; and the master was dispatched in the 
large cutter, in pursuit of a double canoe, already under 
sail,, making the best of her way out of the harbour. He. 
soon came «p with her, and by firing a few musquets 
' drove her gn shore, and the Indians left her : this happened 
to be the canoe of Omea, a man who bore the title of 
prono. He was on board himself, and it would have beeir 
fortunate if our people had secured him, for his person 

• : - «> Captain Clerke went out a mid- -who died about three weeki before tha 

•bipnian with captain .Cook, iii his first ship arrived in Bh^IkikI. Se^HaWltes- 

voyage, and was a)>poihtcd by him a worth't Vayag«, toU Ut p. 393. 

^ iieatfiiant on the deatli of Hr. Uitks, 



19^ COOK. 

was beld as sacred as tb$it o£ the king. During this time 
captain Cook was pTepariog to go^ ashpile hwaeif at the 
town of Kavapoafay iw order to secure the pefsaa of Kario- 
poo, Wfore he should h^ye tim^ to withdraw hioiself to» 
auothfer part o{ the island omI; of our reach. This appeared 
the most efitsctual sttep that qould be taken oti the present 
occasion, for the reeoyery of the boat. It waft the m^a- 
suffe he had invariably p^ursued^ in sunilar cases^ at other 
islands ia these sea^, and it bad always been attended with 
the desiired suijcess : ya hcX, it would be difiicuk ta poittt. 
out any othec mode ©f pi?oceeding on th#se emergencies,- 
likely to attain, the object in view. We bad Feason to sup- 
pose that the king and bi3 attendants had fled when the 
alarm was first given : in that cas6, it was captain Cc^okV 
intention to secure the large canoes v?hicb were hauled up* 
on the beach* He left the ship about sev^n q'clpck, dA- 
tended by the lieutenant of marines, a serjea^V co!i:pcra]> 
and aeveit private men : the pinnace's crew we^e alsot 
armed, and under the. command of Mr. Roberts. As they: 
rowed towards the shore, captain Cook ordered the launch 
to leave her station at the west point of the bay, in order 
to assist his own boat. This is a circumstance worthy o£ 
notice ; for it clearly shews, that he was not unapprehen- 
site of meeting with resistance from the natives, or un-. 
mindful of the necessary preparation fer the safety of him* 
self and his. people. I will venture ta say, that from the 
appearance of things just at that time, there was npt one> 
beside himself, who judged that such precaution was abso* 
hitely requisite : so Uttle did his eondmct on the occasioa 
bear the marks of rashnesaor a. precipitate self-oottfiden«e-l 
He landed, with the marines, at the upper end of the 
town of Kavaroab ; the Indians immediately flocked rounds 
.as usual, and sbewe.d him the customary marks of respect^ 
by prostrating themselves before him. There were no- 
signs of hostilities,, on much alarm among them. Captain 
Cook, however, did not seem willing to trus4^ ta appearr 
s^nces:; but was portieujsurly attentive to the. disposition of 
the marines, and to have them kept clear of the crowd. 
He first inquired for the king's sons, two youths who were 
much, attached to him, and generally his compamons oiv 
board. Messengers being sent for them, they soon came 
to him ^. and infarming him that their father was asleep, at 
a house not tar from them, he accompanied them thither^ 
and took the marines along with them. As he -passed 

€ O R a9f 

9i9/o^^ the mmiiyBB ievbty nrhere prosttated themselves bc^ 
tote hmOf and seemed to have lost no part of that respect 
4iiey :had always shewn to kis person. He was joined by 
^Fesal dl•efs^ among wfaom was Kanynahy and hi^ farotfaer 
Kecdiownmfah. They faept the crowd in order, •actordtug 
to their usdal cdstotn ; and being ignorant of hn intention 
in coaaing oa sbere, fjnequetHly asked kiaa, if lie wanted 
^y hogs, or other proriskms : hetdldtbem^ %bat he did 
«ot,: and d3at.his business wtis. to see the king. When he 
andted at'die bonse^ he ordeted some of tbe.IsdianB tego 
in and inform Kariopoo, that he waited without to sptek 
with him. They eamo out two or three thnes, land ih^tead 
of returning any answer from the king, presenftetl Idmis 
pieces of red ck>th to him, which nmde captein "Cook 
•aspect that he was -not ih the hons^ ; he therefore dfesihard 
the lieotenant of marines to go in. The lieutenant found 
tl|e d;d man just awaked £rom steep, and seemingly alarmed 
at the message } but he came out without ihmtation. Ca^ 
uAn Cook took him by th^ hand, and iti a frietidly tanammr 
asked him to go on boat*d, to which he very teadily *ooii- 
sented; Tfarns far matters appeared m a favourable train, 
and the natives did not seem much alankied or appteben^ 
siire of hostility, on oar side ; at which tsaptaih Cook* eat^ 
preased himself a Uttle surpris^d^ ^s^yhig, that as the inha- 
bitants of that town appeared innocent of stealing t(ie cut^^ 
ter, be should not molest them, but that he must get tiife 
king onboard. Kariepoo sat- down before !his door, iind 
waa suoroanded by a gireat crowd t Kanynah and hit brothet 
were both vei^lactivetii'keeptilg order among them. In 
a lit^ time, however, the Indians were -obsem^d arming 
themselves with long spears, ; olubs^ and daggers, ahd put^ 
ting on thkk mats, which they ase as airhiour. / This hostile 
sqppearsmce increased, and beoame more alarming, on tho 
arrival of two ns^n in a canoe fr6m the i^posite side of the 
bay, with the news of a chief> called Kareemoo, having 
been killed by one of the Discotery^s boats, in their pas- 
sage across : they had also delivered this account to each 
of the shipsi^ Upon that information'^ the women, who wer^ 
sitting upo^ the beadii at th^ii^ breakfast, and conversing fa- 
miliarly with omr .people iii the boats, retired, and a con^ 
fused muriaur spread through /the crowd. . An old priest 
came to captain Cook, with a cocoa nut in his hand, which 
he held out to him as a present, at the skme time singing 
v€ty lond# . He wtM often desired to be silent^ but in vain : 


he continued importunsite and trooblesome, and there was 
no such thing as getting rid of him or his noise : it l^eemed 

-as if he meant to divert their attention^from his country- 
men, who were growing more taoraltuous, and arming 
themselves in every quarter. Caj^in Cook, bdng at the 
same time surrounded: by a great crowd, thought his siftua* 
tion rather hazardous : he therefore ordared the lieutenant 
of marines to mardi his small ])arty to the water*side, 

' where the boats lay within a few yards of the shore : .the 
Indians readily made a lane for them to pass, and did not 

.offer to interrupt them. The dktance they had to go might 
be fifty or sixty yards; captain Cook followed, having 
hold of Kariopoo*'s hand, who accompanied him veiy will- 
ingly : he was attended' by his wife, two sons, and seve- 
ral chiefs. The troublesome old priest followed, making 
the same savage noise. Keowa, the. younger son, went 
directly into the pinnace,, expecting his father to foUojir; 
but just as- he arrived at the water-side, his wife threw her 
arms about.his neck, and, with the assistance of two chiefs, 

^forced him to sit down by the side of a double canoe. Cap- 
,tain Cook expostulated with them, but to no purpose : they 
would not suffer the king to proceed ; telling ham he would 
he put to death if he went on hoard the ship. KarK>poo9 
whose conduct seemed entirely, resigned to. the will of 
others, hung down his head, and appeared much dis- 

' While the king was. in this situation, a chief, well known 
to us, of the itame of Coho, was observed near, with an 
iron dagger, partly concealed under his eloke, seemin^y 
with' an intention of stabbing captain Cook, or the lieute- 
nant of marioes. The latter proposed to fire at him, but 
captain Cqok . would not peraut it. Coho closing upon 
them, obliged the officer to strike him mth his piec^ 
which made him retire. Another Indian laid bold of the 
serjeant^s musket, and endeavoured to wrench it from him, 
but was prevented by the lieutenant-s making a blow at 
him. Captain Cook, seeing the tumult increase, and the 
Indians growing more daring* and resolute, observed, that 
if he were to take the king off by force, he could not do. it 
without sacrificing the lives of many of bis people. He 
thcjn jpaused a little, and was on the point of giving his 
orders to reiinbark, when a man threw a stone at him, 
which he returned with a discharge of small shot, with whic^ 
one barrel of his double piece was loaded* The man, hav* 

O O K. 19» 


*lngft thick mat before him, i^eived little or no hurt: he 
tnrftftdis^hed his spear, and threatened to dart it at captain 
Cook, vfho being stiil unwilling to take away his life, in- 
stead of firing with ball, knocked him down with his mus- 
ket ile expostulated strongly with the most forward of 
the crowd, upon their turbulent behaviour* He had given 
up all thoughts of getting the king on board, as it appeared 
impraiaicabie ; and his care was then only to act, on the 
defensive, and to secure a safe embarkation for his small 
party, which was closely pressed by a body of several thou^ 
sand people^ Keowa, the king's son, who was in the pin- 
:nace, being alarmed on hearing the first firing, was, at 
fata own entreaty, put on shore again; — for even at that 
trnoie Mn R(rf>ert8, who commanded her, did not appre- 
-^hend thatcaptain Cook's person was in any danger, other- 
wise be vinould have detained the prince, which no doubt 
would have been a great check on the Indians. One man 
was observed, behind a double canoe, in the action of 
darting his spear at captain Cook ; who was forced to fire 
at him in his own defence, but happened to kill another 
close to him, equally forwi^ d in the tumult : the serjeant, 
observing that he had missed the man he aimed at, received 
orders to fire at him, which he did, and killed him. By 
this time the impetuosity of the Indians was somewhat re- 
pressed r diey fell back in a body, and seemed staggered ; 
but being pushed on by those behind, they returned to 
the charge, and poured a volley of stones among the ma- 
rines, who, wi^out waiting for orders, returned it with a 
general discharge of musketry, which was instantly fol- 
lowed by a fire from the bdats. At this captain Cook was 
heard to express his astonishment : he waved his hand to 
the boats, called to them to cease firing, and to come 
nearer in to receive the marines. Mr. Roberts immediately 
brought the pinnace as close to the shore as he could with- 
out grounding, notwithstanding the showers of stones that 
teH among the people : but Mr. John Williamson, the 
lieutenant, who commanded in* the launch, instead of pull- 
ing in to the assistance of captain Cook, withdrew his 
boat further ofi^^ at the moment that every thing seems to 
have depended upon the timely exertiotis of those in the 
boats. By his own account, he mistook the signal : bqt 
be that as it may, this circumstance appears to me to have 
deeided the fiital turn of the affair, and to have removed 
#irer^ chancj^ which ireni^in'ed witti captain Cook^ of escap* 

«i)p 6 K* 

ing witlihi^ life.' The bWn^s^of s^^ing «!»« i^aritiQi «* 

jtboir firQ-arm$»: ^r giving wh^ f^mtmQ^ ^b^y otkerwis* 
might b9V4^ doDfi to ^i^p^in Co^l^; ^o t:b»t be s^eni^, ai; 
the most mticj3kl pck$nt of tm&t tp b»v^ wa^ited tbQ fa^i^lr 
^ocqof b^tb :boa^$» owipg to tb^.r^»if)^YAl oC tbe Umieb^ 
for fio|wi|b$t9jndipg tbftt they k«pt ijp ^ gre qp tbi^ erowd 
from tbiQ pitH^tioQ to which tbi^y 3Fetp[»ovf!4 io tbf^t boat, iJm 
ffttal ^opfvisiou which. ensMod m her b^iog wHMrftwn, to 
^y tbo Ipa^t of it> ini}9t havo pr^vsutod tibis fliU offopt^lbat 
lb@ pfompt co-^opemtioQ of the two bo9l9^ i^^oording to 
captain Code's ordojfs, mmt bftvo bad towwrdis the firoaer-' 
vatipd pf hjim^elf and bis peop}^* At thftl tice^ it was to 
ibo hpat9 dioo^ ths^t PAptain Cook bad .to Vh^ fprbis ift£Hy i 
for wben tho marines had fij^d, tbo Indians^ rit^nod £m»Pg 
Ibem, and -fpi cod tbom into tho wa^er, wbor^- fimr of tbttni 
wore kiUod : . thoir liouteqant wai^ woundod^ but fpitanatoi]! 
^spapedy and wasi t^kon up by tho pinnaco* C^i^tain Cook 
wft$ then tbo Qn\y one reo^aining on the rqpk ibe wa9 ob-r 
9ervejl mal^ipg for tbe pinni^^e, boldi)9g his Ipfl band ag«iaat 
tho back of bi^ boad^ to guard it fvopA tbe atcm^^, and car^ 
rying bis mnsq^t under thp other aroi« Ai^ Indian was 
$een following ;bii») but with caution and timidity: lor bo 
stoppod onico ot tvjm^f a$ if undeteroiinod to propood. Al 
last: be advanpod upon hi^^ unawares, and with a latgo 
pJub* ox poH)«aonv s^ko, gavo iunx . a blow on the ba^ of 
the. head, and then precipitataly retreated* Tbe aluroko 
$ooaied to have stnauod oaptain Cook : ho stagg^vad si few 
p»co99 Ihea feU on hia band and ono knep, and drqpfied 
bift mugquet. . A^ h^ wasi rising, and beloiio bo could reocH 
vor hi3 feet,, anothor Indian siiabbod him in tbe baek of ibo 
neck with an iroe dagger.. Ho.^ii^snr fell if to a biio ol 
water about knee deep,- whea^e olbera evowdod vqufOB hio^ 
§nd pndeavoured to keep bina under ; but atruggling very 
strongly with tbej»> bo got -his. head upsy^and caating fatfi 
]opk towards the pinoace, soemied to aalioit asiiatanpe, 
Though the boat was npt above fi^ ok six yards distani 
from bis)^ yet from the 4>rowdod&Bd confused stoio of the 
$row, it jseemsi it was not in their power to sam hisi. The 
Indians got him under again, but in deeppv wat^r: he wa»r 
however, able lo got his bead up once more ; and beti^^ 
alniosX spent in the atiu^gle>, ho. naturfjly tamed to tim 

!?► O Q: I?^ mi 

rpck, wd^was eiideaypurtpg to wppdri hiii¥i0}f bjr it, when 
a 4«Lv.ag6 :;gay9 bm»J;>W^ witb a oli^ . fiftd ho was seen 
aUv^ no more* T^y k^^M^hm up Ufeleft^ on. the rock^ 
where th^y g^^m^ IK> t?ik«^«4|avag'e jdea^Murein uaing every 
barbaruy (9 hU df^ body ; gim^^hing the daggers one of 
each •o£h^r'»haoik,/tP'h9^e. the hcHU-id 8aiiaf4ctk)u of piero. 
iiig the faU^ irip(iip,(^tlieir barh«rott9 i>$^ 
. Captain Cook m^9 a.iMi:n9d man» and left seyeralchtU 
drein behind him< O^ ea^h of ^e$e hiai majesty settled a 
pension of 25/. peranu. ai»4',20P/^ per fum* onhiswidofr^ 
It is remarkable, if tifue, *a# 4reparted| that captain Cook 
wa9 godrf^hftr ^.b^P wiie ; aiHl at the Very tame she Oitas 
cbristf^ni^ deolar^ that he h^d detenmned on the lanidil 
which aftefi^acd^ ^ook plftoe hetween them; 
. To what we ha^e already sMd of this clronninajiTigatioiry 
we s|;HlU add some extracts fyom the acconiit giv«tti ^ hie 
Ijife af»d /piiihtic services by ci^ptain King: <^'He was en^ 
gaged in mo^t of the busy and active scenes in North Ame- 
'rieai yet he foinid time to read Euelid, and 4Biipply the 
4eficiencie<t of an nearly ediiicatipn. Sir Charles Sarnideis^ 
at theseige of Qi^ebec, committed tor bia care services of 
ti^ ^i&t importance. Lord ColviUe and six Ofaarles both 
patroniaed bifP ; and by their recoma)eitdatt(»l he was ap* 
pointed to snxvey the gulpb of SU Laurence and the coasts 
of Newfoundbi.n4. Theconstitiuion of his body was ro- 
bust, ipi^ed to labour^ and capable of nndergomg< the se-^ 
ve,re9t hardships. His stomach bore, ..witbont difflctdty, 
thetCoaTiest and moat ongwteful food. Indeed^ temper-*' 
apce in him was scarcely a virt«ie.; so great was the indif^ 
feranoe with which he submitted to every kind .of «eK^ 
deniaL The qualities of bia mind were of the same hardy^ 
vigor^ns^ kind, with those of his body. .His cotirage was 
Qoot attd determined, apd-aocampanied witfa>an admirable 
p^^eseac^'of mii^din the ^aoment of dangec. • His manners' 
were pla^in aiQid •unaffected. His tempec might , perhaps 
ha^e been juatly bla^neabliei aa subject to. hastiness and 
passies^ had not ih^»e been dtsatmed by a ^spesitioii'the^ 
mj^ benevolent and hvmM^, > . 

i '^ Soch wi^l^e the outlined' of captain Cook's character ; 
but its. most distingUMdiiBg;feiil:ure was that unremitting* 
pe^fsevef a^ce in the pnnsuit of his object^ which wair not- 
Qidy su^riorto the of^pieeition of dangers, tand the pres^-' 
sum pf Ismdi^hipsi but even eKempt from file want of ordi- 
mif^ reUlS^tion, Fertiapa no fi€iem:e ever receiv«d greater 

202 iC O O K. 

accessions from the labours of a single man, than ' geo-* 
graphy has done from those of captain Cook. In his first 
voyage to tlie South seas he discovered the Society islands' ; 
determined the insularity of Ne# iZealand ; discovered the . 
straits which separate the two ishtnds, and are called after 
his name ; and made a complete survey of both. He after- 
wards explored the easteirn coast of New Holla|id, hitherto 
imknown ; an extent of upwards c^ two tbousand'mites. 'In 
his second expedition he resolved the great problem of a 
southern continent, having traversed that hemisphere in 
such a manner as not to leave a possibility of its existence, 
unless near the pole, and out of the reach of navigation. 
During this voyage he discovered New Caledonia^ iihe 
largest island in the Southern Pacific, except New Zealand : 
the idaod of Georgia; and an unknown coal^t, which' he 
named Sandwich land, the Thul^ of the sou^ern henil- 
sphere : and having twice visited the tropical seas, he settled 
the situations of the old, and made several new discoveries. 
But the last voyage is distinguished above all tte rest hf the 
extent and importance of its discoveries. Besides several 
smaller islands in the southern Pacific, he discovered, to 
the north of the equinoodal line, the groupe called the 
Ssittdwich islands^ which, from their situation'and produce- 
tionS) bid fairer for becoming an object of consequence In 
the system of European navigation, than any other disco- 
very in the South sea. He aftersvards explored what had 
hitherto remained unknown of the western coast of Am^« 
rica, containing an cfxtent'of three thousand five hiindifed 
miles; ascertained ^^ the proximity of the two gresit cdnti-' 
nents > of Asia and America ; passed the straits betvi^een 
tbem^ and surveyed the coast on each side, to such a height 
of northern latitude, as to demonstrate the impractickbilHy 
of a passage, /in that hemisphere, from the Atlantic into 
the Pacific ocean, either by an eastern or a western cbiirse. 
In short, if we except the sea of Aipur, and the Japanese 
archipelago, which stijl remain imperfectly* known to Eu- 
ropeans, he has completed the hydrography of the habitable 
globe.'' Captain King concludes his account of tbift- extras- 
ordinary man, whose deadi cannot be sufficiently lamented, 
in the following word^: ** Halving given the most faithful 
account I have been able to' collect, both from my own 
observation and the relations of others, of the death of jh^ 
everrhonoured friend, and also of his character and isef -* 
vices, I shall now leave hiii memory to the gratitude and 

tJ O O K. 203 

ftdmiFatkm e£^o8£erity ; siccepttng mth a melancholy sa« 
4irfaction the honour^ which the loss of his has procured 
me, of seeing my^ nanie joined with his ; and of testifying 
that affection and respect for his memory, which, whilst 
be lived, it was no less my inclination than my constant 
«tudy to shewhim." 

" We cannot dose this article without giving a short sketch 
of the characters- of the different writers by whom the 
Jast voyage was given to the world. Among these we ought 
to reckon the rev. Dr. Douglas, the editor,^ who, in a grave 
anddignified styJe, suitable to the sublimity of a journey 
or voyage roudd the globe, haS' arranged the matter \ chas* 
tised, no doubt^ in some instances) the language of txur 
circumnavigators ; and pointed out to the carious and phi- 
losophic eye, the benefits that have resulted, and may ^et 
remilt, from the late disdoveries in the great Pacific ocean ; 
and the attempt, though unsuccessful, to explore a north- 
ern passage from thence into the Atlantic. Although this 
gentleman has levelled down the more striking peculiarities 
of the different writers of these voyages <nto some appear- 
ance of equality, yet a critic can discern in each his proper 
features. Captain Cook, accurate^ minute, and severe, 
surveys every ot)ject with a mathematical eye, ever intent 
to iix .or to discover spme truth in astronomy, geography, 
and navigation. His observations . on men and manners!, 
and the produce of countries, are not very subtle or re- 
fined, but always sensible and judicious. H« speculates in 
order to establish factsf, but does not int^uire into facts for 
the airy ' purposes of speculatio^i. Captain King has per- 
haps a greater versatility of genius than captain Cook, as 
wcdl as a more lively fancy, and a greater variety and ex- 
tent of knowledge. . Agreeably to this character ofhitn, 
he paints the scenes that fall under his eye> in glowing and 
various ccdours. He has less perhaps of the mathematician 
and navigator in his composition than captain Cook, and 
more of the author. He himself seems conscious that this 
is bib forte, and wields the pen with alacrity, with ease and 
satia&ction. The gleanings that were left to his industry 
by captain Cook, he seems too eager to pick up, to dwell 
upon, and to amplify. Mr. Anderson is superior to both 
these writers in variety of knowledge, and subtlety and 
. sublimity of genius. He is versant in languages ancient 
and modern,, in mathematics, in natural history, in natural 
pb^osophy^ in civil history, in the metaphysics of both 

JH)4 C O O R. 

morality aod theology; yet^ as acpdnterbaliuice/bo the^e 
jbrilliaDt qualitief an4 eudowoients, he launch^ forth too 
much into thoory, and is, in some instances, too little cod- 
8traioe(j[ by the liuiits of fact and nature, in his .^leculations. 
.Qe h^ found the do<:trines of the io^raortalky and the im* 
materiality of the soul among nations, who, ia all proba<» 
hility, have iiot terms to express tbese» and very Sew to 
Mgiiify abstracted ideas of any lund. A quick imaginatioik 
and a subtle intellect can see any. thing in any subject, and 
extend the ideas most familiar to thems^ves over the boand* 
less variety of the universe. ^ 

. COOK (Benjamin) Mus,D. an eminent organist and 
cotrtra^puntist, in the- style of our best ecpksiastical com- 
posers, ivhom he had studied, from Tallis to Crofts, Wei- 
fU>n, aoid Green, a very correct harmonist and good organ 
player^ but with limited powers of invention, waa. organiit 
of Westminster abbey, and on the death of Kelway elected 
organist of St. Martinis in the Fields. He long presided at 
the Crown and Anchor concert, which was originally esta- 
«blisbed for the pieservation of the best works of the most 
esHuent masters of old times. It is a curious circumstance, 
that at this concert of ancient music Handel was regarded 
as an innovator, and Geminiani. thought it an honour to be 
allowed to dedicate his last concertos to this society. Dr. 
Pepuscb, who established and directed this concert to the 
time of his death, never allowed Handel any other merit 
U^n that of a good practical musician. The irreconoileable 
enmity between the lovers of old and new music became, 
from the time of this institution, as violent as the rage be« 
Iween the champions of ancient and modern learning. Dr. 
Cook, a steady votary of the old masters, died September 
1 793. He was the son of Benjamin Cook, wlio kept a music 
shop in New«9treet, Covent-garden, and who published 
by pateRt, among other things, six concertos fos violins^ 
tenor and bass^ by Alexander Scarlatti; the chamber s3rmM 
phonies of Porpora^ for three instrument; and the two 
books of lessons by Domenico Scarlatti, in long 4toy of 
which Rosingrave .was the editor. After the decease ef 
Cooky Johnson reprit^ed Scarlatti's lessons, with the sam^ 
title*-page and the samue errors as had escaped correction 
in the former edition.' - ^ 

^ From the prtcedmg Edition of this Dictionary. —See the elaborate account 
in'Btog. Brit, originally published by Dr. Kippis in a %to volame. 
X ^ Dr. Burney, ia Ee«i*8 Cycitpedku . 

€00 K. aos 

. COOK (Henry) an English artist, waa born ip 1642w 
Haring a taste for historical painting, be travelled to Italy: 
for the purpose of improving himself in this branch of the 
art, and studied under Salvator Rosa ; but, on his return, 
to England, met with so little encouragement, that for. 
many years he remained in want and obscurity, and at last, 
was obliged to fly for a murder which he committed onl. a 
person who courted one of his mistresses. On his return,^ 
when this affair was forgot, his talenta gained him noticejp, 
and be was employed by king William to repair his car^ 
toons ; he likewise finished the equestrian portrait otC 
Charles II. at Chelsea college, painted the choir of New» 
College chapel, Oxford, as it stood before the late repairs, 
and the staircase at Ranelagh bouse, besides many othec 
works mentioned by lord Orford. He is also said to have 
tried portrait paintiqgy but to haye given it up, disgustedly 
with the caprices of those who sat to him. He died 18 th, 
Nov. 1700. * 

COOKE (Sir Anthony), preceptor to Edward VI. was 
born at Giddy, or Gidding-hall, in Essex, about 1506, andf 
descended from sir Thomaft Cooke, major of London. He 
was educated probably at Cambridge, as- Wood makes nq 
mention of him. However, he was such an eminent m^stec 
of the whole; circle of .arts, of such singular piety and good- 
ness, of such uticommon prudence iu the managemeni of 
his own family,, that those noble persons who bstd the charge 
of king Edward appointed him to instruct that prince in 
learning, and to foriQ his manners. He lived ia exile during 
the persecution of Mary, but after Elizabeth's accession, 
returned home, and spent the remainder of his days in 
peace and honour, at Giddy-hall, where he died in 1576* 
He was, if Lloyd, may be credited, naturally of a reserved 
temper, and took more plea&ure to breed up statesmen 
than: to be one. ^^ Contemplation was his soul, privacy his 
life, and discourse his element : business was his purgatory, 
and publicness his. torment'' To which may be added 
what king Edward VI. used to say of his tutors^ that 
Rodplph, the German, spake honestly, Sir John ChekQ 
talked merrily. Dr. Cox solidly, and sir Anthony Cooke 

Several ingenious sayings of his are recorded ; parti^ 
culavly the following: " That theire were three objects, 

> Walpole's Aiiecilote?.— ^Noble's Continuation of Granger, vol. T. 

&6i COO fe i 

' before whom he could not do amiss ; his prince, his doh- 
science, and his children." This facetious story is like- 
wise related of him : — " A Sussex knight, having spent a 
great estate at court, and reduced himself to one park anc} 
a fine bouse in it, was yet ambitious to entertain the king 
(Edward VI.) For that purpose he new painted his gates,' 
with a coat of arms and this motto over them, in large golden 
letters, oia vanitaS. Sir Anthony offering to read it, de- 
sired to know of the gentleman what he meant by oiA, who 
told him it stood for omnia. *^ I wonder," replied he, 
** that, having made your omnia so little as you havef, you 
should yet make your vanitas so large.*' 

Sir Anthopy Cooke was peculiarly bappy in bis' four 
daughters, who made so distinguished a figure among the 
literary ladies of the period in which they lived, and were 
otherwise so eminent in situation and. character, a? to re- 
quire some notice in a work of this description, 

Mildred, the eldest of these daughters, we mentioned 
in the article of William Cecil, lord Burleigh, remarking 
that she was long the faithful wife of that great' Statesman ; 
that she was learned in the Greek tongue^ and wrote a , let- 
ter to the University of Cambridge in that language ; that 
idle was a patroness of literature ; and that she was distin- 
guished by her numerous charities. To this we may naW 
add, that her preceptor was Mr. Lawrence, an eminent 
Grecian ; and she fully answered the care and pains that 
were taken in her education : but her reading was not con- 
fined to the classic writers of Greece only, but extended, 
likewise, to the ancient Christian fathers, particularly 
Basil, Cyril, Chrysostom, and Gregory Nazianzen. A 
piece of Saint Chrysostom's was translated by her, from 
the original, into the English language. It was on the 2 1 st 
of December, f546, and in the 20th year of her age, that 
she was married to sir William Cecil. Her death, as we 
have seen in her husband^s article, wad on the 4th of April, 
1589. She had an admirable understanding, and is said to 
have been a good politician. Nor is this at all surprising, 
considering her intellectual powers, and that, for more than 
forty and two years, she was the wife of such an illustrious 
statesman as Lord Burleigh. As an evidence of her poli-^ 
tical talents, Mr. Ballard has produced a letter written bjT 
her, on the 26th of October^ 1573, to sir William Fitjg* 
Williams, at that time lord deputy of Ireland. The Iftter 
contains some ^xcetlent ' ad vite ; and shews, that she was 

COOKE. 201 

not only a woman of great good sense, but well acquainted 
with the world. Five days after her decease, iord Burleigh, 
wrote what he calls a meditation on the death of his lady, 
which contains several farther particulars concerning her, 
and is a striking testimony of his affection to her memory. 
Of Anne, the second daughter — See BACON, Anne^ 
Elizabeth, . third daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, was 
born about the year 1529, and having enjoyed the same 
liberal educi^tion which was bestowed upon her sisters, wal 
equally happy in improving it, and gained the applause of 
the most eminent scholars of the age. It was observed by 
sir John Harringtot), that if Madam Vittoria, an Italian 
lady, deserved to have her name celebrated and transmitted 
to posterity by Aridsto, for writing some verses,^ in the 
manner of an epitaph, upon her husband, after his decease; 
DO less comitiendation was due to the lady before us, wbp 
did as mxich and more, not only for two husbands, but foir 
her son, daughter, brother, sister, and venerable old 
friend Mr. Noke of Shottesbrooke, in the Greek, Latin, 
and English tongues. She was married, first, to sir Tho« 
mas Hobby, and accompanied him to France, when he 
went there as ambassador from queen Elizabeth, and died 
there July 13, 1566. His disconsolate lady having <^recte4 
a chapel in the chancel of the church at Bishaiti, in Berk- 
shire, carefully deposited the remains of her husband, .|ind 
of his brother, sir Philip Hobby, in one tomb together, 
which she adorped with large inscriptions, in Latin and 
English verse, of her own composition. She bad by sir 
Thomas Hobby four children, Edward, Elizabeth, Anne, 
and Thomas Posthumus. It does not appear that she. had 
great comfort in either of her sons ; and the youngest in 
particular, as is lihanifest from a letter written by her to 
lord treasurer Burleigh, was guilty of such extravagancies 
and undutifulness, as gave her much uneasiness. It is evi- 
dent, from the letter, that she was a woman of uncommon 
spirit and sense, and an excellent economist. Some years 
after the decease of sir Thomas Hobby, she married John, 
lord Russel, son and heir to Francis Russel, earl of Bed- 
ford. Her husband dying before his father, in the year 
I JSi*, was buried in the abbey ehurch of Westminster, 
where there is a noble monument erected to his memory, 
4nd embellished with inscriptions in Greek, Latin, arid 
English, by this his surviving lady. Her children, by John 
fora Russel, were one soui^ who died young in 1580, and 

308 COOK,!!. 



two daughters, Amne and EUzabelhti Theias^ of tbem strr^ 
vived ber father but a liule time^ ii)n4 is said to have bled 
to deajtb by the prick of a needle in the fbrefingei of ber 
left hand. This story ba» been supported by the figure 
placed on ber monument^ which i» in the same grate vtriih 
^ that of her.father ^ wbere^ on a pedestal of black and white 
marble made column -wise^. in imitation ofuRonosm altar, 
may be seen the statue of a young: lady seated in a most 
furiously -^ wrought. osi0r chair, of the 5nestt polished ni^ 
baster, in a ver}'' melanpholy posture, iridintBg her bead 
to the right hand,* and with the forefinger of hex left only 
extended, downwards^ to dir^et n& to behold tthe death's 
bead underneath her f^et, and, as the tradition goes, to 
signify the disaster that brought her to ber end, Mr. Bal* 
lard thinks, that if the fact be true, it must be attributed 
to some gangrene, or other dangerous symptom, occa-t- 
sioned perha|>s at first by the prieking of an artery or aenre^ 
which at last brought her to the grave. The matter, how-r 
ever, does not deserve to be reasoned apoA; being, iii 
truth, no other than an idle aad. groundless. tale,, which 
very well answers the purpo^ of amusing the crowd who 
go to visit the tombs in the* Abbey. 

Lady Russel translated out of French into English a tract 
entitled, ^^ A way of reconciliation of a good and i^rned 
]han,''toi^bing the true nature and substance of Ibebody 
iand blood of Christ in th^ Sacrament." This: work was 
printed in 1605,, and is- dedicated to her only daughter, 
Anne Herbert, wife to Henry lord Herbert, son and heir 
to Edward earl of Worc^stJer^ 

The time of lady Russel's death has not been ascertained; 
In a letter writtea by ber to sir Bobert Cecil, without date, 
shecbmplains of her bad healtb and in^rmities, anid men-^ 
tions her having compleated sixty-eight years. She seems 
to have been buried at Bisbam, in Berks, near the remains 
of her first hujsb^nd, and in the chapel which she herself 
bad founded. From Birches Memoirs of the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, it appears that lady Russel interested herself iti^ 
the concerns: of ber nephew Anthony Bacon, and etldea- 
voured to do him service with the lord treasurer BurleigbJ 
In that work there are some extracts {ix>m two of her letters 
uppn this occasion, and a long account of a curious con*' 
versation which shj$ had with her nephew, relative to tho 
disputes between him and the treasurer. The fact was, that 
lord Burleigh was dissatisfied with, the connections both o£ 

COOKE. 209 

Mr. Anthony and Mr.' Franciii Bacon, and especially with 
their attachment to the Earl of Essex, and on these accounts 
was not favourable to their promotion. 

K ATHERINE, the fourth daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, wad 
born about the year 1 530, and like h^r sisters became famous 
for her knowledge in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin tongues,, 
and for her skill in poetry. A short specimen of her talent in 
that art has been preserved by sir John Harrington and Dr. 
Thomas Fuller ; but there is some difficulty in determining 
the occasion, upon which the verses were written. Sir John 
Harrington says, that her design in writing them was ^o 
set a kinsman of hers sent to Cornwall, where she inha* 
bited, and to prevent his going beyond sea. * Mr. Phillips^ 
in bis " Theatrum Poetarum,*' . asserts that it was her 
lover. Dr. Fuller, however, with greater appearance of 
reason, informs us, that her husband being designed by 
queen Elizabeth ambassador to France in troublesome 
times, when the employment, always difficult, was then 
apparently dangerous, his lady wrote these lines to her, 
sister Mildred Cecil, to engage her interest with lord Bur- 
leigh for preventing the appointment. 

The person to whom Katherine Cooke was married was 
Henry Killegrew, esq. a gentleman of good abilities, and 
who, for the services he performed to his country in the 
quality of an ambassador, was afterwards knighted, vlt 
should seem, tberefoi^e, that if Fuller be right in the account 
he has given of the purpose of the preceding verses, the 
fair author did not obtain her request. Sir Henry was 
living in great esteem, in the year 1602 ; and it appears, 
from her father^s will, that Lady Killegrew was alive on the 
22d of May, 1576. She was buried in the chancel of the 
church of St Thomas the Apostle, in Vintry-yard, London, 
where is an elegant monument erected to her memory, on 
which is a pious Latin inscription, composed by herself. 

The death of lady Killegrew was lamented in various 
epitaphs. Her sister, lady Russel, wrote one, partly in 
Greek and partly in Latin verse. Three others, in Latin 
verse, were written by Robert Mason Forman, minister of 
the reformed French church in London^ by Andrew MeU 
vin, and by William Chark. Such of our readers as are 
curious to see these productions, may find them in Ballard.. 

It is generally understood that sir Anthony (^ooke had 
only four daughters ; but there is some reason' to believe 
that be had, at least, one more. Camden, Fuller, Lloyd, 

Vol. X. P 

210 COOKE, 

B6hun, and Strype, concur in mentioning a fifth daughter, 
whb^e name, they say, is lost. Nevertheless, they all 
observe that she was married to sir Ralph Rowlet; but thi» 
seems doubtful, * 

COOKE (Thomas), a poet and miscellaneons writer, 
was born at Brain tree in Essex, in 1702 or 1703, where 
his father was an inn-keeper, and as Pope used to say, a 
Muggletonian. He was educated at Felsted school, where 
he made considerable proficiency, but how long he re* 
toained here, or what, was his destination in life is not 
known. For some time he appears to have been domestic 
cated in the family of lord Pembroke, who died in 1733, 
and who probably suggested to him a translation of Hesiod, 
to which his lordship contributed some liotes. Before this 
nbbleman's death, he came to London in 1722, and be-^ 
came a writer by profession, and a strenuous supporter 
of revolution-principles, which formed a bond of unioq 
between him and Tickell, Philips, Welsted, Steele, Dennis, 
and others, whose political opinions agreed with his own* 
He wrote in some of the weekly journals of the time, and 
was considered as a man of learning and abilities. He is 
supposed to have attacked Pope from political principles, 
but it is fully as probable, that, as he was a good Greek 
scholar, he wished to derive some reputation from proving 
that Pope, in his translation of Homer, was deficient in 
that language. In 1725 be published a poem entitled 
«* The Battle of the Poets," in which Pope, Swifk, and 
some others were treated with much freedom ; and trans« 
latedand published in the Daily Journal, 1727, the episode 
of Tbersiites, from the second book of the Iliad, to show 
how much Pope had mistaken his author. For this attack 
Pope gave him a place in the ^* Dunciad,'* and notices 
hitft with equal contempt in his Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. 
In a note likewise he informs us that Cooke ^ wrote letters 
lit the same time to him, protesting his innocence ;" but 
Cooke's late biographer, sir Joseph Mawbey^^ is inclined 
to doubt this, and rather to beKeve that he was regardless 
of Pope's enmity. In a subsequent edition of " T^ Bat- 
lie of die Poets'* Cooke notices the Dunciad with be- 
coming spirit, ahd speaks with little respect of Pope's 
^ philosophy or dignity of mind, who could be provoked 
by what a boy writ concerning his translation of Homer, 
and in verses which gave no long promise of duration.' 

1 Biof . Brit«»B|^jlArd'8 MemMrs, 


COOKE. ait 

In 1725 Of 1736, Cooke puUished «The KoigHti ol 
the Bath/' and ^< PhiUador and Cydippe/' hotb poetical 
l»les.; aad several other pieces of poetry ; the fojrmer evij- 
dently meant to attract the public atte&uon, on the reriYal, 
^bout that time, of the order o^ the Batb. He wrote soon 
after '« The Triumpht of Love and Honour,'* a play ^ «Tbe 
Eunuch,'* a farce ; and ^* The Mournful Nuptials^'' a tra- 
gedy ; all performed at Drury-lane theatre, bat with little 
sqocesa. In 1726 he published an account of the '< l(ifie 
and Writings of Andrew Marvell, esq.'' prefixed to aa 
edition of the poetical works of that celebrated poliikian, 
^ vols. ISmo, and in 1728 his translation of ^^ Hesiod." 
(a 1794 he published an edition of Terence, with an £ng« 
U«h translation, 3 vols. i2mo, and in 1737 ^^ A Trans)a-» 
lion of Cicero on the Nature of the Gods," with philoso* 
phica], critical, and explanatory notes, to which is added 
an examination into the astronomy of the ancients, Svo. 
In 1741 he encreased his cla$uiical reputation by an edition 
of Virgil, with an interpretation in Latin, and notes, in 
Engliah. In 1742 he published a volume of his original 
'^ Poems," with imitations and translations, and in 1746 
undertook a new edition and translation of Plautus, by 
•subscription. Of thi% he produced in 1754 the first vo- 
lume, containing a dissertation on the life of Plautus, and 
a translation of th^ comedy of Amphitryon, but although 
bis list of subscribers was very copious, and he went on 
iieeeiving more^, he never completed the work. 
. Hb was always, however, employing his pen on tem- 
porary subjects, either in poems or pamphlets, and for 
some time was concerned in the political paper established 
in opposition to sir Robert Walpole, entitled '^The 
Crsyfbman ;" and at one time, in 174S, was apprehended 
for some libel against the government, but it does not ap« 
pear that a prosecution followed. During his latter years 
he published a variety of single poems, which it would be 
unnecessary to enumerate, more particularly as they have 
been long consigned to oblivion ; and he also contributed 
songs and ballads for Vauxhall, long the Parnassus of the 
ipinor poets. In 1756 Dr. Leonard Howard,, rectoi^ of Sit. 

. * Pr. Ji^h»fto^, says BosweU hi bii in $u^8criptioi|s; and that he prfsented 

** Jo«raal of a Tour, ^c." told us of Foote to a club in the followjnf singu- 

Cooke, who translated Hesiod, and lar manner :<< This is the nephew of the 

lired twenty years on a translatido of phtleman who was lately hon^ in 

Pfantut, for which h^ was ialways taking chains for murdtring his brothar." 

1? 2 

•212 COOKE, 

George's, Southwark, published a collection of Ancient 
Letters,; in 2 vols. 4to, but as he had not materials 'to fill 
up the second, Cooke, who was his intimate friend, gave 
him many letters from his correspondents, and some pieces 
of poetry, with which Howard completed this strange 
juroJble. The letters, however, are in some respects amu- 
sing, and show that Cooke was complimented at least, by 
dome persons of eminence, although probably not much 
respected. Sir Joseph Mawbey had a tragedy of his en- 
titled " Germanicus," which Garrick refused, and three 
folio volumes of his MSS. His residence in the latter part 
of his life was at Lambeth, in a small and insignificant house 
and garden, of which he used to speak with great pomp, 
and where he died Dec. 20, 1756, in great poverty. He 
was buried by a subscription among a few friends, who9.1so 
contributed to the -support of his widow and daughter, 
neither of whom survived long. His biographer's account 
of his morals and religious principles is not very favourable, 
biit it is unnecessary to dwell longer on the merits of an 
author whose productions it would, perhaps, be impossible 
to revive. ' 

COOPER (Anthony Ashley), earl of Shaftesbury, an 
eminent statesman of very dubious character, was son of • 
sir. John Cooper, of Rockborn in the county of Southamp* 
ton,bart; by Anne, daughter of sir Anthony Ashley of Win- 
borne St. Giles, in the county of Dorset, bart. where he 
was born July 22, 162 1. Being a boy of uncommon parts, 
he was sent to Oxford at the age of fifteen, and admitted 
a gentleman commoner of Exeter college, under Dr. John* 
Prideauic, the Sector of it. He is said to have studied hard 
there* for about two years ; and then removed to LincoIn^s 
inn^ where he applied himself with great vigour to the law, 
and especially that p^rt of it which related to the constitu- 
tion of the kingdom. He was elected for Tewksbury in 
Gloucestershire, in the padiament which met at West- 
minster, April 13, 1640, but was soon dissolved* Heseema 
to have been well affected to the king's service at the be- 
ginning of the civil war : for he repaired to the king at 
Oxford, offered his assistance, and projected a scheme, 
not for subduing or conquering his country, but for re- 
ducing such as had either deserted or mistaken their duty. 

.1 tife, by sir J. Mawbey, in Gent. Mag. toI. LKI. LXIT. ana LXVII.^ 
Biog. PrAiiiatic«.'»*Boirles's Bdition of Pope's Worki.— Lysons's £avironBy.Tol. 1. 

cooper: 1213 

,to his majesty's obedience. He was afterwards invited to 
Oxford by a letter from his majesty ; but, perceiving tBat 
he was not in confidence, that his behaviour was disliked, 
and his person in danger, be retired into the parliament 
quarters, and soon after went up to London, where he was 
well received by that party : " to Which,*' says Clarendon, 
** he gave himself up body and soul." He accepted a 
commission from the parliament ; and, raising forces, took 
Wareham by storm, October 1644, and soon after reduced 
all the adjacent parts of Dorsetshire. This, and some other 
actions of the same nature, induced the above-mentioned 
historian to say that he *^ became an implacable enemy to 
the royal family." The next year he was sheriff of Wilt* 
shire. In 1651 he was of the committee of twenty, ap- 
pointed to consider of ways and means for reforming the 
law. He was also one of the members of the convention 
that met after Cromwell had turned out the long parlia- 
ment. He was again a member of parliament in 1654, apd 
one of the principal persons who signed that famous pro- 
testation, charging the protector with tyranny and arbitrary 
government ; and he always opposed the illegal measures 
of that usurper to the utmost. When the protector' Richard 
was deposed, and the Rump came again into power, they 
nominated sir Anthony one of their council of istate, and a 
commissioner for managing the army. He was at that very 
time engaged in a secret correspondence with the friends 
of Charles 11. and greatly instrumental in promoting his 
restoration ; which brought him into peril of his life with 
>the powers then in being. He was returned a member for 
Dorsetshire, in that which was called the healing parlia- 
ment, which sat in April 1660; and a resolution being 
•taken to restore the constitution, he was named one of the 
twelve members of the house of commons to carry their 
invitation to the king. It was in performing this service 
that he had the misfortune to be overturned in a carriage 
upon a Dutch road, by which he received a dangerous 
wound between the ribs, which ulcerated many years after, 
and was opened when he was chancellor. 

Upon the king's coming over be was sworn of his ma- 
jesty's most honourable privy-council. He was also one of 
the commi^ioners for the trial of the regicides ; and though 
the> Oxford historian is very severe on him on this occasion, 
yet his. advocates are very desirous of proving that he was 
pot any way concerned in betraying or shedding the blood 

514 COOPER. 

of his sovereign. By letters patent^ dated April SO, H^f^ 
he was created baron Ashley of Winbome St Giles j^ Mali 
after made chancellor and under-treasorer <^ the exche- 
quer^ and then one of the lords eomoiissioaers for Exe- 
cuting the oiBfice of high^treasurer. He was afterwards 
made lord lieutenant of the county of Dorset ; and^ April 
23, 1672, created baron Cooper of t^awl^ in the county df 
SSometset, and earl of Shaftesbury. Noveoiher 4 follow- 
ing, he was raised to the pest of lord high chancellor of 
^England* He shone particularly in his speeches in par- 
liament ; and, if we judge only from those which he made 
upon swearing in the treasurer CUfibrd, his successor sir . 
Thomas Osborne, and baron Thurland, we must conclvde 
him to have been a very acconipliahed orator. The short 
thne he was at the helm was aaeason of storms ^nd tem- 
pests; and it is but doing horn justice to say that they 
could not either affright or distract him. November 9, 1673, 
he resigned the gre^ seal under very singular circum- 
stances. I Soon after the breaj&ing up of the parliament, as 
Echard relates, the earl was sent for on Sunday morning 
^o court ; as was also sir Heneage Finch, attorney-general, 
to whom the seals were promised. As soon as the carl 
came he retired with the king inlx> the ck)set, while die 
|)revaiUug party waited in triumph to see him return witb- 
out the purse. His lordsbiip -being alone with the king, 
said, ^^ Sir, I know you intend to give the seals to the at^ 
torney-fgeneral, bat I am sure yomr majesty never intended 
to dismiss me with conten^t." The king, who could not 
do an ill-natured thing, replied, ^' Gods fish, my lord,^ i 
will not do it with any circumstance that may iook like an 
affront.^' ^^ Then, sir," said the earl, ** I desire your mou- 
jesty. will permit me to cari^ the seats before you to tHia- 
pel, and send for them afterwards from my house.'' To 
this his majesty rejadily couseuted ; and the earl enter- 
tained the king with news and diverting storties till the vaery 
minute he was to go to chape), purposely to amuse the 
courtiers and>his successor, who be believed was upon the 
lack for fear he should prevail upon the kmg to cbstnge 
his mind. The king and the earl came out dt the closet 
talking together and smiling, and went together to xjhapei, 
which greatly surprised them all : and somt^ ran imnei- 
diately to tell the duke of York, that all h» oneasures were 
broken* After sermon the ecurl wetit kcvac with -tlie «ea}s> 

C O O P £ E. eiB 


aod ih»t mining the king gave them to the attoriie|r« 

After he bad thus quitted the court, he continued to 
make a great figure in pailiaiuent : bis abilities^ en$tble4 
him to sbiue,. and be was not of a natore to rest In 1^675^ 
the treasurer, Oanby, iiuroduced the test^bill iqto tbe 
house of lords, which was vigorously opposed by tbe eail 
of Shaftesbury; who, if we may believe Burnet, distiur 
gufshed himself more in this session than ever he bad dm^ 
belbre. This dispute occasioned a prorogation ; and tjiere 
ensued a recess jcS fifteen months. When tbe parliameoft 
met again, Feb. 16, 1677, tbe duke of $uqluugbam ar^ 
gued, that it ought to be considered as dissoliired : the earl 
of Shaftesbury was of the same opinion^ and maintah^ed i)t 
with so much warmth, that, together with the duk^ before 
mentioned, the earl of Salisbury, and the lord Wbarfiony 
he was sent to tbe Tower, where he continued thirtes^ 
months, though the other lords, upon their a^bmission, 
w.ere immediately discharged. When he was set at lib^y 
he conducted the opposition to tbe earl of Banby's admir 
nistration with such vigour and dexjteriity, that it was &^n^ 
impossible to do any id^ung efiectually in parliwient, witb^ 
out changing the system which then prevailed. The king, 
who. desired nothing so m^uch as to be easy, resolved t^ 
naake a change ; dismissed all the privy-council at Qtio^ 
and formed a )aew one. This was decW^ 4|>ril 21, 16^9 ; 
and at the same time the earl of Shaftesbury was appointed 
lord president. He did not bold this employment longer 
than October Ae fifth following. He had drawn upon bIoi<> 
^elf tbe implacable hatred 4>f the duke of York, by steadiljr 
promoting, if not originally inventing, the project of .an 
exclusion bill : and therefore tbe duke's party was con# 
stantly at work against him. ,Upop the king's sunmioning 
a .parliament to meet at Oxford, March 21, 1681, he joined 
with several lords in a petition to prevent its n^eting therei 
which, however, failed of success. He was present at that 
parliament, and strcpmously sHpported the exclusion iull ; 
but tbe duke soon contrived to make him feel the weight 
of bis resentment. For his lordship was apprehend$u-^ 
high treason, July 2, 1681 ; and, after being examix»ed by 
bis majesty^ in council, was committed to the Tower^ where 
he remained i^waords of four months. He was at length 
tried, acquitted, «nd discharged i y^t did not think him« 


216 COO P E R. 

self safe, as bis enemies were now in tbe zenith of tbeir 
power. He thought it high time therefore to. seek ftnr 
some place of retirement, where, being oat of their reach, 
he might wear out the small remainder of his life in peace. 
It was with this view, November 1682, he embarked for 

' Holland ; c^nd arriving safely at Amsterdam, after a dan- 
gerous voyage, he took a house there, proposing to live in 
a manner suitable to bis quality. He was visited by per- 
sons of the first distinction, and treated with all the defer- 
ence and respect he could desire. But being soon seized 
by his old distemper, the gout, it immediately flew into his 
stoniach, and became mortal, so that he expired Jan. 22, 
1683, in his 62d year. His body was transported to Eng- 
land; and interred with his ancestors at Winborne ; and in 
1732, a noble monument, with a large inscription, was 
erected by Anthony earl of Shaftesbury, his great grand- 

It was perhaps lord Shaftesbury's misfortune, that those 
who were angry with him, have transmitted to posterity 
the history of the times in which he lived, and or that go- 
vernment in which he had so 'large a share. Marchmont 
Needham published a severe pamphlet against him, En- 
titled ^^ A packet of advices and animadversions, sent from 

' London to the men of Shaftesbnry, which is of use for all 
bis majesty's subjects in the three kingdoms," Lond. 1676; 
and much of it is transferred verbatim into the account 
given of him by the Oxford historian. He was also re- 
presented as having had the vanity to expect to be chosen 

. king of Poland ; and this made way for calling him count 
Tapsky, alluding tq the tap, which had been applied upon 
the breaking out of the ulcer between his ribs^ when he 
was chancellor. It was also a standing jest with the lower 
form of wits, to style him Shiftsbiiry instead of Shaftes- 
bury. The author who relates this, tells us also, that when 
he was chancellor, one sir Paul Neal watered his mares 
with rhenish and sugar : that is, entertained his mistresses. 
In his female connections he was very licentious ; and it is 
recorded, that Charles II. who would both take liberties 
and bear them, once said to the earl at court, in a vein of 
raillery and good humour, and in reference only to his 
amours, ^^ I believe, Shaftesbury, thou art the wickedest; 
fellow in my dominions :" to which, with a low bow and 
v^ry grave fece, the earl replied^ ^^ May it please yout 

coo P E Rr 217 

majesty, of a subject I believe I am ;^* at wbicb tbe merry 
monarch laugbed heartily* 

His chacaccer in the Biog. BritauDica is one continued 
panegyric, from Miiich more recent and impartial writers 
have made many and heavy deductions, particularly Mac* 
pherson and Dalrymf^. Referring to these audiorities for 
a character wbich^ involved as it is in the history of the 
times, might form a volume, we shall conclude this article 
with some information respecting the various attempts to 
produce a life of him. The earl himself had written a his* 
tory of his own times, which, when he was obliged to flee 
to Holland, he entrusted to the care of Mr. Locke. Unfor* 
tunately for tbe public, when Algernon Sidney was put to 
death, on a charge of treason grounded upon papers found 
in his closet, Mn. Locke, intimidated with th^ apprehen- 
sion of a like prosecution, committed lord Shaftesbury's 
manuscript to the flames. The professed design of die . 
work was to display to the world the principles and motives 
by which his enemies had been actuated, and to give a 
true and impartial account of his own conduct. It began 
with the reformation, and traced the course of events down 
to the civil war, with a view of pointing out tbe defects of 
the constitution, and of stating what ought farther to be 
done, in order to strengthen and confirm the liberties of 
the people. It is understood that the earl was particularly 
excellent in his characters, some of which, in loose papers, 
are still in the possession of the family. The largest frag* 
ment now remaining is in the early part of the work, where 
the author has drawn the characters of the principal gen* 
tlemen who flourished in the county of Dorset, at the time 
in which he arrived to man's estate. From this fragment, 
a curious extract, giving an account of the hon. William 
Hastings, of Woodlands in Dorsetshire, was published in; 
the Connoisseur. It' aflbrds a striking example of lord 
Shaftesbury's talent in characteristic composition ; and 
Mr. Walpole, who in no other respect has spoken favour* 
ably of his lordship, has observed, that it is a curious and 
well-drawn portrait of our ancient English gentry. 

For the loss which was occasioned by Mr. Locke's timidly 
or prudence, he was solicitous to make some degiee 'Of 
reparation. Accordingly, he formed an intention pf wri--> 
tcag, at large, the history of his noble friend; and if he 
hpid accomplished his iatentioui his work would undoubtedly 


ham been a rerj v^hukle .fte$e»t to dltt public* B«t 
there was anotner biographer, who wiotae ft life of lihe emrU 
soon after his decease. Tins was Thonm Stxia^^, esq. of 
Ivy church, mar Salisbniryi a gemUiinasi of gneat integrity 
and excellent charader ; who had held, we believe, under 
his kirdship, when high-chancdlor of England, the office 
of clerk of the presentations; and adio'^as orach esteemed 
by BOBie of the principal persona of the i^. With Mr/ 
hotiod in particolar, he asaintained an tntmat^ frieodsU|i 
to the time of his death, which happened in 1702. Mn . 
Stringer^B account has been the ground^work on which the 
nansative intended for the public eye, by like noble fiumly^ 
has been built. It contained a valuable history of the ewrrs 
lite ; }mt was probably much inferior ' in composkion to 
what Mr. Lockers would h%ve been ; and indieed, in its 
origind ihrm, it waa too imperfect for puUiei^ion. Some- 
time about the year 1732, this manuscript, together with 
the rest of the Shaftesbnry papers, was put into the hands 
of Jklr. Benjamin Martyo, a gentleman who was then knowii^ 
in the literary world, in consequeece of haying written a 
tf^ecty, entitlied ^< Timoleon,*' which bad been acted with 
success at the theatre royal in XXmry^lane* Mr. Miutyn 
Bmde Mr. Stringer^s manuscript the bans of his own work, 
which he enriched wiith sudu speeciies of tbe •earl as are 
jNBt remaitting, and with several particulim drawn from 
smne Jocae papers left by bos lordship. He availed him* 
sd^ likewise, of other means of ici^Dinttation, which move 
rexaent publicatioi^ had a^brded ; and prefixed %o the 
vinie an tntvoduction of coottderable length, ivhemn ^be 
passed very high encomiums on owr f^at statesman, and 
stncngthened d^m by the ieiftimonies of Mr. Locke and 
Mons. Le Clerc. He added, also, strictures on L' Estrange^ 
sir WdUiam Temple, bishop Burnet, and others,^ who had 
wiitten to his lordship's disadvantage. One anecdote, 
which we well lemember, it cannot but be agreeable to 
thefmblic and to the noble family to see rdated. It is 
well known with what severity tlie earl of Sbafteisbury^s 
character is treated by Dryden, in his Absalom and Acbi«* 
topbd. Nevertbeiiess, soon after that fine aatire ^[ipeaved, 
kia kixUup having thejicMnination of a scholar, as gove«nor 
of ^e Charter-house, gave k to one of the poet's aons^ 
without any solicitation on the part of the father, or of any 
otfier person. This Mct of generosity had such an elfeot 
upon Dryden, that, to testify his gratitude, he added, in 

COOPER. 219 

thes^<«^ editkoB of tlie poeiii» the (ow foUdwiog hnM, 
in celebratioa of the oail'« tsomliict as lotd ^anedior. 

^ In iitiMr»0oi»t ne'er mt ab Abetfadln 
WidinuHediaBemiagtfes^ or luiida imn^'ciBaft^ 
Ikibiib'd, unsdiigbt» the metched lo ledMu^ - 
Swift of dispatch^ ajid e9sy of access.*' 

Notwilhstanding the paiaa tbat bad been taken by Mr. 
Mart3rR, the late earl of Shafteftbaiy did not timk the wpirk 
attfficiently (inisfaed for publbeaticsi ; and, tbevefora^ some- 
what more than tweoty years ago, be put it into the hands 
of his friend I>r, Gregory Sha^i master of the ienq^ 
All, however, that Ebr. Sharpe.perfiMraied, was toreoomawod 
it to the care of a. gentleman, who esEamined Mr. Mart^^e 
manusoript with aittentioa, ^pointed ont its errors, made fe« 
fereoces, and suggested a mux^r of initaaees in which it 
might be improved, but did aot proceed much farther ia 
the undertakii^.. At length, the work was consigned to 
anotlmr person^ who -spent considerable labdur upon it, 
enlarged it by a vanety of additions, and had it in con- 
templation to avail himself of every degree of imiiarniatioti 
which mi^t render it a correct hbtory of tfie time, as weU 
as a narrative of the 1^ of lord Shaftesbury. The reiooos 
(not unfriendly on either side) which prevented the peKKm 
now menticmed from completing his design, and c^oassanefl 
him to cetura the papers to the noble family, aiie ^fivt of 
sufficient conseqaence to be Jbere related. Whether the 
work is likely soon to appear, it is fiot in our power 'to as* 

On this acooaat, written by Dr. Kippis for the last edi«> 
tion of the Biog. Britannica, it is necessary to lematk, that 
Mr. Msdone, in his Life of Dryden, has amply refuted the 
story of the Charter-4)oase. With sespect to Mr. Martyn^s 
work, it is more necessary to reooaik that the tast person^ 
called here tfnoi^r pelrsan^ to whom therevisal of it was 
consigned, and who received 500/. for his tronhle, was 
Dr. Kippis himself but it seems dtffioult to expiaih what 
he means, by adding '^ Whether the wiork is likely soon to 
appear, it is not in our power to ascertam*'* The volume 
^ the Biographia in which this article occurs was pubhahiMi 
in 1789; and six ye«rs afterwards, in 1795, Dr. iKippis died; 
At the sale of his Ubvary, a quarto volume of a Life of 
Lord Shaftesbury, evidently the one alluded to, was pur-* 
chased by the late duke of Grafton, and must consequently. 
have been printed some time between 1789 and 1795, 

220 COOPER. 

jnoftt probably privately, as no other copy, to the best •f 
our recollection, has since been €»xposed to sale. ^ 

COOPER (Anthony Ashley), earl o£ Sbaftesbnry,. the 
celebrated author of the Characterisdcs, was borp Feb. 26, 
1671, at Exeter-house in London. His father was An- 
thony earl of Shaftesbury ; his mother lady Dorothy Man- 
ners, daughter of John earl of Rutland. He was bom in 
.the boose of his grandfather Anthony first earl of Shafte»- 
bory, and chancellor of England, of whom we haive spoken 
^in the preceding article; who was fond of him from his 
birth, and undertook the care of his education. He pur- 
aued almost the same method in teaching him the learned 
language^, as Montaigne's father did in teaching his son 
Latin : that is, he placed a person about him, who was so 
:thoroughly yersed in the Greek and Latin tongues, as to 
vpeak either of them with the greatest fluency. This per- 
son was a female, a Mrs. Birch, the daughter of a school- 
master in Oxfordshire or Berkshire; and a woman who 
could execute so extraordinary a tadc, deserves to have 
her name recorded with honour aqnong the learned ladies of 
England. By this means lord Shaftesbury made so great 
a progress, that he could read both these languages with 
ease when but eleven years old. At that age be was sent 
by his grandfather to a private school; and in 1683 was 
removed to Winchester school, but such waa the influence 
of party-spirit at the time, that he was insulted for his 
grandfather^s sake, by his companions, which made his 
situation so disagreeable, that he begged his father to coni- 
^aent to his going abroad. Accordingly he began his travels 
in 1686, and spent a considerable time in Italy, where he 
acquired great knowledge in the polite arts. This know- 
ledge is very visible through all his writings ; that of the 
art of painting is more particularly so, from the trekise he 
composed upon ^' The Judgement of Hercules.'' He made 
it hi$ endeavour, while he was abroad, to improve himself 
AS much as possible in every accomplishment ; for which 
reason he did not greatly afiect the company of other Eng- 
lish gentlemen upon their travels ; and he was remarkable 
for speaking French so readily, and with so good an accent, 
. that in France he was often taken for a native. 
.' Upon, his return to England in 1689, he was offered a 

>, Biog. Brit. — Park's edition of Lord Orford's Royal and Noble Authors.*<«* 
Seward's Anecdotes, vol. Il.^-Wood's Athene, toI. II. &c. ^c. 

C O OP E R. 2iai 

seat h) parliament from some of those boroqgbs where hw . 
family had an interest ; but he declined it, and pursued 
that strict course of study, which he had proposed to him* 
self, near five years. He was then elected a burgess for 
Poole : and, poon after his coming into pariiament, had an 
opportunity of shewing that spirit of liberty, which he 
maintained to the end of his life, when << The act for grant- . 
ing counsel to prisoners in cases of high treason" was 
brought into the housef. This he looked upon as import- 
ant, and had prepared a speech in its behalf : but when be 
stood up to speak it in the house of commons^ he was so 
intimidated, that he lost all memory, and was quite unable ' 
to proceed. The house, after giving him a little time to re- 
cover his confusion, called loudly for him to go on, when 
he proceeded to this. effect : '^ If I, sir," addressing himself 
to the speaker, ** who rise only to give my opinion on the ' 
bill now depending, am so coiifouaded, that I am unable 
to express the least of what I proposed to say; what must 
the condition of that, man be, who, without any assistanoe^ 
is pleading for his life'?'* During this atid other sessions, 
in which he continued in the house bf commons, hegai^e a 
consistent support to every motion for the farther security 
of liberty: but the business of attending regularly the 
house of commons, which in those active times ^nerally 
sat long, in a few years so Impatred his health, naturally 
never robust, that he was obhged to decline coming again 
into parliament, after its dissolution in 1698. 

Being thus at liberty, he went to Holland, where. he 
spent his time in the conversation of Bayle, Le Clerc, and 
other learned and ingenious men then residing in .that 
country, whose acquaintance induced him to continue 
there above a twelvemonth, and with whom he probably* 
cultivated that speculative turn which appears in all bis 
writings. When he went to Holland, he concealed ..his 
name, as it is said, for the sake of beiug less interrupted* 
in his studies, pretending only to be a student in physic,' 
and in that character contracted an acquaintance with Bayle. 
A little before his return to England, being willing to be. 
known to him by his real name,. he contrived to have Bayle 
invited to dinner by a friend, where he was told he was to 
meet lord Ashley. Bayle accidentally calling upon* lord 
Ashley that morning, was pressed by him. to stay; but 
excused himself, saying, <* I can by no.^means 9tay, for I 

Ma CO O P E R. 

must be punctual to an engagement; wkere I am to meet 
liiy lord Ashley.'' The next interview, as may be ima* 
gined, oocasioned some mirth ; and the incident rather iti* 
creased their intimacy, for they never ceased corresponding 
till Bayle's death. During his absence in Holland, an im* 
perfect edition of his *^ Inquiry intq Virtue" was published 
at London ; Surreptitiously taken from a vi»ugb draught, 
sketched when he was but twenty years of age. The 
person who served him thus unhandsomely, was To- 
land; on whom be is said to have conferred qiany favours, 
and who miserably spoiled both his style and sentiments. 
The treatise, however, acquired some reputation, and was 
afterwards completed by the noble author, and published 
in the second volume of the *^ ClmracteristicsJ' 

Soon after he returned to England, be became earl of 
Shaftesbury ; but did not attend the house of lords, till 
his friend lord Somers sent a messenger to acquaint him 
with the business of the partition treaty, February 1701. 
On this be immediately wtot poi^ to London ; and though, 
when lord Somers's letter was brought to him, be was be* 
yond Bridgwater in Somersetshire, and his constitutioa 
was ill calculated for any extraordinary fatigue, he traveled 
with such speed, that he was in the house of peers on the 
following day, exhibiting an instance of dispatch, which 
at that time was less easy to be performed than it is at 
present During the remainder of the session^ he attended 
his parliamentary duty as much as bis health would per- 
* mit, being earnest to support the measures of king' Wil- 
liam, who was then engaged in forming Ae grand alliance. 
Nothing, ip the earl of Shaftesbury^s judgment,, could 
more effectually assist that glorious und^taking, tban the 
6b<Hce of a good parliament. He used, therefore, his ut- 
most efforts to facilitate the design ; and such was his suc- 
cess, upon the election of a new house of eommon9 (par-^ 
ties at that crisis being nearly on an equality), that his 
migesty told him he had turned the scale. So high was 
the opinion which the king had formed of the earl's abili- 
ties and character, that ^n offer was made him of being 
appointed secretary of -state. This, however, his declining 
constitution would not permit him to accept ; but, although 
he was disabled from engaging in tbe course of official 
businesis, he was capable of giving advice to his magesty, 
who frequently consult^ him on ajFain^ of the highest im-«t 
*porunce. Nay, it is understood that be had a great ahare* 

COOPER. 223 

in composing that celebrated lasi speech of king Wiffiam, 
which was delivered on the Slat of Decemher, 1701. 

Upon the accession of queen Anne to the throne, lord 
Sfaauesburj returned to his retired manner of life, bein^ 
remoi^v£roni the vice«admiralty of the county of Dorset, 
uriiich haa bei^n in the family for three successive genera- 
tions. This slight, though it was a matter of little conse- 
quence^ was the only one that could have been shewn him, 
as it was the single thing which he had ever held under the 
crown. The measure of taking it from him was supposed 
to have or^nated in certain statesmen who resented his 
services to another party in the preceding reign. 

In the beginning of the year after, viz. 1703, he made a 
second jotirnqr-to Holland, and returned to England in 
the end of the year following. The French prophets sooiiv 
after having by their enthusiastic extravagances created 
much disturbance throughout the nation, among the dif* 
ferent opinions as to the methods of suppressing them, some 
advised a prosecution. But lord Shaftesbury, who ab- 
horred any Utep which looked like persecution, appre- 
hended that such measures tended rather to inflame than 
to cure the disease : and this occasioned his '* Letter con- 
cerning Enthusiasm,*' which he publislied in 1708, and sent 
it to lord Somers, to whom he addressed it, though without 
the mention either of his own or lord Somers^s name. 
Jan. 1709, he published his *^ Moralists, a philosophical 
rfaap^dy f ' and^ in May following, his ^^ Sensus communis, 
or an essay upon the freedom of wi;t and humour.** The 
same year he married Mrs. Jane Ewer, youngest daughter 
of Thomas Ewer, esq. of Lee in Hertfordshire ; to whom 
he was related, and by whom be had an only soii, Anthony 
the fourth earl of Shaftesburyir From his correspondence, 
it does not appear that he had any very extraordinary at«> 
tacbment to this lady, or that the match added much to 
his happiness, which some have attributed to a disappoint- 
ment in a previous attachment. In 1710, his ^^ SoliloqujT, 
or advice to an author,*' was printed. In 1711, finding his 
health still declining, he was advised to leave England, 
and seek assistance from a warmer climate. He set out 
therefore for Italy in July 1711, and lived above a year, 
after his arrival ; dying at Naples, Feb. 4, 1 7 1 3 . 

The only pieces which he finished, after he came to 
Naples, were, '^ The Judgement of Hercules,** and the 
^' iJetter ^nc^ming Design ^** wfaicl^ last was first publishedL 

224 COOPER. 


in the edition of the Characteristics, 1732. The rest of 
bis time be employed in arranging bis writings fi^r a more 
elegant edition. The several prints» then first interspersed 
through the work, were all invented by him^lf, and de- 
signed under his immediate inspection : and be was at the 
pains of drawing up a most accurate set of instructiona for 
this purpose,' which ate still extant in manuscript.' In the 
three volumes of the Characteristics, be .complet;ed the 
whole of bis writings which be intended should be made 
public. The first edition was piiblisbed in 171 1 ; but the 
more complete apd elegant edition, , which has been the 
standard of all editions since,, was not .published till 17i3y^ 
immediately after bis xleatb. But though lord Shaftes- 
bury intended nothing .more for the public, yet, in 17 16,^ 
some of his letters were printed under the title of ^^ Several 
Letters written by a noble lord to a young man at the ujii*: 
versity :" and, in 1721, Toland published '^ Letters frooir 
the late^earl of, Shaftesbury to Robert Moleswortb, esq.'* 
Lord Shaftesbury is said to have had an esteem for sucb of 
our divines (though he treated the. order very severely in 
general) as explained Christianity most conformably to bis 
own principleaf ; and it was under bis particular inspection^ 
and with a preface of bis own writing^ that a volume of 
Whichcdt's sermons was published in 1698, from copies 
taken in short hand, as they were delivered from the pul- 
pit* This curious fact was some years ago ascertained oii 
the authority of Dr. Huntingford, the present bishop of 
Gloucester, who bad his information from James Harris> 
esq. of Salisbury, son to a sister of the earl of Shaftesbury*. 
Her brother dictated the preface to this lady, and it i^ 
certainly a pqpof that he had at least a general belief iii 
Christianity, and a high respect for many, of the divines of 
his time, and particularly for Whichcot. Dr.llunting^ 
ford's account was communicated to the last edition of the 
Biographia BritanniCa; and in a copy of this volume of 
sermons now before us, the same is written on jthe fly leaf, 
as communicated by Dr. Huntingford to the then owner of 
the volume, the late Dr. Chelsum. . , I 

But lord Shaftesbury *s principal study was the writings 
of antiquity ; and those which he most admired^ were the 
znoral works of Xenophon, Horace, the Enchiridion bf 
Epictetus, with Arrian's Commentaries, and Marcus Anto- 
ninus. From these be formed to bimself the plan of bis' 
philosophy : and the idea which be framed to bimself of 

CO b P E Ri 225 

philosophy ill general) may be best comprehended from the 
following words of his, where addressing himself to a corre*^ 
spondenty he says : ^^Nor were there indeed any more than 
two real distinct philosophies ; the one derived from So- 
crates, and passing into the old academic, the peripatetic, 
aind stoic ; the other derived in reality fi'om Democrifus, 
and passing into the Cyrenaic, and Epicurean. For as for 
that mere sceptic or new academic, it had no certain pre- 
cepts, and so was an exercise of sophistry, rather than of 
philosophy. The first therefore of these two philosophies 
recommended action, concernment in civil affairs, religion, 
&c. ; the second derided all this, and advised inaction and 
retreat*. And good reason; for the first maintained, that 
society, rightj and wrong, were founded in nature, and 
that nature had a meaning, and was herself; that is to say, 
in her wits, well governed, and administered by one simple 
and perfect intelligence. The second again derided this, 
and made providence and dame nature not so sensible as a 
doting old woman. So the Epicurean in Cicero treats 
providence, Anusfaiidica stoic&rum ir^ima. The first there- 
fore of these philosophies is to be called the civil, social, 
and theistic : the second the contrary.*' 

It ren^ains now to notice more particularly the writings 
of lord Shaftesbury, which by one class of critics, have re- 
ceived the most extravagant applause, and, by another, 
have been the subjects of indiscriminate condemnation. 
They have been examined with a critical eye, and in ra- 
ther an elaborate manner, by Dr. Kippis, to whose article, 
in the BLographia Britannica, we refer the reader, con- 
tenting ourselves with a brief outline. Lord Shaftesbury's 
** Letter on Enthusiasm' ' was written from excellent mo- 
tives : it contains many admirable remarks, delivered in a 
neat and lively stmin ; butit wants precision ; conveys but 
little information ; and contains some exceptionable pas- 
sages. The same character may be given, with truth and 
justice, of " The Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Hu- 
mour,*' designed to defend the application of ridicule to 
subjects of speculative inquiry, and among others to reli- 
gious opinions. ' His '^ Soliloquy, oir Advice to an Author," 
Viet with more general approbation. It contains a variety 
of excellept matter : and what the noble lord has advanced 
in'recommendation of self-examina^on, and in defence of 
critics and criticism, is particularl}" valuable: it is evi- 
dently the result of the author^s knowledge and refined 

Vol .X. Q 

226 c a Q e i;/ Ki 

taste in books, u% liffe, and miiRQers* Lord Shafiesbur}'*s 
** Enquiry concemii>g; Virtue"' .obtained more general ap* 
plaose, altbougb in some points it is liable to objectioii. 
It is ably and .finely writC^n, aod maintains with grtot foree 
the. important truths that virtue is the greatest happiness^ 
and vice tbe grealiest misery of men. In this ^' £nquiry/' 
the noble author appeared in the close, the logical, Und 
the didactic form. But in the ^^ Moruliets," he istheemu** 
lator of. Plato, ip the boldest poetio manner of that.emtnent 
philosopher. Bishop Hard ranks it among the best com- 
positions of the kind in our language* Its matter is highly 
valuable and important, and presents us with a trnly argu* 
mefHative and eloquent defente of. the doctrines of a Deity 
and a Providence^ The ^^ Miscellaneous Refieotions on 
tlie preceding treatises, and other critical subjects,'' are 
intended as a sort of defence and explanation of his fontier 
works; but, although they contain a variety of just and m*- 
genious remarks^ they abound with many exoeptionable 
passages concerning revelation. With respect to the style 
of lord Shaftesbury, we may quote the opinion of Dr« 
Blair, which is at once accurate and judicious. '^ His lan- 
guage has many beauties; it is .firm and supported in an 
uncommon degree ; it is rich and musical. No English 
author has attended so much to the regular construction 
of his sentences, both with respect to propriety and 
with respect to cadence. All this gives so much ele*- 
gance and pomp to his language, tlmt there is no 
wonder it should sometimes be highly admited. It is 
greatly hurt, however, by. perpetual stifitiess and af- 
fectation. This is its capital fault. His lordship can ex- 
press nothing with simplicity. He seems to have con- 
sidered it as vulgar, and beneath the dignity of a man of 
quality, to speak like other men. Hence he is ever in 
buskins, full of circumlocutions and artilicial elegance. In 
every sentence we see the marks of labour and art ^ nothing 
of that ease which expresses a sentiment coming natural 
and warm from the heart. Of figures and ornaments of 
every kind he is exceediogly fond ; sometimes happy in 
them ; but his fondness for them is too visible^ and having 
once laid hold of some metaphor or allusion that pleased, 
he knows not how to part wit^ it. What is most wonderful, 
he was a professed admirer of simplicity ; is always extol* 
ling it., in the ancients, and censuring the moderns for 
want of it/ though he departs from it himself as far as any 
one modern whatever. Lord Shaftesbury possessed deli- 

Q Q f) R Rw ^27 

cacy and refintinent : of IMibit0 arrd^ctt ^tbat fn9e amy c^l 
excetsive jukI: sickly } Imi faerbci^ little'wartBth of passion ; 
fevrsfiroiig 'Or 'vigorqucr fe^Un^y and tbeeolilhess of bis 
cbaraoler'led bida to tbal«m6i^id|l'aiid stately [Qanner wbi«:h 
appears in hlft wrmbgs* H^ ia foiider. of aoibing tharii of 
wit and raillery ; but b^^ifar fcOBi b^ing bappy in /it. H^ 
attempts ab oft^^ but alway st-awkwArdiy; ^ b^Ms stifFeven ia 
bis pleasantry^ «Dd laughs' ior form Ji^q aii ^tbor, aad B4>| 
like a iiian^^' Lord Sbaftesbury nooMiiines proifessed bims^if 
a Chriistian ; but fafis irritingft^ ii> n4i>y parfis^ r^oder bis faitb 
in tbe diFtne aiiftsioo o{Ql^^9iri^&fy iqu03ti<]^ble. Xbe noble 
Ibrd left one sbii^ AiklhoayfiMbl^y Cooper^ tbe foqrtb eairl^ 
ef whom tbeiiiearried BpoHuntingibrd »ay8> ^^ ihere n^vet 
existed a maii^ oft pore, ben evdl^Qcei i»oral w^rtb^ £uid trua 
piety/' Henwasdie autbor <Qf fthe life olhi^ father, jn ibe 
greAt Genef^l /Diatienasyk ineluding Bayie. It may uoft 
be improper to a<&l. itflf: tbia'^laee, ih^ tbe translator el 
Xenophon's Cyropedia was tbe honourable Maurice Ashley 
Coopef) brdtherfca theabird^earL* 

COOPER (Jc^MN GilMf^7)i. an Knglish pqet and mis-, 
eellaneous writer^ mi«$ Ibora io 1723. He de^conded^ ac^ 
wording to tbe acequnt ^i hid life in the Biog^phia Britan^ 
nica, from an anoient family in Nottingbami^hine, impove'^ 
•risbed oa aceouni of its loyalty daring the rebellion in 
Charles tbe First's time. Tburgatoa. Priory in tbj^t count/ 
%vas granted to one of bis ancestors by Henry VIIL and after 
some inteiTuption, became the residence^ of our poet's 
father, and stitl continues in the ifaniily* Jn Thoroton:$ 
Nottinghamshire, it is stated that the tapnily , name was 
Gilbert, ami* tbat^ in i7&G| John Gilbert, esq* obtained 
leave to Use tbe surname and arms of Cooper, pursuant to 
tbe will of Jokn Cooper, of Thurgaton, esq. He was edu* 
cated at WeMminster^school under Dr. John Nichols, and 
in 1 743 became a fellow-comaH>ner of Trinity ooUegey 
Cambridge, where he resided two or three years, without 
taking a degree, but not without a due attention to bis 
studies. With soo:^ tincture of foppery, he was a young 
man of ^ery lively parts, and attached to classical learning, 
whicb it is only to be regretted be did not pursue with 
judgment. He quitted the university oa his marriage with 
Susanna, tbe grand-daughter of sir Nathan Wright, lord 

^ Gen. Diet. toI. IX. art. Stiaftesbufy. — %io^. Brit first and second editions, 
ace— Collinses Peerage, by sir £. Brydgeft.-^Park'j OrArd, roU IV.— »LeJaiKl'f 
peiitical irritc tf. 


22S C O O P ^ R. 

keeper. In 1745, he publistaed ^The Poirer of Har« 
mony,*' in two books, ib which be endeavoured to recooi* 
mend |i constant attention to what is perfect and beautiftd 
in nature, as the means of harmoiiising the. soul, to a re** 
sponsive regularity and sympathetic order. This imitation 
of the language of the l^aftiesbury school was not affecta* 
tied. He haa studied the worfcs of that nobleman with en- 
thusiasm, and seems entirely to have regulated his conduct 
by the maxims of the ancient and modem academics. 
The poem brought him into notice with the public, but he 
appears not at this time to IniTe courted the fame of an- 
tborsbip. When Dodsley began to publisb his ^' Museum,*^ 
be invited the aid of Mr. Cooper among others who were 
friendly to him, and received a greater portion of assist^ 
ance from our author's pen tbsin from diat of any other in-^ 
dividual. His papers, however, were signed, not Fk^-^ 
ktfiesy as mentioned in the Biographia Britannica, but Fhp- 

In 1 749, he exhibited a curious specimen of sentimental 
grief in a long Latin epitaph on hi» first son, who died the 
day after his birth. It is now added to* the late edition of 
his works, with a translation which appeared some years 
%go. in the Gentleman's Magazine, and is precisely such a 
translation as so ridiculous an original deserves. He after* * 
wftrds^' aitbaugh it does not appear at what period, gave 
Another instance of that romantic feeling which is apart 
from triith and nature. Mr. Fitzherbert, the father of the 
lite lord St. Helen's, found Cooper one morning, appa- 
tetttly in such violent agitation, on account of the^indispow 
sition of his second son, as to seem beyond the power of 
cdmfort. At length, however, be exclaimed " IMl write 
an Elegy." Mr. Fitzherbert being satisfied, by this, of 
the sincerity of his einotioil's, slyly said, '^ Had' you not- 
better titke a post-chaise and go and see him ?" ^ 

In 1749 he published with his name, ^^ The Life of So^- 
crates, collected from all the ancient authorities." In this 
work be; received many learned notes from the sturdy an-*; 
tagoni^t of Warburton, the rev. John Jackson of Leicester^' 
a controversial divine of . considerable fiime in his d^y.- 
These notes were principally levelled at Warburton, and 
in language not very respectful. Warburton, who knew 
Jackson, but probal^ly little of Cooper, retorted by a note, 
la bis edition of Pope's Works, on the Essay of Criticism, 
in which he accused the author of the Life of -Socrates of . 

e O i) P E H. 1229 

impudent abuse and slander, the ofF8{lririg df ignorance 
joined with vanii:y. Cooper^s vanity, it must be confessed, 
is amply displayed in this work^' and it is impossible to 
justify bis aflected contempt for writers of established re* 
putation. Warburton's rebuke^ however, was very coarse, 
and appears to have alarmed him, for be was not naturally 
-^ of an abusive turn, but, . on the contrary, rather prideS 
himself on a mind superior to personal anisiositie^. In his 
defence, therefore, he published Remarks on Warburtoh^s 
, edition of Pope, in which he professes that he had at- 
tacked him as an author, and' not a& a man, and did n6t, afs 
a fair antagonist, deserve to be called an impudent slan^ 
derer. He nesct examines a few of Warburton's notes on 
Pope, and endeavours ta prove his incapacity as a com<- 
oientator. He betrays, however, that the real cause of 
bis introducihg Warburton's name into the Life of Socrates, 
was his want of veneration jfor Mr. Cooper's imiwmte pht* 
losophers, Shaftesbury, Rutcheson, &c. The whole is 
written with; much acrimooy, but with a very considerable 
display of learning. In the former, at least, there is re^ 
son to think,. he was assisted by Jackson ; but the Life of 
Socrates brought . very little reputation to its author, and 
after some years^ Warburton's angry note was odaitted 
from the editions of Pope. 

In 1754 he appeared to more advantage as. the author of 
^' Letters on Taste," a small volume which soon passed 
through three or four editions. Taste bald not at this time 
been, treated in a philosophical manner, and as the author 
set out with liberal professions, his readers were induced 
to take for granted that he had thrown much new light on 
the subject. Hei^ however, origii^al only in the manner 
in which he has contrived to throw a charm over a few ac- 
knowledged truths and common^place opinions. Instead 
of bejginning by definition^ and proceeding gradually to 
analyse the pleasure resulting from what are generally con- 
sidlfred as the objects of true taste, he lets loose his ima^- 
guuition,' invites his reader into fairy* land, and delights 
hiitt by excursive remarks and aitegd^rical details, but in 
a style which even Johnston, : who :had no great opinion of 
Cooper, allowed to be splendid and spirited. 

In.l7ir5 he published the <^ Tomb of Shakspeare,-^ a 
vision, and when the "World": was set up by Dodsley 
and Moore, he contributed two papers. In 1756, he ap- 
pears to^ have caught :tb^ fU^m v^ry general at that time 

2S6 C' a P E' R; 

among the cBemies of admiriist^nsttion, lest the Hessiao 
troops, brought into the countryt(^ defend the kingdom from 
invasion^ should beinstruiYiemalin subverting its liberties. 
Mr. Cooper was no poHticiai), -but he was a poet, and he 
determined to contribate his share of warning, in a poem 
entitled ** The Genius of. Britain/* addr-essed to Mr. Pitt. 
In 1758 he published << Epistles to the Great-, from Aris- 
tippus in retirement," and- soon after: ^^ The Call of Ariis* 
tippus,-* addressed to Dr. Akenside, ih a style of adulation 
pardonable only to th6\warmest feelings of friendship. 
Some othet of his lesser pieces were li^published about this 
time y and in 17-59 his translation of Cresset's ** Ver Vert,** 
a mock heroic poem in four cantos* In 1764, all these, 
with the exception of the ^* V;er Vert,'' and e^* The Esti- 
mate of Life," were published irt one volume by Dodsley, 
whom he allowed to take that Mbefty, and who informs us 
that they were originally written for the author's amuse- 
ment, and afterwards published • for the bookseller's profit. 
At this time, he had probably taken leave of the muses^ 
and was applying himself to the active and useful duties of 
a magistrate. He resided, ' hoWeVer, occasionally in Lon- 
don, and was a constant attendatit atid frequent speaker at 
the Society- for' the Eucouragem^nt of Arts, Manufactures, 
and Commerce. Of this he had unsuccessfully endea^- 
voured to bbcome a vice-president, and felt his disappoint- 
inent so keenly as to retire in disgust; He died at his 
house in May Fair, after a long and excruciating illness^ 
occasioned by the stone, April 14, 17169, in the forty* 
sixth year of his age. < 

Dr. Kippis, who knew him personally, informs us thtft 
he was a gentleman of polity address and addomplishmentk, 
and if the general tenour of his works may be oredited, 
be possessed an ^fniable and aifiectionate heart. His chief 
foible was vanitv, biit this is more discoverable in his wri* 
tings than it probably was in his life. There are few of the 
mhioF poets who have higher claims to originality. The 
^* Epistles to Aristippus," his songs, and the "Father's 
Advice to bis Son,** although of unequal merit, contain 
many passages that are truly- poetical. His veneration fbc 
some of the French poets, particularly Gresset, induced . 
him to attempt a mode of 'versification^ in the Epistles, to 
which the English ear eannot eltsily become familiar, and 
which is not to be justifijed from any defect in the manliness 
f»f copiousness of tb^ English language. Yet this study of 


the Freneh writers, of no u^e in other respects, has ren- 
dered hU translation of the " Ver Vert" almost a perfect 
isopy of the original, and far superior to the coarse version 
since published by the late Dr. Geddes. ^ 

COOPER (Samuel), an eminent English painter, was 
born in London in 1609, and bred under the care and dis- 
cipline of Mr. Hoskins, his uncte : but derired the most 
considerable advantages from his observations on the works 
of Vs^n Dyjck, insomuch that he was commonly styled the 
Van Dyck in miniature. His pencil was generally con- 
fined to a head only i ai>d indeed below that part he was 
jnot always so successful as could be wished. But for a 
face, and all the dependencies of it, namely the graceful 
and becoming air, the strength, relievo, and noble spirit, 
the softness and tender liveliness of flesh and blood, and 
the looseness and gentle management of the hair, his ta- 
lent was so extraordinary, that, for the honour of our na- 
tion, it may without vanity be affirmed, he was at least 
equal to the most famous Italians ; and that hardly any one 
of his. predecessors has ev€fr b^en able to $hevv so much 
perfection in so narrow a compass. The high prices of 
his works, ai)d the great ^esteem in which they were held 
at, Venice, apd in France, were abundant proofs of 
their great .worth, and extended the fame of this master 
througbout Europe. He so far exceeded his master and 
uncle Hoskms, that the latter became jealous of him; and 
finding that the court was better pleased with his nephew^s 
performances than with his, he took him' into partnership 
with him, but his jealousy increasing, he dissolved it; leav- 
ing our artist to ^t up for himself^ and to carry, as he did, 
most of the business of that time before him. He drew 
Charles II, and his queen, the duchess of Cleveland, the 
duk^e of Yorky and most of the cojurt : but the two most 
famous pieces .of bis were those of Oliver Cromwell, and 
of QD.e ^wingfield. The French king offered 150/. for the 
/Ebrnx^r* but was refus^^d ; and Cooper carrying the latter, 
rwi^i ^Q^ to France, it was much admired there, and in- 
troduce^ him ijito the favour of that court. He likewise 
didi ^ey^eral large limnings in an pnusual size for the court 
qf ^pgil^^d ; mr which bis widow received a pension dur- 
ing Mer lil^. from the crown. This widow was sister to the 
jnod)(e^ pf ib« c^lebrate^^Pope. 

I Biog. Brit^JohoMD and CbBlnert'v F.n^Ksh Poets. 

?3? COOPER. 

Answerable to Cooper!8 abilittes iiv painting, was hta 
^fcill in music; and hewas reckoned one of the best lute* 
llist^y as well as the most excellent limner, of his time. 
He spent several years of his life abroad, was personally 
acquainted with the greatest men of France, Holland, and 
his own country, and by his works was untrersally known 
in all parts of Europe. He died at London May 5, 1672, 
aged 63, and was buried in Pancras church in the fields ; 
where there is a fine marble monument set over him, with 
$t Latin inscription. 

He had an elder brother, Alexander Cooper, who was 
also brought up to limning by Uoskins, their uncle. Alex- 
ander perforined well in miniatiire; and going beyond 
sea, became limner to Christina, queen of Sweden, yet 
was far exceeded by his brother Samuel. He also painted 
landscapes Jn water-^coloura extremely well, and was ac- 
counted an admirable draughtsman.^ 

COOPER or COUPER (Thomas), a learned English 
bishop, was born at Oxford about 1517, and educated in 
the school adjoining to Mag'dalen college ; and, having 
jp^ti,de great progress in grammar learning, and gained high 
r^PMtation, he was there elected first demy, then proba- 
tioner in 1539, and perpetual fellow the year after. He 
.quitt!g4 bi^ fellowship in 1546, being then married, as iris 
supposed.; and when queen Mary came to the crown, ap-? 
pli^d himself to the study of physic, and, taking a bache- 
Iqr's degree, practised it at Oxford, because he was secretly 
inclined to the Protestant religion ; but upon the' death of 
that queen, he returned to his former study of divinity. 
March 1^^7, he took the degree of D.D. and about that 
time vas qaade dean of Christ*cburch. I^ 1569 he was. 
made iesat of Gloucester, and the year after bishop of Lin- 
coln. July 1 572, he preached a sermon at St. Paul*s cross^ 
in vindication of the church of England and its liturgy ; to 
which an answer wa^ s^nt him by a disaffected person, whieh 
i^nswer Strype has pqnted at length in his ^' Annals of 
.the Reformation. ^V In 14177 the queen sent him a letter to 
pi^t a stop to those public exercises called prophesyings, in 
his diocese* These propbesyingsi were grounded upon 
1 Cor. i^iy. 31. *^ Ye may all prophesy one by one, that 
all n^^y }earn, and all may be comforted.^' They were set 
on foot in several parts of the king^qa aboY:|t 1571; and con- 

f M^t1po1e*s Anecdotes. — Pilkii^^ton. 



fisted, of confer^ioes atnong the clergy, for the better im-* 
proving of tbemaelvesy and one another, in the ktiowledge 
of scripture and divinity ; but in 1577 were generally sup* 
ffressed, on account- of their being thought seminaries of 
fi!untanisin.> In. 1594 be wa» translated to the bishopric of 
Winchester ; which diocese abounding greatly with papists^ 
he petitioned the prtvy-cQuncil to suppress them ; and 
among other methods proposed, f < that an hundred or two 
of obstinate reeusaAits^ lusty men, well able to labour^ 
might by some convenient commission, be taken up, and 
be sent into Flanders as pioneers and labourers, whereby 
the country should be disburdened of a company of dan^ 
gerous people, and the rest, that remained be put in some 
fear." , 

This reverend and holy bishop, as Wood calls him, 
upon the discovery of William Parry's treason, issued ai) 
order of prayer and thanksgivijig for the preservation' of 
the queen 'S life iuid safety, to be used in the diocese of 
Winchester; and,. Nov. 17,. 1588, preached at St. Paul'fc 
cross, that being a day of public thanksgiving, a^ welt for 
the queen's accession, as for the victory obtained oveir the 
Spanish armada. He died at Winchester in Apiil 1594, 
and was buried in the cathedral there. Over his gravies 
which is- on the south side of the choir, ivas coon aft)sr 
lewl a flat marble, with a Latin inscription in pro^e afid 
verse, which was probably defaced at the new paving of tb^ 
clK>ir. . , . • : 

The character of this bishop has been represented in 'an 
advantageous light by several writers. Bale styles him- a 
^very learned. man : eloquent, and well acquainted with the ' 
.English and Latin languages ; and Godwin says, that he 
was a man of great gravity, learning, and holiness of life. 
*^ He was,^' says Wood, *^ furnished with all kind of learh- 
ingy almost beyond all his contemporaries; and not only 
. adorped the pulpit with his sermons, but also the common- 
wealth of learning with his writings.*' *^ Of him," says sir 
John . Harrington^ ^^ I can say much ; and I should do him 
great wrong, if I should say nothing: for he was indeed a 
reverend man, very well learned,, exceeding industrious'; 
4^nd, which was in those days counted a great praise to him, 
and a chief cause of his preferment, he wrote that grefat 
dictionary that yet bq^s his name. His life in Oxford 
was very commendable, and in some sort saint-like ; for, 
if it is saint-like to live unreproveable, to bear a cross par 


tiently^ to focgtre great injuries freely, thb man's example 
13 saoifleless in .tbi$ age ^." He married a wife at OxfeNrxiy 
by whom he bad two daughters : bat he was not bappy with 
ber, she proving un&itbful to bis. bed. ^^ The whole uni> 
versity/' sir John Harrington tells us, ^^ in reverence to the 
majDy and indignity of the matter, offered to separate ber 
from him by public authority, and so to set him free, being 
the innocent party : but be woald by no means i^ree 
thereto, alleging he knew his own infirmity, that he might 
not live unmarried ; and to divorce and macry again, he 
would not charge his conduct with so great a scandal.'* The 
character of this woman makes us doubt the story that 
she burnt the notes which her husband tuid, for eight years, 
been collecting for his dictionary, lest he should kill him- 
self with study. Such a proof of afiection, however per- 
plexing to a student, was not likely from such a wife as 
Mrs. Coo|ier« 

His writings were : 1. <^ The epitome of Chronicles from 
the 17th year after Christ to 1540, and thence to 156C.^ 
The two first parts of this chronicle, and the beginning of 
the third, as far as the 17th year after Christ, were com- 
posed by Thomas Lanquet, a young man of 24 years old : but 
be dying immaturely^ Cooper finished the work, andpub^- 
lisbed it under the title of ^^ Cooper's Chronicle/' thoug^h 
the running^title of the first and second part is>' Lanquet's 
Chronicle." A faulty edition of this work was published 
surreptitiously in 1559; but that of 1 560, in 4to, was re^- 
vised and corrected by Cooper. 12. ^^ Thesaurus Linguce 
SlomansB & Britannicse,^' &c. and, ^^ Dictionarinm bisto«> 
ricum ,& poeticum,'* 1 565, folio. This dictionary was so 
much esteemed by queen Elizabeth, that,she endeavoured, 
as Wiood tells us, to promote the author for it in the church 
ds high as she could. It is an improvement of *^ Biblio- 
tbeca £Uot«,'' £liot's Uborary or dictionary, printed in 
1541 ; or, as some think, it is taken out •erf Robert Ste- 
pliens^s ^^ Thesaurus Lingute Latinae, and ^^ Frisii 'Lexicon 
i^tino-Teutonicum.'' 5. ^^ A brief exposition of sneb chap^ 
jters of the Old Testament as usually are read in the church 
at common prayer, on the Sundays throughout the year,^' 
1573, 3to* 4* " A sermon at Lincoln,'^ 1576, «vot 5. 

* Tb« only charge brought agaiQst his bishopric produced 2,700/. )iis 

bim was that of covetousness, \diile clear "profits amounted only lo 398/. 

Jbitbop of Winchester; but this he Strype's Annals, Appen<1tx, toI. Ill- 

fuUy refuted, by proving that, thoii^h p. 59, 

C O a P E R. 235 


^^ Twelve Sermons/' 1580, 4to. 6. << An admonition ta 
the people of England, wherein are answered not only the 
slanderous untruths reproacbfuliy uttered by Martin the li- 
beller, but also many other crimes by some of bis broody 
objected generally against all bishops and the chief of the 
clergy, purposely to defiuse and discredit the present state 
of the church,*' L589, 4to« This was an answer to John 
ap Henry's books against the established church, pnblisfaed 
under the name of Martin Mar^Prelate. Ap Henry, or bis 
accomplices, replied to tke bis(iop's book, in two ludicrous 
pamphlets, entitled, ** Ha' ye any work far a Cooper ?" 
and *^ More work for a Cooper." * 

COOTE (Sir Chjlkles), a distinguished military officer 
>in the 17th century, was the eldest son of Sir Charles 
Caotey who was created barteet in April 1621* He was a; 
gentleman of great consideration in Ireland. Upon tbe 
breaking out of the rebellion, in 1641, he had a oottimission 
fm a regiment of foot, and was made governor of Dublin. 
From this period to the year 1652, he was engaged in si 
great number of important services ifor his country. In 
almost' all the contests of which be took a part, he 
was successful After Ireland was reduced to the obadi^no^ 
of the parliament, sir Charles was one of the court of jus^ 
tice in the province of Connaught, of which be was made 

S resident by act of parliament. Being in England at tiie 
one o£( tfhe deposing of Richard Cromwell, he went post 
Id Ire^land, to carry the news to his brother Henry Crofa-* 
well, that they might secure themselves ; but when he per* 
ceived that king Charles the Second's interest was likely to 
prevail, be sent to the king sir Arthur Forbesj ** to assure 
bis .Majesty of sir Charles's affection and duty, and that if 
his Majesty would vouchsafe to come to Ireland, he was 
confident the whole kingdom would declare for him ; that 
though the present power in England had removed all the 
sober men frooa the government of the state in Ireland, under 
the character of pnesbytarians, and had put Ludlow, Corbet, 
and others of the king's judges in their places, yet they were 
generally so odious to the army as well as to the people, 
that- they could sei^e on their persons* and tlie castle of 
Publin \ffbBn they should judge it convenient." The king 

did not think it prudent to accept the invitation. In a short 

I" ' 

* Biog. Brit— podwin.— Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Strype's Parker, p. 316, 346, [451] 
465.— Strype'* Whi^ift, p. 132, 187, 288, 299.— Harripgion»s Brief. View, 
p. 61, 

236 C O.O T E. 


timeafter, sir paries Coote, and some others^ so influence 
the whole, council of officers, that they prevailed upon them 
to vote not, to receive .colonel Ludlow as commander in 
chief, and made themselves masta:^ of Athlone, Orogheda, 
Limerick, Dublin^ and other important places, for the ser- 
vice of the king* He immediately caused colonel Monk 
to be made acquainted with the progress^ of the king's in- 
terest in Ireland, who urged them by every means not to 
restore the suspended commissioners to the exercise of 
their authority. Soon after,, sir Charles Coote and others 
sent to the parliament a charge of high treason against co^ 
lonel Ludlow, Corbet, Jones, and l*homlinson. He like- 
wise made himself master of Dublin castle ; and apprer 
hended.iJohn Coke, chief justice of Ireland, who had been 
solicitor-general at the trial of king Charles I.^ Notwidi- 
standing diis, parliament thought themselves so sure of bim 
in their interest, that he received their vote of thanks on 
the 5th of Jan. 1659-60. On the 19th of the same month 
be was appointed one of the commissioners for liie mam^et 
ment of the afiairs of Ireland. Before those conmiissi^n^i 
ers declared for king Chairles, they insisted upon pertain 
things relating to their interest as members x>f that nation; 
On the 6th ol September 1660, sir Charles Coote, on ac<-. 
count of his many iand very valuable services for the royal 
cause, was created baron and viscount Coote, and earl of 
Montrath in the Queen's county. He was also apjpointed 
one of the lords iustices of Ireland, but he did not long 
enjoy these marks of his sovereign's favour, for be died in 
December 1661, and was succeeded in bis eslate^iud titles 
by his son Charles, the second earl. Dr. Leland asserts that 
Coote and his father bad engaged in the parliamentaiy ser^ 
vice not from principle, but interest. Dr. Kippis, ho«r- 
ever, doubts the assertion, upon the ground that tte. Cbot^ 
were zealous presbyteriaus ; and therefore. be thinks it 
highly probable that they were influenced, at leastin part, 
by their real sentiments, civil and religious, and especially 

by their aversion from popery. V - -^ 

COOTE (Sir Eyris), a descendant of the precedifig 

family, was the son of Chidley Coote, esq. by Jane^ sister 
of, George lord Carbery« . He was born in 17^6, and^ 
having a^ an early period devoted himself to arms, if me 
are not misinformed, served in his majesty's troops durii^ 

*.Biog.Brit.— Clarke's Lives, fol. 1684. 

C O O T E. , 237 

tht rebellion in 1745. In the beginning of the year 1754 
the regiment under colonel Aidercon, to which $ir Eyre 
Coote belonged, embarked from Ireland to the East Indies. 
In January* 1757, sir Eyre, then a captain, was^rdered by 
admiral Watson to take possession of Calcutta, surrendered 
by the nabob, of which he was appointed governor, but of 
which he was almost immediately dispossessed by colonel 
Glive, who claimed to be the superior officer. •He was. 
afterwards employed in the reduction of Houghley and of 
Chandenagore. At the battle of Plassey, in June, he sig« 
nalized himself so much, as to be entitled to a considerable 
share of tbe honour of that important victory.* In July, 
being then a major, he was detached with a party in puf * 
stilt of monsieur Law, who had collected together the dis- 
persed French ; which expedition, though it did not suc« 
ceed as to its principal object, the capture of Mr. Law, 
was yet attekided with advantages both to the company and 
the country at large. In the same year, general Laliy 
threatening the siege of Trichinopoly, major Coote, then 
become a colonel, drew together what forces he could, and 
invested Wandewash, which he took the 30th of November,, 
in tiiree days. Knowing the advantage' of this place, ge* 
neral Lally attempted to retake it, which brought ofi an 
engagement the 2l2d of July 1760, in wkich the French 
troops were entirely routed, and, with their general, fled, 
in despair to Pondich^rry. 

The siege of this place commenced on the 26th of No-' 
vember^and was carried on with unremitted diligence until- 
the middle of January 176}, when the English forces took, 
possession of this important town ; the garrison, consisting 
of 1400 European soldiers, became prisoners of war ; and 
a vast quantity of military forces, and great riches, were 
given up at discretion to the victors. This was. tbe final 
blbw to the French power in India. On the coloners re- 
turn to England, the next year, l^e was presented by the 
eourt of directors with a diamond-hilted sword, which cost ' 
700/. as a testimony of gratitude for the important services 
he had done. At the close of 1769, or very early in 1770, 
he was appointed commander in chief of the East India 
Company's forces in India. 'He reached IVladras in 1770, 
but left that place again in October to proceed to Bussomh, 
from whetice he prosecuted bis journey to Europe -over- 
land. The reason of his quitting FoTt St^Georg^ was sup- 
posed to have been owing to a dispute with the governor 

tU C O O T E. 

there. . On the 31iit q( Aug<ipt \27 i .im\wmiV»s^^eA mth 
the onler of the fiath; and in IVIarcb i77.? beb«eaiQe oo^ 
lonel of the 37 tU regimeni of. foot, wbipb being statioiYCUi 
in Scotland, be resided at Fort Qeorg9. there as governor. 
On the death of general CUve^fing in ibe £aat. Iodi£^» air 
Eyre Coote was apfK>infced a nien^.ber ol ihe supreoae coun^f 
(:il at Bengal, and coOimander Qf Uie British troop*. In 
n^O, Hyder Ally having invaded the Carnatic, gej;ierar' 
CoDte wad 6ent with money and a rei<^or<{i$ment of troops 
from Bengal to the coast of Corooiandei, where he asaunaed 
the command of the armyi 

AboQt July ilSi he with 10,000 men^ Europeans and 
n^tivefl, defeated Hyder's army, coiptsistiiig of more than 
150,000^ near Porto Novo. This was the first check of 
momeot gi^en to his career ; and^ during the succeeding 
progress of .the war^ Hyder was repeatedly defeated by 
sir £yre Coote. In IT'SS, the public service again re^ 
quiring bis presence in the Carnatic, be^ though in a dyinf^ 
state, again* left Calcutta for Madras^ in order to re^asauoie 
the command of the arpiy upon that coast. He arrived at 
Madras the 24th April 1 783, and died two days after. UU 
corpse was sent to England^ and landed ^t the Jetty head 
2d September 1784, and deposited in the chapel at Ply 4. 
mouth until th^7th, when it proceeded to WestRark^ the 
family-seat in Hampshire, and was from thence removed 
on the 14th for interment in the parish^chorch of Bock« 

COPERNICUS (Nicholas), an eminient .-aatronotner^ 
was born. at Thorn in Prussia, January 19» 1473. His i«i«> 
ther was a stranger, but from what part of Europe is un-* 
known. He settled here as a merchant, and the archives 
pf the city prove that be obtained the freedom of Thora 
in 1462. It seems clear that he must have been in opulent 
circumstances, and of consideration, not ooly from the 
liberal education which he bestowed upon bis son, but 
from the rank of his wife^ the sister of LucaWataelrode^ 
jbishop of Ermeland, a prelate descended from one of the 
most illustrious families of Polish Prussia* Nicholas Mra^ 
instructed in- the Latin and Greek languages at home ; and 
afterward sent to Cracow, where he studied phiios$»phy^ 
mathematics, and medicine : thou^ his genius was natu* 
rally turned to mathematics, which he chiefly studied,., and 

1 Gent. Mag. See Index ; and vol* LXXX. p. ^03. 


pursued through all its various branches. He set out fop 
Italy at twenty-three years of age; stopping sit Bolognd^ 
that he aiight converse with the celebrated astronomer^tfif 
that place, Dominic Maria, whom he assisted for pome 
time in making his observations. From^ience he passed to 
Romei where he was presently considered as not inferior 
to the famous Regiomontanus. Here he soon acquired so 
great a reputation, that jie was chosen professor of nKitfae-» 
matics, which he taught there for a long time with the 
greatest applause ; and here also he made .some astrono-* 
mical observations about the year 1 500. 

Afterward, returning to his own country, he began to 
apply his fund of observations and mathematical know-i 
ledge, to correcting the system of astronomy which then 
prevailed. He set about Mlecting all: tbe^ books that had 
been written by philosophers and astronomers, and to. exa- 
mine all the various hypotheses they had M^^ented for the 
solution of t\ie celestial phdenomena ; to try if a more sym* 
metrical order and coiistitutiqp^ of the parts of the world 
could not be discovered, and a more just ,and ei^quisite 
harinoiiy' in its motions established, than what the astronon 
mei's of those times so easily admitted. But of all, their 
hypi^heses, pone pleased him so well as the Pythagorean^* 
wlHch made the sun to be the centre of the system, and 
sct^posed .the earth to move both round the sun, and also 
round its own axis. He thought he discerned much beaji" 
tiful order and proportion in this ; and that all the embar*^ 
rassment and perplexity, from epicycles and excentrics^ 
which attended the. Ptolemaic hypotheses, would here be 
entirely removed^ 

Xhis systeno he. bega^ to consider, and to write upon, 
when he wa3 about thirty-five years of age. He carefully 
contemplated . the phenomena; made mathematical calcu-^ 
lations; examined the -observations of the ancients, and 
made new ones of his own ; till, after more than twenty 
years chiefly spent in this manner, he brought his scheme 
to perfection, estabUsbing that system of tbe world which 
goes by his name, and is now universally received by all 
phifosophers. It had, indeed,, been maintained by many 
of the ancients ; particularly Ecphantus, Seleucus, Aristar* 
chus, Philolaus^ Cleanthes Samius, Nicetas, Heraclides 
Ponticus, Plato, and Pythagoras ; from the last of whom 
it was anciently called the Pythagoric, or Pythagorean sys- 
tem. It was also held by Archimedes, in his book of the 

240 C O P E ft N I C tJ Ji. . 

number of the grains of sand ; but after him it became neg;- 
lected, and even forgotten, for many ages^ till Coperni- 
cus revived it ; from whom it* took the new name of the 
Copernican system. 

This system, however, was at first looked upon as a 
most dangerous heresy, and bis work bad long been finished 
and perfected, before he could be prevailed, upon to give 
it to the world, although strongly urged to it by his friends. 
At length, yielding to their entreaties, it was printed, and 
he had but just received a perfect copy, when he died the 
24th of May 1543, at 70 years of age ; by which it is pro- 
bable he was happily relieved from the violent fanatical 
persecutions which were but too likely to follow the public 
cation of his astronomical opinions ; and which indeed was 
afterward the fate of Galileo, fbr adopting and defending 
them. The system of Copernicus, says a late learned 
writer, was not received, on its appearance, with any de- 
gree of that approbation which it deserved, atid which it 
now universally obtains. Ifft cold reception, indeed, fully 
justified the hesitation and tardiness of the author to com- 
municate it to the world, it gave such a violent contradic- 
tion both to the philosophical principles of the age, and 
the immediate evidence of sense, that all its advantages 
were undervalued, and proved insufficient to procure to it 
. general credit. The conception of Copernicus which re- 
presented the distance of the fixed stars from the sun to be 
so immense, that in comparison with it the whole diameter 
of the terrestrial orbit shrunk into an imperceptible point, 
was too great to. be adopted suddenly by men accustomed 
to. refer all magnitudes to the earth, and to consider the 
earth as the principal object in the universe. Instead of 
being reckoned an answer to the objection against the an- 
nual revolution of the earth, that her axis was not found 
directed to different stars, it was rather considered as the 
subterfuge of one who had invented, and therefore tried to 
vindicate an absurdity; and when, in answer to another 
equally powerful objection, that no varieties of phase were 
seen in the planets, especially in Venus and Mercury, Co- 
pernicus could only express bis hopes that such varieties 
would be discovered in future times, his reply, though it 
now raises admiration, could not in his own times make 
the least impression on those who opposed his system. 

The above work of Copernicus, first printed at Norim- 
berg in folio, 1543, and of which there have been other 

C O P E R N 1 G U S. 241 

'editions since, i3 entitled- "De revolutionibus orbium cob- 
lestium,'* being a large body of astronomy^ in six books^ 
When Rbeticus, the disciple of our author, returned out of 
Prussia, he brought with iiim a tract of Cope/'uicus on 
plane and spherical trigonometry, which he had printed at , 
Nortmberg, and which contained a table' of sines. It was 
afterward printed at the end of the first book of the Revo- 
lutions. An edition of. our author's - great work was also 
published in 4to, at Amsterdam, in 1617, under the title 
of ^^ Astronomia instaurata,'' illustrated with notes by Ni- 
colas Muler of Groningen. 

It has not yet be^n noticed that Copernicus was in the 
church, and is said to have performed the duties of his 
function with care, but does not appear to have cpncerned 
himself with the di9putes occasioned by the reforinatiom 
He was indebted to the patronage of his maternal uncle for 
his ecclesiastical promotions ; being made a prebendary of 
th^ church of St. John at Thorn, and a canon of the church 
of Frawenberg in the diocese of Ermdatid. 

.A late traveller observes, as not a little remarkable, that 
so sublime a discovery as Copernicus produced, should 
have originated in a part of Europe the most obscure, and 
hardly civilized, while it escaped the finer genius of Italy 
and^'of France. He also informs us, that at Thorn, though 
apart of the building has been destroyed by fire, the chain- 
ber is ^tiU religiously preserved . in which Copernicus was 
born. His remains are buried under a fiat stone, in one 
of the side'ailes of the most ancient church of ThonK 
Ailove is erected a* small monument, on which is painted a' 
bilf-ieiigth portrait of him. The face is that of a man de- 
clined in years, pale lind thin ; but there is, in the expres-i^ 
siOn of the countei^ahcfe>' something which pleases, and^ 
CORVES the idea of iiitelltgence. His hair and eyes axe 
blacky^^ his bands joined in prayer, and he is habited in the 
dress of a« priest ^ before him is a c)rucifix, at his foot a 
akull, and behind iilppea^ a globe and compass. When 
expiring ho is said'to have- confessed himself, as long and 
unifoorm tradition reports,* in' the following Latin Terses^^ 
which are inscribed on the monumeiit : 

* : / i< jjqjj parem Paulo gratiam requiro^ 

*VenifiuJi Petri ne'que p6s6o > sed quam 

, .In crucis Ugno d^erat latroni> . 

Sedulus era.*' 

Vot. X- R • 


These demonstrate, that when near his dissolution, all 
eares or inquiries, except those of a religious nature, bad 
ceased to affect or agitate him. ^ 

COQUES (GONZALO), an esteemed painter of portraits and 
conversations, was born at Antwerp in 1618, and was a disciple 
of the old David Ryckaert, under whose direction he applied 
himself diligently to cultivate those promising talents which 
he possessed, not only by practising the best rules admi- 
nistered to him by his instructor, but also by studying na- 
ture with singular attention. He was a great admirer of 
Vandyck ; and fixing on the manner of that gveat artist as 
bis model, had the happiness of so far succeeding, diat 
next to him he was esteemed equal to any other painter of 
his time. In the school of Ryckaert, he had been accus- 
tomed to paint conversations, and he frequently composed 
subjects of fancy, like Teniers, Ostade, and bis msister ; 
and by that habit he introduced a very agreeable style of 
portrait^paiuting in a kind of historical conversations, which 
seemed mnch more acceptable to persons of taste than the 
general manner of painting portraits, and procured him 
great reputation and riches. In that way he composed se- 
yeral fine pictures for Charles L and likewise several for 
the archduke Leopold and the prince of Orange ; which 
latter prince, as a mark of respect, presented Coques with 
a rich gold chain, and a gold medal, on which the bust of 
that prince was impressed. He died in 1684. He had an 
excellent pencil ; his portraits were well designed, with 
easy natural attitudes ; he disposed the figures in his com- 
position so as to avoid confusion and embarrassment ; hn 
gave an extraordinary clearness of colour to his beads and 
^nds ; and his touch was free, firm, and broad — ^a circum- 
stance rery uncommon in woriss of a small size. * 

CORAM (Capt. Thomas), an eminent philanthropist, 
was bom about 1668, bred to the sea, and spent the first 
part of his life as master of a vessel trading to our colonies. 
While he resided in that part of the metropolis which is the 
ccHnmon residence of sea-faring people, business often 
obliged him to come early into the city and return late ; 
when he had frequent occasions of seeing young childrea 

1 MererL— Martin's Bios* Philos.— Hutton's Diet— Wraxall^ Memtfln •( 
the Courts of Berlin, &c.— Small's Account of Kepler's Discoveries, 8vo, 1803. 
—Lord Bnchan's Correspondence with Bemouille, and a portrait, in Gent. 
Mas. Tol. LXVIl.— Oassendi Opera, vol. V. wlMTc is his life. 

* FiUdi^^oil»-*i;^anips,--*D'ArscnTiUe. 

C O RAM: - ' 2*S 

exposed, through the indigence or cruelty of their parents. 
This excited his compassion so far, that h6 projected the 
Foundling, Hospital; in which humane design he laboured 
seventeen years, and at last, by his sole application, ob« 
tained the royal charter for it. He was highly instrumentol 
in promoting another good design, viz. the procuring a 
bounty upon naval stores imported from the colonies; and 
was eminently concerned in setting on foot the colonies of 
Georgia and Nova Scotia. His last charitable design, ia 
which he lived to make some progress, but not to complete^ 
was a scheme for uniting the Indians in North America 
more closely to the British interest, by an establishment for 
the education of Indian girls. Indeed he spent a great 
part of his life in serving the public, and with so total a 
disregard to his private interest, that towards the latter 
part of it he was himself supported by the voluntary sub- 
scriptions of public-spirited persons ; at the head of whom 
was that truly amiable and benevolent prince Frederic^ 
late prince of Wales. When Dr. Brocklesby applied to 
the good old man, to know whether his setting on foot a 
subscription fer his benefit would not offend him, he re- 
ceived this noble answer : ** 1 have not wasted the little 
wealth, of which I was formerly possessed, in self-indul- 
geuce or vain expences, and am not ashamed to confess 
that, in this my old age, I am poor.*' 

This singular and memorable man died at his lodgings 
near Leicester-square, March 29, 1751, in his 84th year; 
and was interred, pursuant to his desire, in the vault under, 
the chapel of the Foundling-hospital, where an ample in- 
sc^ription perpetuates his memory, as Hogarth's portrait 
has preserved his honest countenance. 

The Foundling Hospital, for several years after its in- 
stitution, was an eminently popular object : numbers of 
affluent persons were ardent to encourage it, and the bene- 
factions to the hospital flowed in, in a very great abun- 
dance. It was at length taken under the direction of pai*.* 
liament, and, from 175^ to 1759, annusd and liberal grants 
were made for its support ; in consequence of which chil- 
difen wer^ poured in from every part of the kingdom. This 
circumstance, after some time, excited a general alarm. 
It was suggested, that the children, being cut off from all 
intercourse with their fathers and mothers, would, when 
^^^y grew up, be aliens in their native laud, without any 
visible obligations^ and consequently without affections. 

K 2 • 

644 CORAM. 

It was farther suggested, that they might look upon them*' 
selves as a kind of independent beings in society; and 
that, if they were permitted to increase as they had 
lately done, no one could tell what harm might ensue tp 
the s^te, when there were such numbers who could scarcely 
be said to be connected with -the body politic. Nay, it 
was asked, whether they might not, in time, rise like the 
slaves of Rome, and throw the kingdom into confusion? 
Sentiments of this nature were first thrown^outto the world 
by a Mr. Massie, a political writer of that period. In a 
pamphlet, entitled ^' A plan for the establishment of Cha-i* 
rity-houses for exposed or deserted women and girls, and 
for penitent prostitutes,^' and which was printed in 1758, 
he introduced some observations concerning the Found- 
ling Hospital, shewing the ill consequences of its receiving 
public support. Afterwards, in 1759, be made a second 
attack upon the Hospital, in a tract \vritten solely for that 
purpose. In this tract, the good man's zeal upon the sub- 
ject led him to several extravagancies and absurdities : but 
his general principles, concerning the evil that might 
arise from bringing up large multitudes of people who 
were not bound to society by the common ties of private 
and domestic affection, had a powerful influence on the 
public mind. The indiscriminate admission of infatits into 
the Hospital was put a stop to; parliamentary support was 
withdrawn ; and the institution was left to be maintained, 
as it now is very handsomely, by the generosity of indi- 
viduals. ' 

CORAS (John de), in Latin Corasius, was born at 
Toulouse, or rather at Realmont, 1513. He taught law at 
Anger, Orleans, Paris, Padua, Ferrara, and Toulouse, with 
universal applause, and was afterwards counsellor to the 
psurliament of Toulouse, and chancellor of Navarre ; but, 
turning protestant, was driven from Toulouse, 1562, and, 
with difficulty, restored by the patronage of chancellor de 
r Hospital, his friend. This return, however, proved un- 
fortunate; for he was murdered in that city, 11173, after 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew was known there. He 
left only a daughter. Coras wrote some excellent works 
in Latin and French, the principal of which were printed, 
1556 and 1558, 2 vols. foL His << Miscellaneorum Juris 
^ » . * Civilis libri tres/* is particularly valued. His life wa^^ 

^ ' » Biof. Brit, 



written by a descendant, James Coras, also a prote&tant, 
and published in 1673, 4to. ^ 

CORBET (John), a nonconformist divine of c^Aside- 
raUe note, the. son of a mechanic at Gloucester, was bom 
in that city in 1620, and after being educated at a gram- 
mar school there, became a batler of Magdalen hall, Ox- 
ford, in 1636, and in 1639 was admitted bachelor of arts. 
After taking orders, he preached at Gloucester, where he 
resided during the siege, of which he published an ac- 
count. He then removed to Chichester, and afterwards 
became rector of- Bramsbot, in Hampshire, from which be 
was ejected ii) 1662. He lived privately in London and 
its neighbourhood until king Charles II.'s indulgence, when 
a pare of his congregation invited him to Chichester, where 
be preached among them, and had a conference with bishop 
Gunning on the topics which occasioned his non-confor- 
mity ; but Corbet was too clos.ely attached to the prin- 
ciples which prevailed during the usurpation to yield in 
any point to the discipline of the church. He died Dec. 
26, 1680. Baxter, who "preached his foneral sermon, gives 
a very high opinion of his learning, piety, and humility* 
He wrote many practical tracts, otie of which, entitled 
** Self-employment in secret,'* was some years ago re* 
printed by the Rev. William Unwin, rector of Stock cum 
Ramsden, in Essex. Corbet's most curious Work is bis 
** Historical relation of the Military Government of Glou- 
cester, from the beginning of the Civil War to the reoioval 
of col. Massie to the command of the western forces," 1645, 
4to. The state of religious parties is well illustrated in 
another work entitled *^ The Interest of England in the 
matter of Religion," 1661, 8vo. Corbet had also a con- 
siderable share in compiling the first volume of Rashworth*s 
" Historical Collections." * 

CORBET (Richard), an English prelate, but better 
known and perhaps more respected as a poet, was the son 
of Vincent Corbet, and was born at Ewell in Surrey, in 
1582. . His father, who attained the age of eighty, appears 
to have been a man of excellent character, and is cele- 
brated in one of his son's poems with filial ardoUr. For 
some reason he assumed the name of Pointer, or, perhaps, 
relinquished t!bat for Corbet, which seems more probable : 
- his usual residence was at Whittou in the county of Mid««. 

1 Moreri.— Diet. HisU ^ Calamy.— -Ath. Ox. ?©!. II4 

«4« CORBET. 

dlesex^ .where he waft noted for his skill in horticukur^i 
and amassed considerable property in houses and land, 
which ke bequeathed to ^is son at his death in 1619. Our 
po^t was educated at Westminster school, and in Lent-* 
t^rm^ 1597*89 entered in Broadgate hall (afterwards Pem- 
broke college), and the year following was admitted a stu- 
dent of Christ Church, Oxford, where he soon became 
JM^ed- among men of wit and vivacity. In 1605 he took 
his master's degree, and entered into holy orders. In 
3612 he pronounced a funeral oration in St. Mary's church, 
Oxford, on the death of Henry, prince of Wales; and the 
following year, another on the interment of that eminent 
benefactor to learning, sir Thomas Bodley. In 1618 he 
took a journey to France, from which he wrote the epistle 
to sir Thomas Aylesbury. His ** Journey to France," one 
of his most humorous poems, is remarkable for giving some 
traits of the French character that are visible in the present 
day.r King James, who showed no weakness in the choice 
of his literary favourites, made him one<yf his chaplains m 
ordinary, and in 16^7 advanced him to the dignity of deatt 
of Christ Church. At this time he was doctor iii divinity^ 
vicar of Cassington near Woodstock, in Oxfordshire, and 
prebendary of Bedminster Secunda in the church of Sarum. 

On the 30th of July, 1629, he was promoted to the see 
id Oxford* and on the 7th of April 1632 was translated to 
that of Norwich. He married, probably, before this time, 
Alice, the daughter of Dr. Leonard Hutton, vicar of 
flower, or Flore, in Northamptonshire, who had been hia 
contemporary at the university, and with whom he appears 
to have renewed his acquaintance during his Iter BorealeT 
By this wife he had a son, named after his grandfather, 
Vincent, to whom he addresses some lines of parental ad-> 
vice and good wishes. Of the rest of his life little can be 
now recovered. He died July 28, 1635, and was buried 
at the upper end of the choir of the cathedral church of 
Norwich. Besides his son Vincent, he had a daughter 
named Alice. They were both living in 1642, when their 
grandmother, Anne Itutton, made her will, and the son ad* 
ministered to it in 1648, but no memorial can be found of 
their future history. It would appear that his wife died be-» 
fore him, as in his will he conunitted his children to the 
care of their grandmother. ^ 

His most accurate biographer, Mr. Gilchrist, to whom 
this sketch is greatly indebted, has collected many parti« 

CORBET. 247 


ciilars illastrativft of his character, which are, upon the 
whole^ favourable. Living in turbfalent timesi when the 
church was assailed from every quarter, he con<Jucted him<* 
self with great msderation towards the recus&nts, or puri- 
tans ; and although he could not disobey, yet contrived to 
soften by a gracious pleasaiitry of manner, the harsher 
orders received from the metropolitan Laud. In his prin* 
fHples he inclined to the Arminianism of Laud, in opposi- 
tion to the Calvinism of his predecessor, archbishop Abbot; 
and it is evident irom his poems, entertained a hearty con- 
tempt fosr the puritaiKS, who, however, cq^ald not reproacb 
him for persecution. As he published no theological work^ 
we are unable to judge of his talents in his proper profes-^ 
sion, but his munificence in matters which regarded the 
church has been justly extolled. When St. Paul's cathe« 
dnd stood in need of repairs, he not only contributed four 
hundred pounds from his own purse, but dispersed an 
epistle to the clergy of his diocese, soliciting their as« 
sistance. This epistle, which Mr. Gilchrist haspublished^. 
is highly characteristic of his propensity to humour, as 
well as of the quaint «nd quibbling style of his age. 

Wood has insinuated that he was unworthy to be made 
a bishop, and it must be c^wned he often betrayed a care- 
lessness and indifference t<i the dignity of his public cha« 
racter. Of this we have abundant proof, if credit be due 
to Aubrey?s MSS. in the Ashmolean museum, from which 
Mr. Headley has made a curious extract. 

Fuller says of him that he was ^^ of a courteous courage, 
and no destructive nature to any who offended him, count* 
ing himself plentifully repaired with a Jest upon him.'' 

His poems^ after passing through three editions, were 
lately very carefully revised and published by Mr. Gilchrist^ 
¥rith the addition of an excellent life, notes, and illus* 
trations. As a poet, it mil not be found that Corbet stands 
eminently distinguished. His thoughts, however, are of- 
ten striking and original, although delivered in the un- 
couth language of his times, and seldom indebted to cor- 
rectness of versification. His faults are in general those 
of the age in which he wrote, and if he fills no conspicuous 
place in poetical history, it ought not to be forgot that he 
wrote for the ampsement of the moment, and made no 
pretensions to the veneration of posterity. His principal 
objects were gaiety and merriment at the expence of the 
more glaring follies gL his day ^. of his serious efforts it 


248 CORBET. 

33aay be justly said that his feeling was without affectation^ 
and his panegyric without servility..^ . 

CORBINELLI (James), a man of wit and learning of. 
the sixteenth century, was born of an illustrious family i^ 
Florence. He went into France in the reign of Catherine 
de Medicis ; and that queen, to whom he had the honour 
of being allied, placed him with her son, the duke of An- 
jou, as a man of learning, and a good counsellor. Cor- 
binelli paid his court without servility, and was compared 
to those ancient Romans who were full of integri^, .and 
incapable of bareness. Chancellor de THdspital had a 
high esteem for him. He was a professefl friend and pa-» 
tron of tK^ learned, and frequently printed their works at 
his own expence, adding notes to them, as he did to Fra. 
Paolo del Rosso^s poem, entitled ^^ La Fisica,'' Paris, 1578^ 
8¥o ; and to Dante, ^^ JDe Vulgari £loquentia,^M577, 8vo. 
Corbinelli was also a man of great courage and resolution, 
address and intrigue. He wrote down every thing which 
he heard, while Henry IV. was at the gates of Paris,: and 
carried the paper to him openly, a^ if it had contained only 
common affairs, or causes. His easy and confident ap- 
pearance . deceived the guards who were placed at the 
gates ; and, as he seemed to trust every body, no body 
mistrusted him. Raphael Corbinelli, his son, was. secre- 
tary to queen Mary de Medicis, and father of M. Corbi- 
nelli, who died at Paris, June 19, 1716. This last was 
one of the most distinguished beaux esprits of France ; and. 
a man of strict honour and integrity, who was a welcome 
guest in the best companies* A report prevailing that at 
one of those social suppers which were given by the princes 
and princesses, who were Mad. de Maintenon's enemies, 
all the other party had been lampooned, it was thought 
that some particulars might be known from Corbinelli, who 
was present. M. d'Argenson, lieutenant of the .police, 
accordingly visited the gouty epicurean, and asked him 
*^. where be supped such a day ?" *' I think I do not re<« 
member," replied Corbinelli, yawning. " Are you not 
acquainted with such and such princes?" ^' I forget." 
*f Have you not supped with them ?" ^' I remember nothing 
of it." '^ But I think such a man as you ought to remember 
things of this kind J' ^* Yes, sir; but in the presence of 

^ Poems and Life as above. — Headley's Beauties. — ^Johason and Chalmers^i 
English Poets, 

C O R B I N E L L L 249 

itncb a man as you, I am not such a man as myself/^ He 
left " Les anciens Historiens Latins r6duits en Maximes,'* 
with a preface, which was attributed to P. Bouhours, printed 
1694, ]2mo; ^^'Hist. genealogique de la Maison de Gon- 
di," Paris, 1705, 2 vols. 4 to, and other works. * 

CORDARA (Julius Cjesar), a learned Italian Jesuit, 
was bom in Alexandria de la Paglia in 1704. He was the 
second son of the count of Calamandrana, descended from 
an ancient and noble family, originally from Nice. He 
was educated in the Jesuits' college at Rome, and in 1718 
entered the society, where his progress in learning was so 
rapid that in the twentieth year of his age he was employed 
as a teacher in the college of Viterbo, and then gradually 
preferred to those of Fermo and Ancona, and lastly to that 
of Rome. Although regularly instituted in universal li- 
terature, he evinced a peculiar predilection for oratoiry, 
poetry, and history. At the age of twenty-three he first 
appeared before the public in an elegant discourse on the 
political and literary merit of the founder of the Bioman 
college, pope Gregory XIII. which was soon followed by 
an equally elegant Latin satire, *^ In fatuos numerorum 
divinatores, vulgo Caballistas.^' This procured him ad- 
mission into the academy of the Arcadia, by the name of 
Panemo Cisseo, under which he afterwards published se«- 
veral of his poetical works. 

His talents for dramatic poetry became known when he 
was thirty years of age, by an allegoric drama, entitled 
" The death of Nice," in honour of the princess Clemen- 
tina, queen of the titular James III. who died in 1735. By 
this he highly ingratiated himself with the abdicated royal 
family established at Rome, and his production was also 
much admired by the public, and went through several 
editions. In his riper years, however, he distinguished 
himself by performances of higher importance, particularly 
in 1737, by his excellent satires on the literary spirit of 
the age published under the name of L. Sectanus, ^^ L« 
Sectani Q,. Fil. de tota Grseculorum hujus aetatis littera- 
tura." The object of this was to satirize a class of half* 
learned men in Italy and in other countries, who, with an 
insolent and dogmatic spirit, and with the most assuming 
and disgusting manners, thought themselves authorized to 
ppndemn the existing literary institutions, the classificatioa 

I B^ct^de L'Avocat.i— Diet. Hist. — ^Moreri. — Gen, Diet* 

350 C O R D A R A. 

of sciencesi the methods of teaching, and even the prin- 
ciples of taste. This work went rapidly through seven 

In 1742, the place being vacant, the abb6 Coirdara was 
appointed historiographer of his order; and in 1750 pub- 
lished, in elegant Latin, 2 vols. fol. ^* Historia Societatis 
Jesu, Pars VI. complectens res gestas sub Mutio Vitel- 
lesco.'* Two years after, this was followed by another 
work of less bulk, but perhaps more curious, entitled 
** CJaroli Odoardi Stuartii, Walliae principis, expeditio in 
Scotiam, Libris IV. comprehensa." This was thought by 
his friends to be his master-piece, but as it has not been, 
as far as we know, imported into England, we can give no 
opinion as to its merits. In 1770 Cordara published '^The 
History of the Germanic and Hungarian College at Rome,** 
a work which, though local, may contribute to the gene- 
ral mass of literary history. On the dissolution of the order 
of the Jesuits, some of whom were imprisoned and other- 
wise harshly treated, he retired in 1772 from Rome to 
Turin, and notwithstanding his advanced age and change 
of life, resumed his juvenile pursuits in poetry and belles 
lettres. He composed a drama, " The Deliverance of Be- 
tulia;'* a burlesque poem, "The Foundation of Nice,'* 
accounted one the best of the kind ; his ** Essay on Mili- 
tary Eclogues," and in 1783, an eulogy on Metastasio, 
none of which betrayed any decay in his powers. To- 
wards the close of his life he resided at Alexandria, his 
native place, in a secular/ college, where he died in 1790. 
His eloge was written by his countryman, the marquis 
Charles Guasco. * 

CORDEMOI (Gerard de), a French historian, was 
born at Paris, of a nobie family,' originally of Auvergne, 
and having studied law, was admitted to the bar, which he 
quitted for the philosophy of Descartes. Bossuet, who 
was no less an admirer of that philosopher, procured him 
the appointment of reader to the dauphin, which office he 
filled with success and zeal, and died the 8th of October 
1684, member of the French academy, at an advanced age. 
We are indebted to his pen for, 1. " The general History of 
France during the two first races of its kings," 1 685, 2 vols, 
fol. a work which the French critics do not appreciate so 
justly as it deserves. 2. Divers tracts in metaphysics, hls- 

1 AtbenseuiDi vol. IV. 

C O R D £ M O I. SSI 

toiy, politicd, and moral philosophy, reprinted in 1704^ 4toy 
under the title of '* CEuvres de feu M. de Cordemoi.*' 
They contain useful investigations, judicious thoughts^ 
and sensible reflections on the method of writing history. 
He had adopted in pbilosoph}^ as we before observed, the 
sentiments of Descartes, but without servility ; he even 
sometimes differs from them. In the latter part of his life^ 
he was assisted in his literary labours by his son Lewis, who 
was born in 1651, and who became successively a licentiate 
of Sorbonne, and an abbot in the diocese of Clermont* 
He was a voluminous writer, chiefly on theological sub- 
jects ; and was considered among the catholics as an able 
advocate of their cause against the attacks of the defenden 
of protestantism. He was, however, of considerable ser-* 
vice to his father in the latter part of his *^ General History 
of France ;" and, it is believed, wrote the whole of that 
part which extends from about the conclusion of the reign 
of Lewis V. to the end of the work. By order of Lewis 
XIV. he continued that history from the time of Hugh 
Capet until the year 1660, which be did not live to finish* 
He died at the age of seventy-one, in the year 1722. ^ 


CORDES, or CORDERUS (Balthasak), a learned edi- 
tor, was born at Antwerp in 1592, belonged to the society 
of Jesuits in the Low Countries, and was doctor of theo- 
logy at Vienna, where he attained a considerable share of 
celebrity, as professor of that faculty. He was a man of 
great learning, particularly in Greek literature. He died 
at Rome June 24, 1650. His principal works, as editor 
and author, were " S. Dionysii Areopagitae Opera omnia, 
Gr. et Lat. cum Scholiis, &c.'* 1634, in 2 torn. fol. ; " Ex- 
positiones Patrum GraBcorum in Psaimos,'' 1643, in 3 torn, 
fol. ; '*S. Cyrilli Homiliae in Jeremiam,'' 1648, 8vo, &c. &c.* 

CORDES, or CORDERIUS (John), was born at Li- 
moges in 1570, and at an early age discovered a consi- 
derable turn for literary pursuits,- but the death of bis 
father restricted him to trade until he was about thirty years 
of age, when a change of circumstances enabled him to 
indulge his original propensity. He entered into the so-^ 
ciety of Jesuits at Avignon ; but a series of ill health 
obliged him to quit their seminary, and to pursue his 
studies privately. He afterwards became a canon] of his 

< Moreri« Diet. Hist. ! FoppenBibl. Belg.^Sftxii Onftmut. 

2S.2 C O R D E S. 

native place, and a collector of rare and valuable books* 
He was himself an author and editor of considerable repu- 
tation; and after his death, which happened in 1642, his 
library was purchased by cardinal Mazarine. He was 
editor of. the works of Hincmar, archbishop of Rheinas ; 
and of the works of George Cassander. He translated 
father Paul's " History of the Diflferences between Pope 
Paul V. and the republic of Venice ;'' and likewise Ca- 
millo Portions '^ History of the Troubles in the kingdom of 
Naples, under Ferdinand 1."* % 

CORDIER (Mathurin), in Latin Corderius, lived in 
the sixteenth century, and was an eminent teacher. He 

' understood the Latin tongue critically, was a man of vir- 
tue, and performed his functions with the utmost diligence, 
mixing moral with literary instruction. He spent his long 
life in teaching children at Paris, Nevers, Bordeaux,. Ge- 
neva, Neiifchastel, Lausanne, and lastly again at Geneva, 
'whete he died Septenaber the 8th, 1564, at the age of 
eighty-five, having continued his labours until three or 
four days before his death. He studied divinity for some 
time at Paris in the college of Navarre, about the year 1528^ 
after he had taught a form in the same college ; but he left 
off that study in order to apply himself to his former func- 
tions of a grammarian. He had taught at Nevers in 153,4» 
1535, and 1536. Calvin, who had been bis scholar at 
Paris in the college de la Marche, dedicated his Commen- 
tary on the 1st Epistle to the Thessalonians to him. It is 
not exactly.known of what province Mathurin^Cordier wa^ ; 
some say' he was born in Normatidy; others pretend he 
was born in the earldom of Perche. He published several 
books for the. use of schools, among which were, 1. '' £pis- 
tres Chrestiennes," Lyons, 1557, 16to. 2. "Sentences 
extraictes de la Saincte Escriture pour Tinstruction des 
Enfans," Latin and Fren^ch, 1551. 3. " Cantiques spiri- 
tuels en nombre26," 1560. 4. " Le Miroir de la Jeunesse, 
pour la former a bonnes moeurs, et civility de la vie,^' Paris, 

^ 16to. '5. '^ L' Interpretation et^ construction en Frang^s 
des distiques Latins, qu'on attribue a Caton,'' Lyons, 8vo, 

V and since, perhaps, above an hundred times. His ** Col- 
loquia^' have long been used in schools, and have been 
printed, says Bayle, a thousand tim^s. * 

» Chaufepie,— Morcti. » Gen. Diet-— Morerk 

COR D U S. 253 

CORDUS (EuRicics), called by Melchior Adam, 
Henry Urban, a physician and poet, was a native of Sim- 
ikiershuys in Hesse. To assist himself in the prosecution of 
his stodies, he undertook the business of private tutor, and 
while thus employed, had the good fortune to attract the 
notice of Erasmus, but bis openness of character is said to 
bave procured him enemies among men of less liberal 
minds/ In 1521 he went to Italy, where he attached him- 
self in a particular manner to the study of botany ; collect- 
ing and examining a number of rare plants, and diligently 
comparing them with the descriptions of them left by 
Dioscorides. At Ferrara he took the degree of doctor in 
medicine, which he afterwards taught at £rf urt and Mar* 
purg. In 1535 he went to Bremen, where he remained 
until his death, in 1538. He was author of several, and 
some very valuable, works. His <^ Treatisk on the English 
Sweating Sickness" was published at Fribourg, in 1529, 
4to ; and in 1532, he gave a Latin version of the Theriaca, 
and Alexipharmica of Nicander. His ^* Botanologicoi^, 
sive Colloquium de Herbis," was printed at Colonna, in 
1534, and is commended, by Haller, and was several times 
Tieprinted ; and his ^^De Abusu UroscopiaD," in 1546, at 
Francfort. His Latin poems were published in the ^^ De- 
licisB Poet Germ." * - 

CORDUS (Valerius), son of the preceding, and worthy 
of his father, was born in Hesse-Cassel iti 1515, and ap- 
plied himself with equal success to the study of languages 
and of plants. He traversied all the mountains of Ger-* 
many, for the purpose of gstthering simples. He then went 
into various parts of Italy ; but died of a wound in the leg 
by a kick from a horse, in 1544, at the age of 29. The 
following distich was inscrib€d on his tomb : 

" Ing«ttio superest Corc[us> mens ipsa recepta est 
CcbIo 5 quod t^nra est, maxinto Roma tenet.'* ' 

The works with which he enriched the knowledge of bo- 
tany, are : 1. **Remarkaon Dioscorides," Zurich, 1561, 
fiAio. 2. " Historia stirpium, libri v." Strasburg, 1561 
.and 1563, 2 vols, folio, a posthumous work. 3, *** Disperi- 
satorium pharmacorum otnnfum," Leyden, 1627, 12mo. 
Tlic piirity of his morals, the politeness of his manners, 
s^nd the extent of his knowledge^ conciliated the esteem 
and the praises of all lovers of real m^rit. ^ 

) Moreri.-'Haner BlbL Bot. « Ibid. 

954 C O R E L L L 

CORELLI (Arcangelo), a fiimous musician of Italy, 
was born at Fusignano, a town of Bologna, in 1653. His 
first instructor in music was Simonelliy a singer in the 
pope^s chapel ; but his genius leading him to prefer seQU«- 
lar to ecclesiastical music, he afterwards became a disciple 
of Bassani, who excelled in that species of composition, in 
which Corelli always delighted, aiid made it the business 
of his life to cultivate. It is presumed that he was taught 
the organ : but his chief propensity was for the violin, on 
whi,ch he made so great proficiency, that some did not 
scruple to pronounce him the first performer on that in«» 
strument in the world. About 1672 his curiosity led him 
to visit Paris : and it is said that the jealous temper of 
I^Uy not brooking so formidable a rival, be soon returned 
to Rome ; but this Dr. Burney thinks is without founda-^ 
tion. In 1680 be visited Germany, was received by the 
princes there suitably to his merit ; and, after about fiv6 
years stay abroad, returned and settled at Rome. 

While thus intent' upon musical pursuits at Rome, lie 
fell under the patronage of cardinal Ottoboni ; and is said 
to have regulated the musical academy held at the caitii-^ 
BaPs palace every Monday afternoon. Here it was that 
Handel became acquainted with him ; and in this academy 
a serenata of Handel, entitled ^^ II ttionfo del tempo," 
was performed : the overture to which was in a style so 
new and singular, that Corelli was much perplexed in his 
first attempt to play it. This serenata, translated into Eng^ 
lish, and called ^^ The Triumph of Time and Truth,'' was 
performed at London in 1751. ^ The merits of Corelli as 
a performer were sufficient to attract the patronage of the 
great, and to silence, as they did, all competition ; but the 
remembrance of these was soon absorbed in the contempla- 
tion of his excellencies as a general musician, as the author 
of new and original harmonies, and the father of a style 
not less noble and grand than elegant and 'pathetic* He 
died at Rome Jan. 18, 1713, aged almost 60; land waa 
buried in the church of the Rotunda, otherwise called the 
Pantheon ; where, for many years after his decease, he 
was commemorated by a solemn musical performance on 
the anniversary of that event. He died possessed of about 
€000/. which, with a large and valuable collection of pic« 
tures, of which he was passionately fpnd, he bequeathed 
to his friend and patron cardinal Ottoboni ; who, however^ 

C OR E L L I iiS5 

while be reserved the pictures to. himself, distributed 4he 
money among the relations of the testator, an act of jus- 
tice, in which it may, without breach of charity, be thought 
that Corelli ought to have anticipated him. 

Corelli is said to have been remarkable for the mildness 
of his temper, and the modesty of his deportment; yet to 
have bad a quick sense of the respect due to bis skill and 
exquisite performance. Gibber relates, that, once wh^i 
Corelli was playing a solo at cardinal Ottoboni's, he dis- 
covered the cardinal and another person engaged in dis- 
course, upon which he laid down his instrument ; and, bet- 
ing asked the reason, gave for answer, that he feared the 
music might interrupt conversation. 

The performance and compositions of this admirable 
musician, says Dr. Burney, form an sera in instrumental 
music, particularly for the violin, and its kindred instru« 
ments, the tenor and violoncello, which he made respect- 
able, and fixed their use and reputation, in all probability, 
as long as the present system of music shall continue to de- 
light the ears of mankind. Indeed, this most excellent 
master had the happiness of enjoying part of his fame 
during mortality ', for scarce a contemporary musical wri- 
ter, historian, or poet, neglected to celebrate his genius and 
talents; and his productions have contributed longer to* 
charm the lov^s of music by the mere powers of the bow, 
without the assistance of the human voice, than those of 
any composer that has yet existed. Haydn, indeed, with 
more varied abilities, and a much more creative genius, 
when instruments of all kinds are better understood, has 
captivated the musical world in perhaps a still higher de- 
gree ; but whether the duration of his favour will be equal 
to that of Corelli, who reigned supreme in all concerts, 
aild excited undiminished rapture full half a century, must 
be left to the determination of time, and the encreased 
rage of depraved appetites for novelty. 

The concluding remarks of the same learned critic are 
too ingenious to be omitted. There was, he observes, 
little or no melody in instrumental music before Corelli's 
time. And though he has much more grace and elegance 
in his cantilena than his predecessors, and slow and solemn 
movements abound in his works; yet true pathetic and 
impassioned melody and modulation seem wanting in them 
all. He appears to have been gifted with no uncommon 

256 C O R E L L t 

po#ers of execution ; yet, with all his purity and sim* 
piicity, he condescended to aim at difficulty, and manifestly 
did all he could in rapidity, of (inger and bow, in the long 
itumeaning allegros of his first, third, and sixth solos ; 
where, for two whole pages together, common chords are 
broken into common divisions, all of one kind and colour, 
which nothing but the playing with great velocity and neat- 
ness could ever render tolerable. .But like some characters 
and indecorpus scenes in our best old plays,.* these have 
been long omitted in performance. Indeed his ktiowledge 
of the power of tBe bow, in varying the expression of the 
same notes, was very much limited. Veracini and Tartint 
greatly extended these powers ; and we well remember 
our pleasure and astonishment in hearing Giardini, in a 
solo that he performed at the oratorio, 1769, play an air 
at the end of it W4th variations, in which, by repeating each 
strain with different bowing, without changing a single note 
in the melody, he gave it all the effect and novelty of a 
new variation of the passages. 

However, if we recollect that some of Corelli's works 
are now more than a hundred years old, we shall wonder 
at their grace and elegance ; which can only be accounted 
for on the principle of ease and simplicity. Purcell, who 
composed for ignorant and clumsy performers, was obliged 
to write down all the fashionable graces and embellish- 
ments of the times, on which account his music soon became 
obsolete and old-fashioned; whereas the plainness a^d 
simplicity of Corelli have given longevity to his works, 
which can always be modernised' by a judicious performer, 
' with very few changes or embellishments. And, indeed, 
Corelli's productions continued longei' in unfading favour 
in England than in his own country, or in any other part of 
Europe; and have since only given way to the more fanci- 
ful compositions of the two Martini^s, Zanesti, Campioni, 
Giardini, Bach, Abel, Schwindl, Boccherini, Stamitz^ 
Huydn, Mozart, and Pleyel.^ 

CORENZIO (Belisarius), an artist, was bom about 
1558 in Greece, and after studying five years under Tin^ 
toretto, about 1590, fixed himself at Naples. He bad 
received from nature a fertility of ideas and a celerity of 
hand, which made him perhaps equal to his master in the 

1 HawkiDs and Buroey*s Histories of Music ^— and Uie latter in Rees's Cydo* 
pKdia, art CortlH^ 

C O R E N Z I O. 257 


dispatch of works as numerous as complicated; be alone- 
performed the task of four industrious painters* When he 
chose to bridle his enthusiasm^ he may be compared with 
Tintoretto ; he is inf^ior to few in desigti, and has inven- 
tions, motions, airs of heads, which the Venetians them- 
selves, though they were perpetually before their eyes, 
could never equal. His powers of imitation he proved by 
the large picture of the " Crowd miraculously fed," painted 
in forty days ^or the refectory of the Benedictines. In 
general bis method resembles that of Cesare d^ Arpino, and 
when 'be conforms to the Venetian manner,^ he still pre- 
serves a character of his own, especially in his glories, 
which he hems in with showery clouds and. darkness. He 
painted little in oil, though possessed of great energy and 
union of colour.' The rage of gain carried him to large 
works in fresco, which he arranged with much felicity of 
the whole ; copious, various, resolute, and even finished in 
the parts, and correct, if roused by the concurrence of §ome 
able rival Such he was at the Certosa in the cliapel of 
St. Gennaro, when he had Caracciolo for his competitor. 
For other churches be sometimes painted sacred subjects 
in small proportions, much commended by Dominici. 

This artist died in 1 643. ' 

GORILLA (Maria Maddelana Fernandez), a late 
celebrated improvisatrice, was born at Pistoia in 1740, and 
gave, in her infancy, the most unequivocal marks of un- 
common genius; and her acquirements in natural and 
moral philosophy, and ancient and modern history, were 
at the age of seventeen very remarkable. At the age of 
twenty she began to display that talent for extempore com- 
position which is so common in Italy, and so uncommon 
elsewhere as to be questioned. Of this lady's abilities, 
however, we are not permitted to doubt, if we give' any 
credit to the popularity she gained among all classes, and 
especially among persons of the highest rank. The em«* 
press Mafia Theresa offered her the place of female poet 
i laureat at court, which sh^ accepted, and went to Vienna 

k in 1765. ' Previously to this she bad married signer Mo- 

relli, a gentleman of Leghorn ; but her conduct after mar- 
riage became grossly licentious, a circumstance which 
does not appear to have diminished the respect paid to her 

I . ' •  

I 1 Pilkiugton. 

VOL.%. S \ 



hj mil ranks. At Viefma, she ivrote aa ef^io pOem and a 
▼olume of lyric poetry, both which she dedioatbd to the 
^pr^Bs. She attracted the enthusiastic admiration o£ Me- 
tastatic himself, and rendered the taste for Italian poetry 
more predomiaant than it bad ever been in Vienna. Soon 
after 1771» she settled in Romey wa» admitted a member 
of the academy of the Arcadi, under the name of Gorilla 
Oiympica^ and for some years continued to charm the in* 
liabitants of Rome by her talents in improvisation. At 
length when Pius VI. became pope, he determined that 
»he should be solemnlv crowned, aa honour which had 
been granted to Petrarch only. An account of this siiigu^ 
l»r transaction, beautifully printed at Parma, by Bodoai^ 
m 1779, contains her diploma and ail the . diiscourses^ 
poems, sonnets, &c. written on the occasion, with the en^ 
lamination which she underwent^ concerning her knowledge 
of the most important subjects upofti which she was required 
to Improvisarcy or treat extemporaneously, in verse pub« 
Kcly at the Gamptd^Ho in Rome. The ItaUan title of this 
narrative is, ^' Atti delta solenfte cofonazione fatta in Cam* 
pidoglio della insigne poete&ia D«na. Maria Maddalena 
Mordli Fernandez Pistoiese, Tragli Arcadi Gorilla 01im<i- 
pica.^' Twelve members of the Arcadian academy were 
fielected but of thirty, publicly to examine this aew edition 
of a Tenih Muse, which has been so often dedicated to 
ladies of poetical and literary talents. Three several days 
were allotted for this public exhibition of poeticed powers 
on the following subjects : sacred history, revealed reKgiony 
moral philosophy, niatural history, metaphysics, epic poetry, 
legislation, eloquence, mythology, fine arts, and pastoral 

In the list of examiners there appear e prince, an arcb* 
bishop, three monsi^gheurs, the pope's physician, abati, 
avocati, all of high rank in literature and criticism. These, 
^eeverally, gave her subjects, which, besides a readine» at 
mecsificatiou in all the measures of Italian poetry, requked 
.science, reading, and knowledge of every kind* In all 
^ese severe trials, Ae aequitted herself to the satisfectioh 
and astonishment of all the principal persoiuges^ clergy> 
literati, and foreigners then resident at Ronoe; among the 
latter was our. sovereign's brother, the duke of Gloucesle^. 
Near fif^ sonnets by different poets, with odes, canzoni, 
terze nmOf ottave, canzonette> &c. produced on the sub« 



ject of ihU event, are inserted at the end of this narrative 
and descviption of the order and ceremonials of this splen- 
did, honourable, andentbasiastic homage, paid to poetry, 
classical taste, fe^ents, ^literature, and 'the fine arts. 

Thisirenowned lady merits some notice as a musician, as 
vfell as poetesa ; as she auag'ber own verses to simple tunes 
with a sweet voice, and in. good taste. She likewise played 
ondie violiu'; batK«t Florence, in 1770, she was accom- 
panied on the violin by the celebrated and worthy papil of 
QTartiniy Navdini. 

ToiVards the close of 1780 she left ^Rome, fi^ith the in* 
temion of passing the remainder of .her life at Florence^ 
aor did jhe practise her art much longer, aware that youth 
and beauty ;had added charms to her perfonnance which 
9be no longer 'possessed. She died at Florence Nov. 8, 


iCORlNiNA, a Grecian lady, celebrated for her beauty 
and poetic) talents, was bom at Thessu a city in <B{£fotia, 
land was the cUficiple of Myrtis, another'Greeian lady. Her 
'vecses were-soesteemed^bjf the Greeks that they gave her 
'the name of the Lyric Muse. She lived in the time of 
'Bindary abouti49'5 yearstbeforeChrist, and is said to have 
igained the prize of lyric poetry five timesfrom that poet : 
but Pausanias observes ^at ber beauty made the judges 
partial* ^Corinna wrote a great deal of poetry, but no 
more have 'Oome down to us than some 'fragments which 
may be seen in Fabrioins's -^^ Bibliotheca Greeca.'^* 

CORIO (Bernardine), born in 1460, of an illustrious 
famtly of Milan, was selected by du^ke Lewis Sforza, sur- 
named Maurus, for composing the history of his country-; 
but the French having got possession of the Milanese, and 
.the duke his patron being taken prisoner, he died of grief 
in .1500. The best edition of his history, << Storia di Mi- 
lano," is that of Milan in 1^0'i, in folio. It is'finely printed^ 
aearce, and much more valued than* those since published, 
which have been disfigured by mutilations. Some estima^ 
;tion, however, is attached tothose of Venice, 1554, 1565, 
.4to ; and that of Paris, 1 646, 4to. Although he writes in 
a harsh and incorrect style, he is accurate in ascertaining 
dates, and minute in relating those circumstances that in- 
terest the attention. His nephew Charies Corio employed 

' Athensum, vol. IV. — Rees's Cyclopaedia. 
' Fabr. Bibl, Graec— Yossius de Poet. Grsec. 

S 2 

260 COB I O. 

himself on the same object, and wrote in Italian, a ** Por« 
trait of the city of Milan,'* in which are collected the mo- 
numents, ancient and modern, of that unfortunate city.^ 

CORNARIUS, or HAGUENBOT (John), a celebrated 
German physician, was born at Zwickaw in Saxony in 1500. 
His preceptor made him change his name of Haguenbot, 
or Haubut, to that of Cornarius, but such changes were 
frequently voluntary. In his twentieth year, he taught 
grammar and explained tbei Greek and Latin poets and 
orators to his scholars, and two years after was admitted 
licentiate in medicine. He found fault with most of. the 
remedies provided by the apothecaries; and observing^ 
that the greatest part of the physicians taught their pupiU 
only what is to be found in Avicenna, Basis, and the other 
Arabian physicians, he carefully. sought for the writings of 
the best physicians of Greece, and employed about fifteen 
years in translating them into Latin, especially the works 
of Hippocrates, Aetius, Eginetes, and a part; of those of 
Galen. Meanwhile he practised physic with reputation at^ 
Zwickaw, Francfort, Marpurg, Nordhausen, auid Jena, where 
be died of an apoplexy, March 16, 1538. He also wrote 
some medical treatises ; published editions of some poems 
of the ancients on medicine and botany; and translated 
some of the works of the fatbam,. particularly those of Basil, 
and a part of those of Epiphanius* • His translations are now 
little consulted, but they undoubtedly contributed to lessen 
the difficulties of his successors in the same branch of use^ 
f ul labour. " 

CORNARO (Lewis.)) a Venetian of noble extraction, is 
memorable for having lived to an extreme age : for he 
was ninety-eight years old at the time of his death, which 
happened at Padua April 26, 1566, his birth being fixed 
• at 1467. Amongst other little performances, he left be«- 
hind him a piece, entitled ^^ De vitse sobrise commodis,'' 
i» e. ^^ Of the advantages of a •temperate lifef of which 
an. account was given in the preceding editions of this Dic- 
tionary, and which, as amusing and instructive, we shall 
]K)t disturb, although ivbdongs rather to the medical than 
biographical department. 

He wa3 moved, it seems, to compose this little piece, at 
the request and for the benefit of some ingenious young 
men, for whom he had a regard ; who, having long since 

1 Moreri. — Hayin Bibl. Italiana. 

^ Ha)ler.-*Moreri, and Diet Hist, in Ha|^aenbot 

C O R N A R O. 261 

lost their parents, and seeing him then eighty*one years' 
old, in a florid 6tate of health, wefe desirous to know by' 
what means he contrived thus to preserve a sound mind in 
a sound body, to so e:streme an age. In answer, he tells 
them, that, when he was young, he was very intemperate ;• 
that this intemperance had brought upon him many - and 
grievous disorders ; that from the thirty-fifth to the fortieth, 
year of his age, he spent his nights and days in the utmost^ 
anxiety and pain ; and that, in shorty bis life was grown a' 
burthen to ' him. The physicians, however, as he relates^* 
notwithstanding all the vain andfruitless efforts which they 
had made to restore him^ told him, that there was 
medicine still remaining, which had never been tried, but 
which, if he could but prevail with himself to use with per-- 
severance^ might free him in time from all his complaints ; 
namely, a regular and temperate way of living, but that 
unless he resolved to apply instantly to it, his case would 
soon become desperate. Upon this he immediately pre*-, 
pared himself for his new regimen, and now began to eat 
and drink nothing but what was proper for one in his weak 
habit of body. But this at first was very disagreeable to' 
him : he wanted to live again in his old manner; and he 
did indulge himself in a freedom of diet sometimes, with- 
out the knowledge of his physicians indeed, although much 
to his own uneasiness and detriment Driven in the mean 
time by necessity, and exerting resolutely all the powers 
of his understanding, h^ grew at last confirmed in a settled 
and uninterrupted course of temperance : by virtue of 
which, all his disorders bad left him in less than a year, 
and he had been a 6rm and healthy man from that time to 
his giving this account. 

To shew what a security a life of temperance is against 
the ill effects of hurts and disasters, •he relates an accident 
which befel him, when he was very old. One day being 
overturned iaiiis chariot, he was dragged by the horses a 
considerable way upon the ground. His head, his arms, 
bis whole body were very much bruised ; and one of his 
ancles was put out of joint. He* was carried home ; and 
the physicians seeing how much he was injured, concluded 
it impossible that he should live three days, but by bleed- 
ing and evacuating medicines, be presently recovered his 
health and strength. 

Some sensualists, as it appears, bad objected to his 
manner of living ; and in order to evince thq reasonable^ 

S62 C O Bf N A R a 

ness of their own, had* urged, that it was not worth while 
to mortify one^s appetites at such a rate, for the sake of 
being old ; since all that was jife, after the age of sizty-fivey 
could not properly be called vUa vvoa^ sed vita ntor^ia i not 
a living life, but a dead life. ^^ Now,!' says he, "*< to shew 
these gentlemen how much they are mistaken, I will briefly 
Ttin over the satisfactions and pleasures which I myself 
now enjoy m this eighty-third year of my age. In the 
first place I am always well ; and so active withal, that I 
can with ease mount a horse upon a flat, and walk to the< 
tops of very high mountains. In the next place I am aU 
ways cheerful, pleasant, perfectly contented, and free from 
all perturbation, and every uneasy thought. I have none 
of th9,t fasiidium vititj that satiety of life, so often to be 
met with in persons of my age. I frequently converse with 
men of parts and learning, and spend much of my time ia 
reading and^ writing. These things I do, ju&t as opportu- 
nity serves, or my humour invites me ; and all in my own 
house here at Padua, which, I may say, is as commodious 
and elegant a seat, as any perhaps that this age can shew ; 
built by me according to the exact proportions of architec- 
ture, and so contrived as to be an equal shelter against 
beat and cold« I enjoy at proper intervals my gardens, of 
which I have many, whose borders are refreshed with 
streams of running water. I spend some months in the 
year at those Eugancan hills, wheee I have another com- 
modious houses with gardens and fountains : and I visit also 
a seat I have in the valley, which abounds in beauties^ 
iirom the mair^r ^ructures, woods,, and vivulets that encom- 
pass it I frequently make excursions to some of the 
neighbouring cities, for the sake of seeing my friends, and 
conversing with the adepts in all arts and sciences : archi- 
tects, painters, statuaries, musidans, and even husband- 
men. I contempllite their works, compare them with the 
ancients, and tnk always learning something, which it ia 
agreeable to kpow. I take a view of palaces, gardens, an- 
tiquities, public buildings, temples, fortifications : and no- 
thing escapes me, which can afibrd tbe least amusement to 
a rational mind. Nor are these pleasures at all blunted by 
the usual imperfections of great age : for I enjoy all my 
senses in perfect vigour ; my taste so very much, that I 
have a better relish for the plainest food now, than I had 
for the choicest delicacies, when formerly immersed in a 
life of luxury. Nay, to let you see what a portion of fire 

<^ O B N A R a 26% 

and spirit I have stiU left within m/e, know, that I huve 
ihis Y^ry year written a comedy, full of innocent mirth an4 
pleasaptry; and, if a Greek poet waa thought so very 
healthy and happys for writing a tragedy at the age of 73^ 
why should oot I he. thqi^ght as healthy and as happy, whq 
have written a comedy, when I am ten years older ? In 
short, that ao pleasure whatever may be wanting to my old 
age, I please myself daily with contemplating that immor-i 
tality, which I tbinii I see in the succession of my posterity. 
For every time I return homey I meet eleven grandchiU 
dren, all the offspring of one father and mother ; all in 
fine health ; all» as far as I can discern, apt to learn, and 
of good behaviour. I am often amused by their singing ; 
nay, I often sing with them, because my voice is louder 
and clearer now, than ever it was in my life before. These 
are the delights and comforts of my old age ; from which, 
I presume, it appears, that the life I spend is not a deadji 
morose, and melancholy life, but a living, active, pleasant 
life, wbiqh I would not change with the robustest of those 
youths who indulge and riot in all the luxury of the senses^ 
because I know them to be exposed to a thousand diseases, 
and a thousand kinds of deaths. I, on the contrary, am 
free from all such apprehensions : from the apprehension 
of disease, because I have nothing for disease to feed upon ; 
firom the apprehension qf death, because I have spent a 
life of reason. Besides, death, I am persuaded, is not yet 
near me. I koovy that (barring accidents) no violent disease 
can tquch me. I must he dissolved by a gentle find gra« 
duai decay, when the radical humour is consumed like oil 
in a lamp, which affords no longer life to the dying taper. 
But such a death as this cannot happen of a sudden. To 
become unable to walk and. reason, to become blind, deaf, 
and h^nt to the earth, from all which evils I am far enough 
at present, must take a considerable pprtion of time : and 
I verily believe, that this immortal soul, which still inha- 
bits my body with so mqch harmony and complacency, 
will uQt easily depart from it yet. I verily believe that I 
have many years to Jive, many years to epjoy the world 
and all the good that is in it ; by virtue of that strict so- 
briety and temperance, which I have so long and so reli- 
giously observed ; friend as I am to reason, but a foe to 
sense." His wife, who survived him, lived also to nearly 
the same age. Sir John Sinclair,, in his ^^ Code of Health 
and Longevity," mentions the edition of 1779 as the best 

264 C O R N A R O: 

English translation of Cornaro^s works. There are four 
discourses on one subject, penned at dififerent times ; the 
first) already mentioned, which he wrote at the age of 
eighty •three, in which he declares war against every kind 
of intemperance. The second was composed three years 
after, and contains directions for repairing a bad constitu- 
tion. The third he wrote when he was ninety-one, entitled 
*^ An earnest exhortation to a sober life ;*' and the last is a 
letter to Barbaro, patriarch of Aquileia, written when he 
was ninety-five, which contains a lively description of the 
health, vigour, and perfect use of all his faculties, which 
he had the happiness of enjoying at that advanced period 
of life.' 

CORNARO PISCOPIA (Helena Lucretia), a learned 
Venetian lady, born in 1646, was the daughter of Gio 
Baptista Cornaro, and educated in a very different manner 
from the generality of her sex, being taught languages 
and sciences, and all the philosophy of the schools. • After 
having studied many years, she took her degrees at Padua, 
and was perhaps the first lady that ever was made a^doctor. 
She was also admitted of the university of Rome, where 
she had the title of Humble given her, as she had at Padua 
that of Unalterable, titles which she is said to have deserved, 
because her learning had not inspired her with vanity, 
nor was any thine capable of disturbing her train of 
thought. With all this, however, she vvas not free from 
the weaknesses of her religion, and the age in whiohshe 
lived. She early made a vow of perpetual virginity ; and 
though all means were used to persuade her to marry, and 
even a dispensation with her vow obtained from the pope, 
yet she remained immoveable. It is affirmed, that not 
believing the perpetual study to which she devoted herself, 
and which shortened her days, sufficient to mortify the 
flesh, she addicted herself to other superstitious restraints, 
fasted often, and spent her whole time either in study or 
devotion, except those fewt hours when she was obliged to 
receive visits. All people ^of quality and fashion, who 
passed through Venice, were more solicitous to see her, 
than any of the curiosities of that superb city. The cardi* 
nals de Bouillon and D^£tr6es, in passing through Italy, 
were commanded by the king of France, to examine whe- 
ther what some said of her was true ; and their report wasi 

1 Tliaani Hist-^His treatise on Long Life, often republished in English. 

C O R N A R O. 26S 

that her parts and learning were equal to het high re)»iita- 
don. At length her incessant study of books, ' particularly 
such as were in Greek and Hebrew, impaired her consti^i 
tution so much, that she fell into an illness, of. which she 
died in 1685. We are told that she had notice of her 
death a year before it happened, and that, talking one 
day to her father of an old cypress-tree in his garden, she 
advised him to cut it down', since it would do well to make 
her a coffin. 

As soon as the news of her death reached Rome, the 
academicians called Infecondi, who had formerly admitted 
her of their society, composed odes and epitaphs to her 
memory without number, and celebrated a funeral solem- 
nity in honour of her, in the college of the Barnabite 
fathers, where the academy of the Infecondi usually assem* 
bled. This solemnity was conducted with such magnifi*- 
cence, that a description of it was published at Padua in 
1686, and dedicated to the republic of Venice. ^Part of 
the ceremony was a funeral oration, in which one of the 
academicians with all the pomp of Italian eloquence, ex« 
patiated upon the great and valuable qualities of the de- 
ceased ; saying, that Helena Lucretia Comaro had tri- 
umphed over three monsters, who were at perpetual war 
with her se^, viz. luxury, pride, and ignorance ; and that 
in tbis she was superior to all the oonquerori of antiquity, 
even to Pompey himself, though he triumphed at the same 
time over the three kings, Mithridates, Tigranes, and Aris- 
tobulus, because it was easier to conquer three kingdonlis^ 
than three such imperfections and vices, &c. In 1688 her 
works were publi^ed at Parma, 8vo, edited by Benedict 
Baccbini, with an ample life, but the praises he bestows 
on her are but feebly supported by these writings. ' 

CORNAZZANO (Antonio), an Italian poet, was bom 
at Placentia, and flourished in the fifteenth century, bat 
we have no dates of his birth or death, tie passed some 
part of his life at Milan, and afterwards travelled into 
France ; and on his return he went to Ferrara, where he 
remained until his death, patronized by the duke Hercules 
I. who had a high regard for him. Some of his biographers 
inform us that he served under the celebrated Venetian 
general, Bartholomew Coglioni, of whom he has left a life, 
\n Latin^ published by Burman. He left also a great many 

* Life as above.— Moreri.'— Diet. Hist. 

S6« C 4) R N A Z Z A N O. 

oiher wQrbSy tbe most considerable of irfiich is an Italiaia 
ppeni^ in nine books,^ on tbe military art, with the LaUQ 
title of " De Re Militari,*' Venice, 1493, foL ; Peaaro, 
1^07, 9voy &G. He has libewise given Latin titles to h%9 
tbreQ small. poems» on the art of gOTcming, the rici^itndea 
of fortune, and on the ablest generals : these were pub- 
lished at Venice^ 1517, &vo, but are rather dull and unia^ 
vitiligo His^^ Lyrio poeoas,'* sonnets^ canzoni, Itq. were 
published at Venice, 1502, 8vo, and Milan, 1519. In these 
we find a littl($ more spirit and vivacity, but they partake 
f>f the poetical character of his time. Quadrio, however^ 
xanks them among tbe best in the Italian language.* . ' , 

CORNEILLE (Michael), born at Paris in 1642, was 
ane of those eminent painters who adorned tbe age of 
Louis XIV» His father, who was himself a painter of 
merit, instructed hin^ with much care. Having gained a 
prize at the academy, young ComeiUe was honoured with 
the king's pension, and sent to Rome ; where the princely 
generosity of Louis had founded a school for young artists 
of genius. Here he studied some time ; but thinking him* 
self under restraint to the reutine of study there esta* 
blished, ha gave up his pension, and pursued a plan more 
flttitable to his own inclination. He applied himself to the 
antique particularly with great care ; and in drawing is 
said to bavQ' equalled Carache. In colouring he was de<* 
ficient ; but bis advocates say, bia deficiency in that respect 
vfl3 solely owing to his having been unacquainted witli the 
mature of ^colouts ^ for he used many of a changeable nature, 
v^hicb in time lost their efiect. Upon his return from 
Jtome^ he was chosen a professor in tbe academy of Paris ; 
and was employed by the king in all the great works be 
was carrying on at Versailles and Trianon, where some 
noble efforts of bis genius are to be seen. He died at 
Paris in 1708.^ 

CORNEILLE (Peter), one of tbe most celebrated 
French poets^ and called by his countrymen tbe Shak-* 
speare of France, was born at Roan, June 6, 1606, of con-* 
sidefable parents, his father having been ennobled for bis 
services by Louis XIIL He was brought up to the bar, 
which. he attended some little time ; but having no turn fpr 
business, he ^oon deserted it. At this time he bad given 

• Oinguen^ Hist. Lit. d^Italie. — ^Roscoe^s Leo.-r-Moreri. 
« D'Argenville.— Pilkinftoa. 

C O R N E I L L Ir 36? 

the public no specimen of bis talents for poetry, nor ap« 
fiears to have been conscious of possessing any such : and 
they tell us, that it was purely a trifling aSair of gallantry^ 
which gave occasion to his first comedy, called '< Melite.'^ 
The drama was then extremely low among the French; 
their tragedy flat and languid, their comedy more bar« 
barous than the lowest of the vulgar would now tolerate. 
Corneille was astonished to find himsblf the author of a 
pi«ce entirely new, and at the prodigious success with 
which his ^^ Melite'^ was acted. The French theatre 
seemed to be raised, and to flourish at once ; and though 
deserted in a manner before, was now filled on a sudden 
with a new company of actors. After so happy an essay^ 
he continued to produce several other pieces of the same . 
kind ; all of them, indeed, inferior to what he afterwards 
wrote, but much superior to any thing which the French 
had hitherto seen. His ^' Medea" came forth next, a tra- 
gedy, borrowed in part from Seneca, which succeeded, as 
indeed it deserved, but indifferently ; but in 1637 he pre-* 
sented the " Cid," another tragedy, in which he shewed 
the world how high his genius was capable of rising, and 
seems to confirm Du Bos^s assertion, that the age of thirty, 
or a few years more or less, is that at which poets and ^ 
painters arrive at as high a pitch of perfection as their ge* 
niuses will permit. . All Europe has seen the Cid : it has 
been translated into almost all languages : but the reputar 
tioD which he acquired by this play, drew all the wits of his 
time into a confederacy against it. Some treated it con^ 
temptupusly, others wrote against it. Cardinal de Riche* 
lieu himself is said to have been one of this cabal ; for, not 
content with passing for a great minister of state^ be af«- 
fected to pass for a wit and a critic ; and, therefore, though 
he had settled a pennon upon the poet, could not abstain 
from secret attempts against his play *. It was supposed 
to be under his influence that the French Academy drew 
up that critique upon it, entitled, " Sentiments of the 
French academy upon the tragi-comedy of Cid i*^ in which^ 

 Not one of the CardinaPs toots was at the gates of Paris. In 1635, Richei^ 

•0 vebemetit tm Um mbb6 D'Avblgnac, lieu, in the midst of the impoitaoi 

who was meaa enon^h to attack Cor- political cooceras that ocoapied hit 

neille on account of bis family, bis per- mighty genius, wrote the greatest pari 

•ott, bit n^stiire, hit voice, and eyen of a play called '* La Comedie des 

the cooduct of hit domestic affiain. Tailleries," in which Comeille pro- 

, When th« " Cid" first appeared, says posed some alterations to be made in 

Fontenelle, the cardmal was as much the third act : which honest freedom 

alannsd «9 ilbe bad •eca tke Spaaiwdt the cardiail never furfara, Wiui'^oiu 

f 6S • O R K E I L L E: 

liovrever, while they censured some parts, they did not 
scruple to praise it very higWy in others. Corneiller now 
endeavoured to support the vast reputation lie had gained, 
by many admirable performances in succession^ which, as 
Bayie observes, " carried the French theatre to its highest 
pitch of glory, and assuredly much higher than the ancient 
one at Athens ;** yet still, at this time, he had to contend 
with the bad taste of the most fashionable wits. When he 
read his " Polyeucte,'* one of his best tragedies, before s(. 
company of these, where Voiture presided, it was very 
coldly received ; and Voiture afterwards told him, it was 
the opinion of his friends that the piece would not succeed. 
In 1647 he was chosen a member of the French academy; 
and was what they call dean of that society at the time of 
bis death, which happened in 1684, in his 79th year. 

He was, it is said, a man of a devout and melancholy cast ; 
and upon a disgust he had conceived to the theatre, from the 
cold reception of his " Pertharite," betook himself to the 
translation of " The Imitation of Jesus Christ," by Kempis j 
which he performed very elegantly. He returned, however, 
to the drama, although not with his wonted vigour. He spoke 
little in company, even upon subjects which he perfectly 
understood. He was a very worthy and honest man ; not 
very dexterous in making hisT court to the great, which was 
perhaps the chief reason why he never drew any consider* 
able advantage from his productions, besides the reputation 
which always attended them. Racine, in a speech made 
to the French academy in the beginning of 16S5, does 
great justice to our author's talents. After representing 
the miserable state in which the French theatre then was, 
tbat it was without order, decency, sense, caste, he passes 
to the sudden reformation effected by Corneille : ^^ a man 
who possessed at once all those extraordinary talents which 
form a great poet; art, force, judgment, and wit. Nor 
can any one sufficiently admire the greatness of his senti<- 
ments, the skill he shews in the economy of his subjects, 
bis masterly way of moving the passions, the dignity, and 
at the same time the vast variety of his characters.*' This 
encomium must have the more weight, as it comes from 
the only man in the world who has been considered as his 
great rival. Yet we are told, that when Racine read his 
tragedy of " Alexander" to Corneille^, the latter gave him 
many commendations, but advised him to apply his geuius, 
as not being adapted to the dramas to smue other species 

C O R N E I L L £, 269 

of poetry. Corneille^ says Dc. Warton, one would hope^ 
was incapable of a mean jealousy ; and if he gave this ad- 
vice, thought it reatly proper to be given. The French 
have ever been fond of opposing Corneille to Sbakspeare; 
but the want, of comic povi^rs in Corneille, for his come- 
dies are tfuly contemptibie, must ever obstruct the compa* 
risen. His genius was unquestionably very rich, but seems 
more turned towards the epic than the tragic muse ; and in 
general he is magnificent and splendid, rather than tender 
and touching. He is, says Blair, an opinion in which all 
English critics agree, the most declamatory of all the French 
tragedians. He united the copiousness of Dryden with 
the fire of Lucan ; and he resembles them also in their 
faults: in their extravagance and impetuosity. As to the 
opinions of the best modern French critics, on the merits 
of Coraeille, we may refer to an admirable ^^ Eioge,** 
published by Da Ponte, in London, 1808, and to Su- 
ard's <' Melange de Litterature,'' 1 808. But Fontenelle's 
comparison between Corneille and Racine, as less accfes- 
sible to many readers, may be added here with advantage. 
Corneille^ says Fontenelle, had no excellent author before 
his eyes, whom he could follow; Racine had CorneiUe. 
Corneille found the French stage in a barbarous state,' and 
advanced it to great perfection :. Raciue has not supported 
it in the perfection in which he found it* The characters 
of Corneille are true, though they are not common : the 
characters of Racine are not true, but only in proportion 
as they are common. Sometimes the characters of Cor- 
neille are, in some respects, false and unnatural, because 
they are tioble and singular ; those of Racine are often, in 
some respects, low, on. account of their being natural and 
ordinary. He that has a noble heart, would chuse to re- 
semble the heroes of CorneiUe; he that has a little heart, 
is- pleased to find his own resemblance iu' the heroes of 
Racine. We carry, from hearing the pieces of the one^ 
a desire to be virtuous ; and we carry the pleasure of 6nd- 
ing men like ourselves, in foibles and weaknesses, from 
tbe pieces of the other. The tender and graceful of Ra- 
cine is sometimes to be found in Corneille : tbe grand and 
sublime of Corneille is never to be found in Racine. Ra- 
cine has'paitited only the French and the present age, even 
when be designed to paiilt another age and other nations : 
^we see in Corneille all those ages, and all those nations^ 
that he intended to paint. The number of the pieces of Cor- 

27a C O R N E I L L E. 

neille is much greater than xh&t of Racine : Corneille^ not« 
withstanding, has made fewer tautologies and repetitioos 
than Racine has made. Iti the passages where the vecsi-^ 
fication of Corneille is good, it h moie bold, wor^ nobie^ 
aiid» at the«ame time, as pure and as iiiHsbed. as tbat of 
Racine : but it is not preserved in this degree of beaiil^ ^ 
and that of Racine is always equaligr supported. Authors^ 
inferior to Racine, have written successfully after Jiiiii, i» 
bis own way : no author, not even Racine bifnself^ dared to 
attempt, after CorneiUe^ that kind of writing which was 
peculiar to hina. Voltaire, the best editor of CorjOeiUe"^ 
svorks^ seems in some measure to coincide with Fonte-^ 
tielle. ." Corneille," says be, " alone formed bifioself: 
hat Louis XIV. Colbert, Sophocles, and Euripides, all oS 
them contributed to form Racine.*' When we arrive^ how«* 
ever, at Racdue, it will be necessary to estimate hisineriit, 
wiliiQuc the bias wbich cotmparative criticism generaUy pco* 

Of the editions of the theatre of Corneille^ consisting of 
nine comedies aad twenty-two tragedies, the best .ai^, tjsjat 
of Joly, published ijn 1758, 10 vols. l2aio.. end ihat of Vol* 
tajjce, 1J64, 1:2 vols. 3vo, aod^ lastly^ the magoifioent one 
of Didot, 179^;, in IQyols. 4to, of which 250 copies only 
wese |)riated. ^ 
. CORNEILLE (Thomas), brother to the firecedin^ ;|i 
French poet also, but itiferior to Peter CorneiUe, was bora 
in 1625. He was a member of the French academy, and of 
4he academy of inscriptions. He discovered, when he iwm 
youngt a stvosig inclination and genius for poetry; juid 
afterwards was the author of many dramatic piecei^ some 
of which were well received by the public^ and acted with 
^neat success. He died at Andeli, 1709^ aged. 84. His 
dramatic works, with those of his brother, were pAiibtLtsbed 
tttPa^ris, 17389 in il vols. 12 mo. Besides dramatic, Tho»- 
mas Corneille was the author of some other works : as^ 
1. A translation of Ovid's Metaaiorpboses and somp.of his 
Epistles. 2. Remarks upoo Vaqgelas. S« ^^ A dictenary 
of arts,'Vin.2 vols, folio, 4. ^^ An univensal geographical 
imd Ustorical dictionary ,^* in 3 vols, folio. In tbelf^t wocfc, 
4hat pavtofthe geography iwlHch concerns >}ormandy4s said 
to be excellent. As to his dramatic talents, ,they>were:&r 
from being contemptibly and a few of his pieces tttUl keep 

* Moreri. — Diet. Htst. — Fontenelle's Works. — Blanr's Lectures*— Wartoa's 
•Esiay on Pope, edit. 1606. — D^Israeli's Curiosities «f Uteratiif«» t»).il« 

C O R N E I L L E. Ml 

dneir plaeifi on the stage ; iHit it was his misfortune to b^ st 
Comeiile^and brother of one emphatically called the GreaC 
Corneiile. *. 
CORNETO <Adrian.) See ADRIAN. ' 

CORN WALLIS (Charles, first MarqJGfis),^ the eldest 
son of Oharles fifth lord and first earl OornwalUs, by Eli^ 
zabetb, eldest daughter of Charles, second viscount Towns- 
end, was born Dec. 31, 1738, and educated at Eton,- and 
at St John's eoiiege^ Cambridge. Preferring a military 
life, he was, in August ]7«3, appointed aid-de-camp t^ 
Ae king, witti the rank ot oobnei of footv In Sept. 4775^ ' 
he became major-genei'al^ -in August, 1777, iteutemant^ 
general ; and in October, 17^3, general. He repre^nted, iH 
two parliaments, the borMgih of Eye, in SniFolk, until he suc^ 
ceeded his father in the peerage, Jone'23, 1762. In par^ 
liaitienft, he was not a freqqent or dt^ingHished spealcen 
In the iiouse of peers fae appears to have been rather fa« 
vourable to the claims of t£e American colonies, which^ 
bowev^, when they came to mk open rupture with the 
mother coontry^ did not pr^»ent Mm from accepting a 
eotnmanid in America, where he distingdistied bim«elf at 
the battle of Brandywine^ iw 1777, and aftervfaids at tb^ 
siege of Cfaariestown, and- was' left in the command of South 
Carolina, where his administmtion was commended for itk 
wisdom^ lie was sodn obliged to take the field, aiid ob- 
milled the deceive vk^ory^of Ca«nden, and was next vio 
torioos at'GnfMfcMrd, bnt not witboat a considerable loss a( 
men. His plaii of invading Virginia, in 1781, was of mor^ 
doubtful pr^ideince, and ended in bis capture, with bis whple 
enoy «f four thousand men. Tbws defeated, he laid tiie 
blame on the failure of escpeeted succour from sir Henry 
Clinton, who in return* equally blamed both the sdieme 
ami its conduct, and several pa^mphtets- were published b|f 
both these* commanders, into the merits of which ^ ean«- 
tiot pretend to enter. It is efficient for our purpose to be 
aUe to add, that lord ComwaHis lost no reputation by thife 
misfortune^ eidier for skill or courage. 
. Soon aner his return ffotm America, on the change of 
administratioti which took place in 17S9, he was removed 
frimi his place of governor of the Tower of London, which 
he had held since 1770, bat was re^appointed in 1784, and 
tetained it during his life. In 1786, his lordship was sent 

' Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

&12 c o njsrrw KhhiB. 

9ut to liidia with the doiiU^ i^i^poiotment of gO¥eraorrge> 
neral.antd- commander in chief; and arriviog at Calcutta 
in September of that year^ found the different presidenoies 
in rising prosperity. Not k>ng after, the goyecnment of 
Bengal found it necessary to declare war against the sultan 
of the Mysore^ for his attack jon thera)ahof Travancofe, 
the ally of the English. The campaign of I79awas.inde<» 
cisive; but in March 1791, lord CornwalUs invaded the 
Mysorci and came in. sight <^ Seringapatam, which he was 
prevented from investing by the floods of the Carery. In 
17^2, however, he besieged that, metropolis; and on the 
ap{H'oach of tbe attack^ the .saltan Tippoo Saib sued £oat 
peace,, and was obliged to accept such terms as the EngUsh 
commander dictatedv . He conaeiHbed. to cede, a part of his 
dominions, paid a large.suin of money, undertook to fur-r 
pish a.still more con^iderableippintio^oftreastirey within a li* 
mited periods &c^ and entrusted twioof his sons tothe care 
of lord Cornwallis, with whom they were to lemain as hos^ 
tages for the due perforiMn«e of; the tneaty. By .this sue* 
oessful oonciusioii of the waur, jbhe^ most formidable - eoemjT 
was so reduced, as to render^j^ur possessions in bdia botli 
profitable and secure^ .Madras was. protected from invasion 
by possession of the passes,. lajnd a*-* 
fended by strong forts.; aod the value of Bonibay was 
greatly enhanced^ by possessions gained on ,the Malabar 
ociast* The details of this vrarbeloog to. history ; bnt it is 
necessary; to add> that in Ithe whole conduct .<^ it^ lord 
Corowallis evinced qualities of the head antl heart whieb 
greatly increased bis reputation as a commander. Cta 
marching days,, it was his constant custom to be in bis tent 
from the time the army came to the ground of encampmetit^ 
and on haltJiog^days^ after visiting, the outposts in the 
morning, he was. there constantly , employed till the eveor 
ing, attending to th# affaira, depending on hb station. 
The. business which pressed upon, him from the several ar* 
inies, a^d from every part of India, were so compUcaied 
and various, as to require every. eKercion of diligence and 
arrangement. He gave his instructions, .in person, to. all 
officers who went on detacbmc»ts. of.impoi^taDce, and saw 
them on their return. Officers atthe heads. of departmeoiU 
applied to himself on all material business, and there was 
no brjinch of the service with which he was .not intimately^ 
acquainted. His lordship^s tents, ajid the line of head- 
quarters, appeared more like the various departments of a 

COR N W A L LI S. 271 

^at office of state^ than the splendid equipage that might 
be supposed to attend the leader of the greatest arables 
that, under a British general, were ever assembled in the 
east. To this unremitting attention to business, is not 
only to be ascribed the general success of the administra^ 
tion of lord Cornwallis in India, and in particular that of 
the operations of this war, but also the unexampled -ecoi* 
nomy with which it was conducted. 

This important war being now ended, so highly to the hor 
nour of the British arms, lord Cornwallis returned to Eng- 
land, to receive the rewards justly due to his merit. He 
bad before been invested with the insignia of the garter ; 
and he was, in August 1792, advanced to the dignity of 
marquis Cornwallis, admitted a member of the privy-coun* 
cil, and, in addition to his other appointments, was nomi- 
nated to the office of master* general of the ordnance. In 
1798, the rebellion in Ireland appearing both to the vice:- 
roy, lord Camden, and to his majesty, to require a lord* 
lieutenant who could act in a military as well as a civil 
capacity, the king appointed k>rd Cornwallis to that im- 
portant service, which he executed with skill, prompti- 
tude, and humanity ; and after quelling the open insurrec* 
tion, he adopted a plan of mingled firdnness and concilia- 
tion, which, executed with discriminating judgment, tended 
to quiet that distracted country, and prepare matters for a 
permanent plan, that should both prevent the recurrence 
of such an evil, and promote industry and prosperity. 
He retained this high appointment till May 1801, when 
be was succeeded by the earl of Hardwicke. The same 
year he was appointed plenipotentiary to . France, and 
signed the peace of Amiens. 

In 1804, his lordship had the honour of being ap- 
pointed, a second time, governor-general in the East In- 
dies, on the recall of marquis Wellesley ; and in that sta- 
tion he died at Ghazepore, in the province of Benaresj 
October 5, 1805, worn out with an active life spent in 
the service of his country, and covered with glory and 
honours. His amiable character and unassuming dispor 
sition made him as universally beloved as he was re- 
spected. His talents were not brilliant: but they proved 
what a good heart, inflamed by an honourable ambition, 
nKiy,* by the aid of perseverance, efFett. His lordship 
married, July 14, 1768, Jemima, daughter of James Jones, 

VOI-.X. rj, . 

«H G O K 6 N E L. 

^sq. by whom lid had ah only son, CftatlcSj thc^r^senk 

CORONEL (PAiJt)^ a Spanish ecdesiastic, was born al 
Segovia, and bedame tnfiineht foi- bis critical ktibwledgA 
<Jf oriental languageis, MA especially Ihfe origihal laftguage^ 
of the Holy Scriptiil*^. He Was one of the professor^ 
of th^ university 6f Salamanca, When cardinal Xioiefies 
eniployed him, among other learhfed men, on his celebrated 
•edition of the Polyglot Bible. He also was the Author of 
an addition to the work of Nicholas de Lira^ **De trfens^ 
lalionum diff^rentii's.^' Hfe died Se{)t 30, 1534.^ 

CORONELLI (VlNCEi^T), d fcelebrated geographer of 
the Minime order, and a most laborious felhd vblilnlinotis 
compiler, was bom at Venice, and admitted doctor at the 
^ge bf 2'!". Becoming known to cardinal d'Estr^es by his 
skill in mathematics, he was employed by his eminence t6 
make globes for Louis XIV. He staid some time at Pariis 
ibr that purpose, arid left many globeis there, which were 
ttt that time much esteemed. Coronelli was appointed 
rosmogfaphct- to the republic of Venice in 1685, and 
public professfor of geography in 16B9. He iifterwardi 
became definitdr-general of his o^der, and gfenefal May 14-, 
1702. After founding a costnographidal* academy at Ve^ 
nice, hedied irithat cityj Deci^mber 1718, leaving abovA 
four hundred maps-. His publications were so numerous 
fki to fill about thirty TolUlries, most of them ih foliot 
Among these are, 1. " Atlahte VenetOj^' 4 vols, folio, Ve-* 
nice, 16^91; 2. " Ritrafcti de celebri personaggi delP 
academia cosmografica, &c.'* Vtenicei, 1697, folio. 3i 
^* Specchio del mare Mediterraneb," ibid, 16911', folio. 
4. ** Bibliotheca universalis," 6t an uiiiversal Dictionary^ 
art imriiense undeirtdking, to be extended to forty-five folio 
volumes. AH the accounts we have of Coronelli differing^ 
we ktt0)V not how fer he had proceeded in this work. Mo- 
reri says he had published seven volumes ; but an extiract 
froni soiiie foreign journal, in-the " Memoirs of Literatui^e,** 
states that, in !'709, eighteen volumes had appeared^ #hieh 
went tio farther thin the word GaValieri, in letter G. W^ 
doubt, therfefbre, if thb author cbuld hav^ cbmprieiised hid 
ihaterials iit 45. That he shoiild Ifentertain a favouinaU^ 

1 .Collin^'s Peerage, by mr E. Brydges^— Dirom's Nairattv&of ihc Caii)p«i|i| 
in lodia, 4to, 1793.-- Adolphus and Bisiet's Ubt of the Reign of George IIL 
; Mbr^ri.— Ahtbnlo Bibf. HIsp. 

C OR ON. EL L I. 275 

o{ttl^i(Mi of his laboun, and predict, that aU oth^r iiio* 
tionari«s intiBtsink before hM> and that he should exult in 
the idea of leaving behind him the largest coinfiHaytion^ver 
made, is not surprizing : we ave more disp6sed toiWQnder 
at the spirit of iitetary emefpriae amofig the printers' and 
bookselli^rs in those days^ which enoousaged such under^ 
tsdcingSi * ^ 

CORRADtNI (DE Sbzza^ Pbter Marcellikus), a 
learned auttqttaryy born in I6l50, was first a lawyer, and in 
that profe86i(^n so diatinguished,- as to attract the notice of 
pope Clefifient XL who appointed him to honourable and 
confidentkl offices* Disgusted, howisver^ by the intrigues 
of the court, he- gave himself up to retirement, for the pur*- 
pose of ^ppfying to literary pursuits* Here he remained till 
be w«is created cardinal by pope Innocent XIIL which dig- 
inity he enjoyed tnore than tv^nty years, and died at Rome 
in 1743.^ He wrote a learned and curious work, entitled 
^' VetusLat»am,'profanttm et sacrum," Rom6, 1704 and 1707, 
U vols. IbL ; reprinted in ^l 7^7, 4 vols. 4tp : likewise a history 
of his native pla^e, entitled *< De civitate eli ecclesia Set*- 
tifta ;'* Roin^ ilOdt^ 4to. He is said to have written a dis- 
se^t^ion co»carmng oevcain contested rights between the 
emperor and th^ pope, ^^ De jure precum primariarum,'* 
1707, under tbe'assumed name of Conradus Oligenius. ' 

CORRA'NUS, or DE CORRO (Anthony)^ the son of 
Am. Goi^anos, LL.D« was bom at Seville, in Spain, in 
l$U7f atid educated for t^ Roman Catholic church ; but 
being aftervmrds desirous of embracing the reformed reli««- 
giott, be'dame to l^ngland in 1 570, and being admitted 
iiM:o tbe SngUsb church, beoame a frequent preacher. In 
1571 J^'WQs made reader of divinity in the Templei» by the 
interest>of Dr% Edwin Sandys^ bishop of London, and con- , 
timsed ii^ that office abouttbree years. In the beginning of 
Aferth' 1 516^ tie was recommended to the university of Ox^ 
ford ^r a fdootor's degvee^ by their cbamK^dior^ the earl of 
'L^^f^sUfii but doubts being raised as to the soundness of 
his prinelpl^'OA O0rtain contested points, his degree was 
refiftseduntilhe' should giva fall satis&ciion^ which he pro^ 
bably. did^ although, the matter is not upon record. At 
Oxford \ie became reader of divinity to thestudeUts io 
douoesUer, St. Mary's, and Hart-ball^ and resided as a 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist-^^Metndirl of Litmtm, tol. I.— Most of CorSnelli*^ 
irorks are in tbe British Museum. 
* Moreri. 

T 2 

27ft C O R R A N U S. 

Student of Cbristchurch, holding at the same time the pre- 
bend of Harleston in St. Paul's. He died at London in 
March 1591, and was buried either at St. Andrew^ Hol« 
born, or St. Andrew Wardrobe. His works are, 1. ^* Aa. 
Epistle to the pastors of the Flemish church at Antwerp,^* 
originally written in Latin, Lond. 1570, 8vo. 2. ** Ta- 
bulae Divinorum operum, de humani generis creatione,'' 
15749 Svo ; and afterwards published in English. 3. *' Dia- 
l6gus Theologicus,^' ah explanation ef St. Paul's Epistle 
to the Romans, collected frotn his Jectures, 1574, 8 vt>; 
also translated, 1579. 4. '^ Suppliciition to the king of 
Spain," respecting the protestants^in the Low Countries, 
1577, 8vo, published in Latin, French, and English. 

5. ^ NoteB in concionem Solomonis f * i, e. Scclesiastes, 
1579 and 1581, 8vo; and again, by Seultetus^ in 1618. 

6. \^ Sermons on Ecclesiastes," abridged by Thmnas Pitt, 
Oxon. 1585, -8vo, probably an abridgement «f the pre- 
ceding. 7. '< A Spanish grammar, with certain rules for 
teaching both the Spanish and French tongues,*' translated 
into Englii^ by Thorius. Lond. 159€^, 4toi'^ 

CORREGIO (Antonio Allegi^i da>^ som^mes 'e^Ued 
Lseti, an eminent . htstoiical' painter^ was born in 1490* 
or* 1494. Being descended of poor parents, and educated 
in an obscure village, he enjoyed noneof those advantages 
which contributed .to form the other great painters of that 
illustrious age. He saw : none of the statues <^ an<iient 
Greece or Rome ; nor any of the works ^ of the established 
schools of Rome and Venice. But nature was his guide ; 
and.Corregio was one of her favourite pupils. To express 
the facility with which he painted,* he lised to say^that he 
always had his thoughts ready at the end ctf his penciL ' 

The agreeable smile, and the profusion of graces which 
he gave to his Madonnas, saints, andehildren, have been 
taxed with being sometimes unnatural ; -but still they are 
amiable and seducing ; an easy and flowing pencil, an 
union and harmony of colours, and a perfect intelligence 
of light and shade, give an astonishing relief to- idl his 
pictures, and have been, the admiration both of hiseoti* 

* Tlie birth and Ufe» lays Mr. Fa- account of hipo has undoubtedly been 

seli, of Correg^io, is more involved in given by A. R. Menp, inr his '* Me- 

obscurity than the life of Apelles. Whe- morie concerneote ta Vita di Corre^io.* 

ther he was bom in 1490, or 1494, is vol. U. of hit works, puUisbed by • Ni*<:er^ined : the time of his death, cole d'A^^fu , 

in 1534, is more certain* The best ' \ 

» Ath, Orf. vol I. 

# C O R R E G I O. 277 

temporaries and successors. Annibal Caracci, wbo-ilou- 
. rished fifty years after him^ studied and adopted his mai^- 
ner in prefereDce to that of aijy other master. In a letter 
to big cousin Louis, he expresses with great warmth the im- 
pression which vms made on him by the first sight of Corre- 
gio^s paintings : ^* Every thing which I see here/' says he, 
^^astomshes me ; particularly the colouring and the beauty 
of the children*. They live — they lireathe-^Tbey smile 
with so much grace and so much reality, that it is impos* 
sible to. refrain from smiling and partaking of their enjoy- 
ment* My. heart, is ready to break with grief when I think 
. on the unhappy fate of poor Corregio— that so wonderful a 
man (if be ought not .rather to be called an angel) should 
^nish bis days so miserably in a country where his talents 
were nevi^r known P 

. From want of curiosity or of resolution, or from want of 
patroiifige, Corregio never visited Romie, but remained bis 
. whole tife at Parma, where the art of painting was little 
esteemed, and of consequence poorly rewarded. This con- 
' fUrFence,of unfavourable circumstances occasioned at last 
« bis premature deaith, at thOcage of forty.' He wa^ emplov- 
i ed to paint the cupola of the cathedral at. Parma, the suo- 
ject of which is an '^Assumption of the Virgin;'* and 
having-exicuted it ,io a manner that has long been.the 
admiration of ^Very person of good taste, for the grandeur 
of design, and especially fwr.the boldness of the. fore-short- 
enings (an art, which he first and at once brought tq the 
utnK>st perfection}^ ha went to receive his payment The 
canons of the churchy either through ignorance or base- 
nesj^3 found fault wi^h his work; and although the price 
originally agreed upon bad been. very moderate, they al- 
.: lodged that it was far above the merit of the artis,t, and 
forced him lo accept of the paltry sum of 200 livres ; 
which, to add to the indignity, they paid him in copper 
' in^ney. To carry home this unworthy load to his indigent 
. wife and children, poor Corregio had to, travel six or eight 
miles from Parma. The weight of bis burden^ the heat of 
\ the weather, and his chagrin at this treatment, threw him 
into a pleurisy, which in three days put an end to his life 
and his misfortunes in 1534. 

For the preservation of this magni&cent work the world 
is indebted to Titian. As he passed through Parma in the 
suite of Charles V. he ran instantly to see the cbef-d^Gsuvre 
of Corregio. While he was attentively viewing it, one of 

278 C O R R E G 1 O. • 

the principal canons of the church told hitn that such d 
grotesque performance did not merit bis notice, and that 
they intended soon to have the whole defaced. '* Have a 
care of what you do,'* replied the other : " if I were not 
Titian, I would certainly wish to be Corregio." 

Corregio*s exclamation upon viewing a picture by Ra« 
phael is well known. Having long been accustomed to 
hear the most unbounded applause bestowed on the work^ 
of that divine painter, he by degrees became less desirous 
than afraid of seeing any of them. One, however, he at 
last had occasion to see. He examined it attentively for 
some minutes in profound silence ; and then with an air 
of satisfaction exclaimed, ^^ 1 too am a painter.'' Julio 
Romano, on seeing some of Conregio^s pictures at Parma, 
declared they were superior to any thing in painting he had 
yet beheld. One of these no doubt would be the famous 
Virgin and Child, with Mary Magdalene and St. Jerom. 

Dufresnoy says of this artist, that he ^* struck out cer- 
tain natural and unaffected graces for his Madonnas, his 
saints, and little children, which were peculiar to himself. 
His manner, design, and execution, are all very great, but 
yet without correctness. He had a most free and delight-' 
ful pencil; and it is to be acknowledged, that he painted 
with a strength, relief, sweetness, and vivacity of colour- 
ing, which nothing ever exceeded. He understood how 
to distribute his lights in such a manner, as was wholly pe- 
culiar to himself, which gave a great force and great 
roundness to his figures. This manner consists in extend- 
ing a large light, and then making it lose itself insensibly 
in the dark shadowings, which he placed out of the masses : 
and those give them this relief, without our being able to 
perceive from whence proceeds so much effect, and so 
vast a pleasure to the sight. It appears th&t in this part 
the rest of the Lombard scliool copied him. He had no 
great choice of graceful attitudes, or distribution of beau- 
tiful groupes. His design often appears lame, and bis' 
positions not well chosen : the look of his figures is often 
unpleasing; but his manner of designing heads, hands, 
feet, and other parts, is very great, and well deserves our 
imitation. In the conduct and finishing of a picture he 
has done wonders ; for he painted with so much union, that 
bis greatest works seem to have been finished in the com- 
pass»of one day^ and^ appear as if we saw them in a look* 

C O R R E 6 i O, «T* 

ijfig^l^^'' His landscape U ^ually beautiful witb hi# 

^* Ti^ ^jccellepcy of Corregip's wanner," says sir Josbuj^ 
Reynolds^ ^' has justly been admired by all succeeding 
painters. TUi^ manner is in direct opposition to wbat 19 
called ti^e dry and hard manner which preceded him. His 
coLour, and his mode of finisbingi apprpfich nearer to per^ 
&ction than tbose of aiiy other painter ; the gliding mo* 
tion of his outline, and the ^wisetness with which it melts 
into the ground; the cleanness and transparency of his 
pdiourifig, which stop at that exact medium in y^hich the 
parity and perfection of taste lies, leave nothing to be 
wished for." 

Mr. Fuseli's opinion of Corregio may with great pro* 
priety close these criticisms. — ^' Another charm," says the 
professor, ^^ was yet wanting to complete the round of art— * 
harmony. It appeared with Antonio L^jeti, called Corregio^ 
whose works it attended like an enchanted spirit. The 
harmony and the grace of Corregio are proverbial : th« 
medium which by breadth of gradation pnites two opposite 
principles, the coalition of light and darkness, by imper- 
f^eptible transition, are the element of his style. This in*' 
spires his figures with grace, to this their grace is subordi'^ 
jQ^e:. the most appropriate, the most elegant attitudes 
were adopted, rejected, peiiiaps sacrificed to the most 
aukward ones, in compliance with this imperious principle : 
parts vanished, were absprbed, or femerg^d in obedience 
to it. This unison of a whole, predominates over all that 
reoaains of him, froiii the vastness of his cupolas to the 
snoaile^t of his oil- pictures. The harmony of Corregio, 
though assisted by exquisite hues, was entirely indepen- 
dent of colour : his great organ was chiaroscuro in its most 
extensive sense : compared with the expanse in which he 
iloats, the effects of Lionarda da Vinci are little more than 
the dying ray of evening, and the concentrated flash of 
.Giorgione discordant abruptness. The bland central light 
of a globe, imperceptibly gliding through lucid demitints 
int<> rich reflected shades, composes the speil of Corregio, 
^nd affects us' with the soft emotions of a delicious dream." 

Of Corregio's best oil-pictures, Italy has been deprived 
by purchase or by spoil. Dresden possesses the qelebrated 
** Night," or rather " Dawn ;" the " Magdalen reading;" 
and a few more of less excellence, or less authentic cha* 

280 C O R R E G I O. 

raeter. The two allegoric pictures, called *^ Leda and 
Danae/' once in the possession of queen Christina, mi- 
grated to France, and with the picture of lo, were mangled 
or destroyed by bigotr}\ A duplicate of the lo, and a 
*^ Rape of Ganymede'* are at Vienna* Spain possesses 
" Christ praying in the Garden," and " Mercury teaching 
Cupid to read in the presence of Venus." To the " Spo- 
salizio of St Catharine," which France possessed before, 
the spoils of the revolution have added the *^ St. Jerome 
with the Magdalen," the '^^ Madonna della Scudella," the 
" Descent from the Cross," and the " Martyrdom of St. 
Placido," from Parma. * 

CORSINI (Edward), a monk of the Ecoles-Pies, and a 
mathematician and antiquary, was bom at Fanano in 1702, 
and died in 1765, at Pisa, where die grand duke had given 
him a chair in philosophy. This science occupied his first 
studies, and his success soon appeared from the ^' Philoso- 
phical and Mathematical Institutions," 1723 and 1724j 6 
irols. 8vo. For the doctrines of Aristotle, which then were 
^nerally adopted in a part of Italy, he substituted a 
species of philosophy at once more usefiil and mor& true. 
JEncouraged'by the favourable reception his work bad met 
with, he published in 1755 a new ^^ Course of Geometrical 
Elements," written with precision and perspicuity. On 
. being appointed professor at Pisa, he revised and retbuched 
his twp performances. The former appeared, with coiis&« 
derabie corrections,, at Bologna in 1742; and the second, 
. augmented with *^ Elements of Practical Geometry," was 
published at Venice in 1748, 2 vols. 8vo. He was Well 
, versed in, hydrostatics and history. After having sedulously 
applied for several years to the classical authors, and par- 
ticularly those of Greece, he proposed to write the ^* Fasti 
of the Archons of Athens," the first volume of which ap« 
.peared in 1.73i^> in 4to, and the fourth and last, ten years 
after, Bei'iig called in 174^ to the chair of moral philo- 
sophy and metaphysics, he composed a <^ Course of Metii« 
physics," which appeared afterwards at Venice in 175^. 
His learned friends Muratori, Gorio, MaflPei, Quirini, PaiH- 
>sionei, now persuaded him to abandon philosophy ; and, 
at their solicitations, he returned to criticism and eru- 
dition, r IB'1747 he published four dissertations in 4to, on 

1 Meni^, as in preceding note.-^VaMri«— Sir Joshua Reynolds's Works.'-*- 
Fuseli'i JLectures. See also bis edition of Pilkington. 

C O R B 1 B L 281 

the sacred gasaesof Gceece^ in which he gave an exact list 
of the athletic victorsi Tiso years aftenrards he hroeght 
oat, in folio, an exceileot work on the abhreviations used 
ill Greek io9criptions> under this title, '^ De^notis Gr&s* 
^orum.'' This accurate and sagacious pefformance was 
followed by several dissertations relative to objects of learn- 
ing. But the high esteem in which he was held by his 
acquaintance on account. of .his virtues and industry, was 
an imerruption to his labours, he being appointed general 
pf his order in 1754 ; yet the leisure left him by the it- 
. 4uous .duties of his station he devoted to bia former studies, 
and when the term of his generalship expired, he hastened 
, back to Pi'i^, td resume the functions of professor. He 
now published several new dissertations, and especially an 
ejcqellent worky ^one of the best ef his performances, eh- 
titled '^ De prafectb urbis/' At length he confined the 
. ^hole of his. application on the ^' History of the University 
of Pisa/' of which be had been appointed historiographer, 
and yvBB about to produce the first volume when a stroke 
of apoplexy carried him off, in spite of all the resources 6f 
the medical art, in December 1765; ^ . 
. CORT (CoANELius), a celebrated engraver, was born at 
Hoorn in Holland in 1536. After having learned the first 
principles of drawing and engraving, he went to Italy lo 
^ complete his studies, aud visited all the places famous for 
the works of the great> masters. At Venice he was cour- 
teously received by Titian; and engraved several plates 
. from the pictures of that admirable painter. He at last 
settled at Rome> where he died, 1578, aged forty -two. 
According to Basan^ he .was the best engraver with the 
burin. or graver only that Holland ever produced. '< We 
find in his prints,'' adds he, ^' correctness of drawing, and 
an exquisite taste." He praises also the taste ahd light- 
ness of touch with which he engraved landscapes, and that 
without the assistance of the point It is no small honbur 
to this artist, thatAgostino CarTacci was his scholar, and 
imitated his style of engraving rath^ than that of any 
pdber master. His. engravings are very numerous (151 ac- 
ceding to abb^ Marolles), and. by no means uttcominon. * 
, CORTE (Gotlieb), professor of l«w at Leip^ic, was 
. borA at Bescow, in Lower Lusatia^ Febt^uary 28, 1698. He 

' 1 Fabroni Vit« luloronij an elaborate article^ with an ample catalo2;tte of 
his works. — ^Dict. Hift. 
« Strmt. 

fiB^ C O R.T E. i 

Vi9^ emnmt iothuk IcBonmgj 9111I assisted i« the Jcfunmltf 
pf I^eJi^Mc-at which fslacehei died April 7, 1781, aiged 
(bmy<-tbree. Corte pnUished an edition of Saliust:^ printed 
at I^ipftic^ 1704^-4^, aritk notes,. whidi is much- esteeteed^ 
^^ Tre« Satyr«& IVfeanipea^/' Leipsic, 1720, 8vo^ and other 
works. ^ . .♦ . ' . . 

CORTES (FfiRDlNyiND), a- Spanish eommafi^ei^, famims 
UJ^ejt the emperor Cbartes V. for tlie conquest of Me^ico^ 
W9S bom at Medellin in E&tremadura^ in 14i5. His pa-^ 
roots inteedied him for study/ but bis dissipated habits cind 
overbeariog teooper made bis fadier nvilling to gratify his 
inclination by sending him abroad asan advekiturer. Ae^ 
cprdingly be passed oirer to thie Indies in 1^04, coiMinoed 
sopoe time at St; Domingo, and then went to the isle of 
Cuba.' He so distinguished himself by his exploits, that 
Velasquez, gorernor of Cuba, made him ca^ptain general 
of th^ army which he destiifed for the discovery of ne# 
countries. Cortes sailed from San-Iago Nov. 18^ 1518^ 
stationed his little army at the Ha.Tannah', and arrived the 
year after at Tabasco in Mexico. He conquered the In-« 
dians, founded Vera-Cruz, reduced the province of Tlas« 
cgia, and madrched directly to Mexico, the capiul of the 
empire. Montezuma, the lemperor of tbe Mexicans, was 
constrained to receive him, and thus became a prisoner in 
bis own capital : and Cortes not only demanded immense 
monies of him, but obliged him to submit all his states to 
Charles V. Meanwhile Velasquez, growing jealous of 
this success, resolved to traverse the operations of Cortes, 
and with this view sent a fleet of 1 2 ships against him t 
but Cortea already distrusted him ; and, having obtained 
new succours from the Spaniards, made himself master of 
all Mexico, and detained as prisoner Guatimosin, the suc- 
cessor of Montezuma, and last emperor of tbe Mexicans:. 
Tbis was aocottiplisbed Aug. 13, 1521. Charles V. re- 
warded these services with the valley of Guaxaca in Mexi- 
co, which Cortes erected into a marqakate* He after-i 
wards returned to Spain, where he was not received with 
the gratitude be expected, and where he died iii 1564, 
aged sixty *three. Many have written the history of this 
** Conquest of Jtfexico," and particularly Antonio de Sdis, 
whose work ha$ been translated into nmny other language^ 
besides the English, and Clavigero ; and in 1 800 a very 

1 Morgri. 

C O R T E S- S8S 

interesting w:ork was published entitled ^^ The true Histoiy 
of the Conquest of Mexico, by captain Bernal Diaz del 
Ca0tello» omi of the conquerors, written in 1568, and trans^ 
lated frcim the original Spanish, by Maurice Keatinge, 
esq.'* 4to. Dr. Robertson, in his history of America, has 
given a long life of Cortes, whicli, we are sorry to add, 
daeg more honour to his pen tbe^n to his judgment or hu- 
manity. It is a laboured defence of cruelties that are 
indefensible, and ia calculated to present to the reader the 
idea of a magnanimous and politic hero, instead of an in- 
satiate invader and usurper more barbarous than those he 
conquered; a murderer, who appears, like his historians 
in modern times, to have been perfectly insensible to the 
trae character of the victories which accompanied bis arms. 
From bis correspondence with the emperor Charles V« 
published at Paris in 1778, by the viscount de Flavigny, it 
appears that this insensibility Was so.great in himself, that 
in his account of his exploits he neither altered facts, nov 
9iodified circnmstancesj to redeem his name from the ex-^ 
ecratioD of succeeding agea. ^^ His accounts of murders^ 
assassinations, and perfidious stratagems, his enumeration 
of the victims that fell in Mexico, to the thirst of gold,. 
covered with the bloody veil of religion, are," says a ju- 
dicious writer, .** minute, accurate, irifemaV To these 
works, and to the general history of Mexico, we refer for 
that evidence by which the merit of Cortes may be more 
justly appreciated than by some of his late biographers. ^ 

CORTESI, orCOURTOIS (Jacob), called IlBorooo- 
KONE^ was a Jesuit, born in Francbe Comte, 1621, who car- 
ried the art of battle-painting to a degree unknown before or 
after him. M. A. Cerquozzi himself did j ustice to his power, 
and dissuading him from the pursuit of other branches of 
painting, fixed him to that in which he could not but per- 
ceive that Cortesi would be his superior rather than his 
rival. The great model on which he formed himself was the 
*^ Battle of Constantine^' in the Vatican. He had been a 
soldier, and neither the silence of Rome, nor the repose 
of the convent, could lay his military ardour. He haa 
personified courage in attack or defence, and it has been: 
said that his pictures sound with the shouts of war, the 
neighing of horses, the cries of the wounded. His manner; 
of painting was rapid, in strokes, and full of colour; hence 

I Works as above. — ^Month. Rer. vol. LX. 

284 C O R T E S I 

its effect is improved by distance. His style was his own, 
though it may have been invigorated by his attention to 
the works of Paolo at Venice, and his intercourse with 
Guido at Bologna. .He died in 1676, leaving a brother 
William Cortesi, like him called Borgognone, who was 
the scholar of Pietro da Cortona, though not his imitator. 
He adhered to Maratta in the choice and variety of bis 
heads, and a certain modesty of composition, but differed 
from him in his style of drapery and colour, which has 
something of Flemish transparence : his brother, whom he 
often assisted, likewise contributed to form his manner. 
A Crucifixion in the chprch of St. Andrea on Monte Ca- 
▼allo, and the Battle of Joshua in the palace of the Qui* 
rinal, by his hand, deserve to be seen. He died in 167i>^ 
aged 51. The brothers are both mentioned by Strutt as 
having etched some pieces. * 

CORTEZ, orCORTEZIO (Gregory), a learned car- 
dinal, was born of a Doble and ancient family at Modena, 
and wvi^ auditor of the causes under Leo X. and afterwards 
entered the Benedictine prder, in which his merit raised 
him to the highest offices. Paul III. created, him cardinal 
in 1 542. He died at Rome in 1548, leaving '^ Epistolar^hi 
familiarium Liber,'' 1575, 4to, and other works, chiefly oti 
sulo^cts of divinity, which are now forgot, but his letters 
contain a considerable portion of literary history and anec- 

CORTEZI (Paul), an Italian prelate, was born in 1465, 
at San Geminiano, in Tuscany. In early life he applied 
himself to the forming of bis style by reading the best 
authors of antiquity, and particularly Cicero. He wa$ not 
above twenty «three when he published a dialogue on the 
leaimed men of Italy, " De hominibus doctis." - This prp- 
dnction, elegantly composed, and useful to the history of 
:tbe literature of his time, remained in obscurity till 173^4, 
when it was given to the public by Manni, from.a.cogy 
found by Alexander Politi, Florence, 4to, with notes, and 
the life of the author. Angelo Politianus, to whom he 
communicated it, wrote to him, that ^^ the work, though 
superior to his age, was not a prematurefruit." There is 
still extant by this writer a conunentary on the four books 
of iSpbntences, 1540, folio, in good Latin, but frequen;1y in 

' Pilkington.— D^Argenville, toI. IV.— Burjcs's Lives, in art. GouftoiS;«-> 
Strutt* 3 Moreri.— 'Dupin. 

C O R T E Z L 235 

'such fi^iliar. terms as to throw a ludicrous air over the 
lofty mysteries of the papal church, which was not a little 
the fashion of bis time. He also wrote a tract on the dig- 
nity of the cardinals^ ^'De Cardinalatu ;^' full of erudition, 
variety, and elegance, according to. the testimony of some 
Italian authors, and destitute of all those qualities, accord- 
ing to that of Du Pin. P. Cortezi died bishop of Urbino 
in 1510, in the 45th year of his age. His house, furnish* 
ed with a copious library, was the asylum of the muses, 
and of all that cultivated their favour. ^ 
CORYATE (George), a Latin poet of some note in 
his day, was born in the parish of St. Thomas, in Salisbury* 
He received his educatbn at Winchester-school, and in 

'the year 1562 was admitted perpetual fellow of New col- 
lege, Oxford. In the year, 1566, on queen Elizabeth^s 
visiting the university, he, together with W. Reynolds, 
bachelor of ai'ts, received her majesty and her train at New 
college ; on which occasion he pronounced an oration, for 
which he received great praises and a handsome purse 9f 
gold. He afterwards took his degree in arts, and, in .Tune 
1 570, became rector of Odcombe on the death of Thomas 
Reade, and some time after, bachelor of divinity. In the 
year 1 594, he was appointed prebendary of Warthill, in 
the cathedral church of York, and also held some other 
dignity, but what we are not informed. He died^ at the 
parsonage*house at Odcombe, on .the 4th of March, lf)06. 
It Is asserted that his son, the celebrated traveller, agree- 
ably to his whimsipal character, entertained a design of 
preserving his body from stench and putrefaction, and with 
that view caused it to be kept above ground until the 14th 
of April following, when it was buried in the chancel of 
the church of Odfcombe. George Coryate was much com- 
mended in his time for his fine fancy in Latin poetry ; and 
for certain pieces which he had written was honourably 

? noted by several e,minent writers. The only pieces Mr. 
^ood had seen of his composition were, 1 . ^^ Poemata 
varia Latina,'* London, 1611, 4t6, published by his son 
after his death, and by him entitled *^ Posthuma fragmenta 
Poematum Geoi^i Covyate.'* 2. ** Descriptio Anglise, 

1 Dupin. — Moreri.<i— lUfcoe'i Leo.— Ginguene Hist. Litt d'lta1ie.*^Gres- 
welPs PolUiaiias. 

2SB 6 O ft Y A T E. 

Scotis, et Ribethiie^'Nvritte^n in LatiAt^se^ ftftddedieftted 
to queen Eiiial^th, but it does not fippear thM this piece 
was ever printed. In 1763, James LumleyKingstony esq. 
of Dorchester, published, from a MSw found amongst the 
))apers -belonging t^ a considerable family in one of the 
western counties, a Latin poem, which appears tb have 
been written in the reign of queen Elizabeth, entitled 
** Descriptio AngliaB et Descriptio Londini/' being tw<> 
poems in Latin verse, supposed to be written in the 
fifteenth century. This pamphlet Mr. Oough thinks' may 
be part of the poem noticed by Mr. Wood. The mention 
of only fifteen colleges at Oxford, fixes the date of the 
verges before the year 1371. Mr. Coryate's wife5 Gertrude, 
outlived her husband and son many years,- and resided at 
Odcombe or near it until her death. Dr. Humphry Hody, 
a native of that place, informed Mr. Wood, that shei was 
buried near the remains of her husband on the 3d of Aprils 
1645. It appears that after her husband*s deatib Ishe tnar« 
ried a second time. * 

CORYATE (Thomas), the eccentric son df (he pre* 
ceding, was born at Odcombe, itt 1477. > He wad first edu«^ 
cated at Westminster-school j and became a oomitioner of 
Gloucester-hall, Oxford, in 15^6 ; where continuing about 
three years, he attained, by mere dint of memory^ somie 
skill in logic, and more in the Greek and Latin languages. 
After he had been taken home for a time, he went to Lon-^ 
don, and was received into the family of Heni'y prince of 
Wales^ either as a domestic, or, according to some^ as a 
fool, an office which in former days was filled by a person 
iiir^d for the purpose. In this situation h« was expoiied to 
ihe wits of the court, who, finding in him a strange mix* 
ture of sense and folly, made him thei^ whetstone ; and so^ 
says Wood, he became too much known to all the world. 
In 1608, he took a journey to France, Italy, Germany, &c. 
which lasted five months, during wMcb be had tmvelled 
1975 miles, mote than half upon one pair of $h06S> which 
were once only mended, and on his return were hang up 
in the church of Odcombe. He pubtifched his trav^s under 
this title ; ^^ Crudities hastily gobbled up in five ilionthi 
travels in France, Savoy, Italy^ Rhetia^ Helvetia^ some 
parts of High Germany, and the Netheriands^ 1611,** 4tOy 
reprinted in 1776, 3 vols. 8vo. This work was ush^ed 


> AUi. Ox, vol, I.—- Bio(. Brit.— 4i}oii|ph's Topography, yol. I. 

G O R T A T B. 687 

iolo tbe world bj an Odcombian baiique^ coDststihg- bf 
Bear 60. copies of verses, made by. the best .p^etsi of that 
timey whicli, if -tbey did not make Coryate pass witb tbe 
world for. a man of great parts and learning, contributed 
not a little^to tbe sale of his book ^.. Among these poetA 
were Ben Jonson, sitf John Harrington^. Inigo Jones the 
architect, Chapman, Donne, Drayton^ &c. In the samd 
year he pubitsfaed. <' Coryate's Cratnbe, or. his Colwort 
twice sodden, and now. served in with other Macarosiie 
dishes, as the second coarset of his Crudities," 4to. In 
1612^ after he had taken leave of his countrymen, by an 
oration spoken at the cross in Odcombe, he took a long 
^nd large journey, with intention not to return till he had 
spent ten years in travelling. The first place he wetit to 
was Constantinaple, where he made his usual desultory 
observations ; and took from thence opportunities of view<4 
ing divers, parts of Greece. In the .Hellespont, he- took 
ttotice o£ the tiro eastles Sestos sand Abydes, which Mu*' 
ssBUs has made famous in his poem of Hero and Leaildeo. 
He sdw Sm3nrna^ ftom whence he found a passage to Alex- 
andria in Egypt; and there he observed the pyramida neai? 
Grand Cai^o. From thence he went to Jerusalem ; and S9 
on to the Dead. Sea, to Aleppo in Syrian to Babylon ih* 
Chaldea, to the kingdom of Persia, and to Ispahan, wheref 

. • •••':...••,' 

* These verses were reprinted in exceed that price whereat men in these, 
the saOhe veaf (161 1), detached frbni Witty dAyes Value such fittiff6 h% thAt ; 
Ike OMi^Kies, l^ith this title: <KTIie ktid, ^atil^v for thfet ose . 

namber -«f N<iUe WU>; in praise of . • 1?'"!It'". • .L •- >; 

portans My&teria ;''> and witb a prose V Haviiig read the. booke witbi an, 

Adveitiseme'nt at th^ Vi6^cla$loD, of Ihtfetit ko 6pftoi&i2e it, <i6utd he but 

♦faiiih the felfel«KiDt ii A triitaMri|^t).tnd hUTemetted Ottt bf Uie «rhbie Hiflftjie mi 

may s^e ts; « ^leoiaiei^ ef <Cor|ete'» much matter woirthy the rfadhig- as^ 

style : would have filled foure pages : out, 

" KoVeHfit'oeive^f, Ice. - - - iibdin^ his labour h)ft| end his hbpe 

'< Kq0w, gentle Reader* 'that the therein f alien: shof^ is resolved lo do'i 

booke> in prayse whereof all. these, lier it till the author of the "Crudities*' 

l^rec^ding verses Were Wlritt^n, ' is pur- haV6 flili^ell his ^tfcond tiraveis \ which; 

pmely ^iiitted fef thine and thy put^s beix% int^e^ Idc % place Atfre adtei 

|^ood$ partly iiv the' Matoess of the ^ ^e^ote, is liHely to psoduce a. hookey 

volume, containing 654 pages, each of a ^arre greater bulk : bp^h whicl^ 

]^^ ^ 1iue8> ea<^ litie 48 Mttet-s^ feeing drawee itito en e^ac^ ebmpend, 

besidei papeg jneksi. poems; epi>tlet« |if Munstet, Bareniiist U^ ^agde*^ 

prefaces, letters^ orations, fragments,, burgiatis, and other famous chronoio-^ 

po^thomes, ^ilh' th6 coitinlast colotis; g6tfe, hav'e b^evfe, may, perhaps, af- 

iidl -pAtols, and ofliler tjhttfgi faiteUMe ford eomething either .#ociby thy iMtdy 

appertaiaiog ; wMch being printed of ing, or supply thy need in such oases 

a character legible without spectacles of extremitle, as" nature aud custome 

vottM hare taused the booke much to elttiitaei iiMforce men n«to» V^kis.*^ \ 

588 G O R Y A T £• 

the king usually resided ; to Seras, anciently called Sbut^ 
sban; to Candabor, the first province north-e^st under 
the subjection of the great mo^ul, and so to Lahore, the 
chief city but one belonging to that empire. . From La<^ 
hore he went to Agra ; where, being well received by the 
English factory, he made a halt He staid here. till her 
bad^ learned the Turkish and . Morisco^ or Arabian . laa*^ 
guages, in which study he was always very. apt, and^^onia 
knowledge in the Persian and Indostan tongues, all whicH. 
were of great use to him in travelling up and down tbe^ 
great moguPs dominions. In the Pendan.. tongue he after- 
wards made an oration to the great mogul ; and in the Iq-^. 
dostan.. he had so great a command, that we are gravely 
told he actually silenced a laundry-woman, belonging to- 
thcfoiglish ambassador in that country,, who .used to-sccdd^ 
all the day long. After he bad visited aeveral places iii* 
tlukt part of the world, he went to Surat in East-India^, 
where he was seized with a diarrhoea, of which be died -m. 

. This strange man, it is evident,Hbad an insatiable desire; 
tot view distant and unknown parts of ^e worlds wjbieh lias> 
never been reckoned a symptom of folly : nor indeed w.oukt 
Coryate have been so. much despised if he bad not xl^-^ 
luckily fallen into the hands.of wits^ who, by way of divert-^. 
ing^ themselves, imposed on his weakness and extreme; 
vauity^ and nothing vexed him more than to. have this vanity, 
checked. Thus when 090 Steel, a merchant, and servant;, 
to the Eaat-India company, came to sir Thomas I(oe» .the; 
English ambassador at Mandoa, where the nfogui then, 
resided, he told Coryate, that be bad been in Englapd 
siQce be saw him, attd^hat king James had inquired abQut 
bim; and that upon telling . his majesty, that be had naet^ 
bim in his travels, the king replied|, ** Is that fool living ?** : 
Our traveller was equally hurt at another time^ .wben,^.pon 
his departure from Mandoa, sir Thomas Roe- gav^him a 
letter, and in that a bill to receive lOl* at ^Aleppo.. Tb0 
letter w[a8 directed to Mr. Chi^pman, consul there ^It tbi^ 
time; and the passage which concerned Coryate, w^ thi^ :'. 
*' Mr. Chapman, when you shall baud these Jettem^, I destr^ : 
you to receive the bearer of them, Mr. Tbpmas Croryate^: - 
with cour.tesie, for. you sbaU find bim a vpry bonest poqr. . 
wretchi'V^?- This expression troubled Coryate. extieiiielj».w^ 
and therefore it was altered to his mind. He was very 
jealous of bis reputa;cion'itbr9ad; for b:e gavel out, that 


Aem were gfeat expectances in England of dm large ac^ 
counts he should giye of bis travels after his return bpine. , 
- What b^atne of the notes and observations he made i^ 
b|$iot)g peregrinations, is unknown. The following only, 
which he sent to his friends in England, were printed in^; 
hit absence :!.''' Letters from Asmere, the court of the 
great mogul, to several persons of quality in England, con- 
cerning the emperor and his country of East*India,'' 1616,' 
'ito, *in the title of which is our author's picture, riding 
an an elephant. 2. '* A Letter to his mother Gertrude, 
dated from Agra in East India, containing the speech that 
he spoken the great mogul in the Persian language.** 
3w « Certain Observations from the moguPs court and East 
India.*' 4. '' Travels to, and observations in, Constantinople 
and other places in the way thither, and in his journey tbenc<*t 
•to Aleppo, Damascus, and Jerusalem." 5. ** His oration, 
JPurus, Putus Cory^tus; quintessence of Cory ate; spoken 
extempore, when Mr. Rugg dubbed him a knight on the 
ruins of Troy, by the name of Thomas Coryate the first 
lEngtisfa knight of Troy.** 6, << Observations of Constan- 
tinople abridged." All these are to be found in the <' PU-f 
grimages" of Sam Porchas. 7. <^ Diverse Latin and Greek 
epistles to learned men beyond die seaa ;" some of whicb 
are in bis ** Crudities."— *Among bis perseeotors was Tay- 
lor tbe Water-poet, vrho -frequently endtavoiirs to raise il 
laiigb at bis expence. To Coryate*a works may bemadded 
a copy of verses, in tbe -Somersetshire dialect, printed in 
G^dott^s ^^ G^rfleetion of Treatises on- the Satb Watert,'* - 

170*, «V»;» 

GOSIN (JoSK),an Engl^sb prelifte, was the son of Giles 
Ooain, a ricbeilieen of Norwich^ aild bora in- that city '^ 
Nov^ 30,*id94w He<.wasreducat€^ in the fr£e->scbo6l there, - 
till 14 years of age; and then, reiiioted tjo Cains college iii - 
Ca!iiy»ndge> of ^bieh he was siieee$sively scholiir-and- fci^* ^ 
IfiiWi Being at lengtb^dtstioguished (ot- bis nigetnikjrand ^ 
lentiUng, be bad» in I-SIC^ an offer of a librarian Vplac^ 
£som^ (>v9m\\ bisbop-of LicWield and ^oi^eoiry^- atfd*^ An^ '^ 
dnawft bithup of Ely, ussd <«iecepted* the nrnditioir-df ^At- 
i^rmet^ who dyii^tn i&t9^ be>b«eaiiiie domestic ebaplaiH * 
to Neil biibop^of Dartiami H# w«s «ad6 %• pt^^eifdary 6f T 
Dwvfa|t^4a lSg4(|< amd the y^air-f<dl<lwkigf eoilated-to the ' 
a<e ^eati 4 n ry ;^eft <!& Wt^ tridiaf' In 4be ^sbttrcbn^f iWk,^ ' 

V9L.X. U 

' \ 

ltH> C O S I N. 

vacant by tlie resignation'of Marmadake Blakestone, wlioae 
daughter he had mamed that year. July 1626, Neil pre- 
sented him to the rich rectory rtt' Branspetb, in the diocese 
of Dorham ; the •parochial church of which he beautified ifti 
ah e)(traordmarjr dianner.' About that* timei halting fre-* 
qiifent tneetirtg^'^t the bishop of Durhara's h'oUse in Lon- 
don, wTth Uaiid artd tyther divines of- that party, he began 
to be obnoxious to the puritans, Who suspected him to be 
popisbiy affect^jd'; grounding their suspicion on his ** Gul- 
iectioii of Private Dfevotiofvs," published in 1627. This 
cdllectiorf, &6<*ording to bne*of his biographers> was dra\^n 
upattliecomtnand of* Charles I. for the uire of'^those pro- 
testants whbatterided upon the queen ; and, by way of 
j^reserving'tbeih. from the taint of certain popish books of 
devotion, snppoyed to* be thrown, on purpose, slbout the 
royal apartments. Cdiierj however, says-thats it was writ> 
ten at, the request of the countes^of Denbigh, the duke of 
Buckingham's sisterJ This lady being then somewhat ^n«t 
settled in her religion, aiiU ineliniflg towards^popery, these 
devotions were drawn up to recommend the Church of 
England fairther to her esteem, and preserve her in that 
<^ommurlton. This book, though- furntshed with- a great 
deal of' good tnatter, was not altogether acceptable in th^ 
cOjitexture ; although the title*page sets forth, that tt was 
fermfed upon the model, of a book of private Prayers, an* 
thorized by queen Elizabeth, in 1560. The top oif the 
firoutispiece liad the name of Jesus in thre^ capital letters, 
I. H. 8. Upon these there was a cross^ encircled with the 
sun supported by two angels, with two devbttt- women 
praying towards it. Burton, Prynne, and other celebrated 
puritans^ attacked it very severely ) and there is no doubt 
but it greatly contribnted to draw upon him all that perse« 
cutioii which his afterwards underwent 

Aboui^ 1628 be took the degree of D. D. and the same 
year was concerned, with his brethren of the church of 
Durham,, in a proseeution against Peter Smact, a preben* 
dary there, for a sieditious sermon preached in that cathe* 
dral, upon Psalm xxti* 7. ^* I hate them that bold ofsu*- 
perstitious vanities*'^ Smart was' degraded, and dispos- 
i^^di^f his f>referaients ; "but, as we shall peroeiv^, aiter-^ 
Viircls amply revenged of: Cosinfor his share in ehe proses 
9iition..' Ill 1634 COsin \!m» etected master of. Petorboose 
in Cambridge; and in 1640 made dean 9f Peterborough 
by /}barles f. whose chapTatn he thea was;' but on Nov, 19, 

C O S 1 N* -29:1 

tliree days aft^ his^nsttHatibiitfito tbatdeanrj^ a petition 
from Peter'Sttiart agaitist fatm was read in tiie hoii9e;of 
txMniAons ; wherein etMnpIttint^ was made of his strperstitton, 
innofations^ in the church-' of Durham, and severe prose*' 
cQtion of himself • in the . high-commbsion^-court. Th» 
ended in his beings; Jani 22, 1642, sequestered by a vote 
of the whole house from his ecclesiastical benefices > and 
be is remarkable for having been the first clergyman in 
those times who was treated in that manner. March 15th 
ensuing, the commons sent twenty«-one articles of impeach- 
ment against him to th^ house of lords, tending to prove 
him popisfaly affected ; and about the same- time he was 
put under restraint, upon a surmise that he had endced a 
young scholar to popery : of all which charges he fully 
cleared himself, and was indeed aeqmtted ; bat in those 
days of tyrannical oppression, this availed, him little, nor 
was any recompense made him for' his expenoes. in h642, 
being" concern^ with others in sending the plate. of the* 
university of Cambridge'tothe k)hg, who was then at York, 
lie was ejected from his mastership of Peter-house ; so that^ 
as be was the first who was sequestered from his ecclesias- 
tical benefices, he was also the fiist that was displaced in 
the nnivevsity. I'hus deprivedof all his preferments, and 
not withoc^ fearo of something worse, he resolved to leave 
the kingdom, and retire to Paris ; which accordingly be 
did in 1543. 

Here, by the king's order, he officiated as chaplain to 
such of the queen's household as were protestanti; and 
with them, and other exiles daily resorting thither, he 
formed a congregation, which was held first in a private 
house, and afterwards at the English ambaasador's chapel. 
Not long after, he had lodgings assigned him in the Louvre, 
with a small pension, on account of his relation to queen 
Henrietta. During his residence in this place, he conti- 
nlied firm in the protestaut religion ; reclaimed some who 
had gone over to popery, and confirmed. others who were 
wavering about going; had disputes and. controversies with 
Jesuins and fiomish priests, and about the same time em« 
ployed himself in writing several learned pieces against 
tbem* One accident befel him abroad, which he often 
spoke of as the most, sensible affliction in his whole life; 
and that:wias, his only son's turning papist . This son was 
odiiGated^ingramanur leamisg in a Jesuit's school, as were 
mauty iotiiecs^iof: oar.ytcmihs. duriogvthe civil war ;> and oc« 


casion wais. thence taken of iiivtfgliii'g him into papety. 
He tras prevailed upon, net only to embrace popery, but 
9lfa4ie take religious orders in the cbnrch of Roflac<: and 
though his father uined' all the ^ays imagtnaUe, and even 
the authority of the Freneh king, which by interest he had 
procured, to regain him out of their power, and fron theic 
persuasion, yet aH proved ineffactoat.' Upon this be dis-* 
inherited him, 'altowii^>him only^n annnity of 100/. He 

Eretehded indeed to tnrn protestant again^ but relapsed 
efore his iather*s deceaae. - 

At the teston^ion of' Charles H. Cosintetttmed to Eog« 
land, and took possession of aH his pt^ferments, and be« 
fore the year was out, was raised :tO- the see of ''Dnrbaou 
As soon as he could get down to his diocese, he set about 
reforming abuses there dtiring the late ana^hyfiaiid.dis* 
tinguished himself by his charity and public spirit. :He 
laid out a great share of his large revenues in^repaktng; or 
rebufidiog die several edifices- belonging to the bishopoc 
of Duriiam, which had either been demoUshed, or negv 
lected, during the civil wars. He repaired the cai^e ai: 
.Bisfaop^s AukTand, the chief country-seat of the bishops of 
Durham ; that at Durham, which he gready enlarged.; 
and the bishop's house at Darlington;' dien very ruinous. 
He also enriched bis- new chapel et Aukland, and diat at: 
Durham, witir several pieces of gilt plate, books^; and 
odier costly ornaments ; the charge of all which buildingsy 
repahrs, aii^ ornaments, amounted, according to Dr. Smith, 
to hear 1 6,000/. but,^ as others say, to no less than '^Q&oi. 
He likewise huilt and endowed two hospitals ; tbe one at 
Durham for eight poor people, the othm* at Aiddand.fiir 
four; The annual revenue of the former vra» 702.' that of 
the latter 30/.; and near his bospitlil at DuTham, he re- 
built the schooUfaouses, which cost about 300/» He aIsq 
built a library near the castle of Durham, the charge 
whereof, with the pictures with which he adorned it, 
amounted to S00/» and gave books thereto to the Talue Of 
206oL as also an annual pension of 20 marks foir. ever to:a 
librarian. But his generosity in this way waa not confined 
within the precincts of his diocese. He rebuilt the as^t 
end of the chapel at Peter-house in Cambridge, whkih 
cost 320/L and gave books to the library of that college to 
the value of 1000/. He founded eight soholarships hi tJse 
same university: namely, five in Peser*hottsev dS 102».a 
year each -, and three in Caius cdl^e, dL2a/n<Mea apiece 
per^ annum : both which, together laith a provision of 8/. 


do S I-Nt 3ftS 

yearly, to the coflnmon cbest of thos^ tir<v eoUeges respec- 
tively, ainouniedta25bo/. . Wkhoutin^tioiiing tl)e whole 
of his "benefactions^ we shall only- notice fiurther that Ihe 
gave, in oroaments to the cathedral at. Dorham, 45/^; 
tipOmthenew bttilding of the bishopV coort, eicchequery 
and chancery 9 and towards erecting two sessions houses ia 
Diirbam, 1000/.; to^vards the redemption of Christian cap«^ 
fives at Algiers, 5004; towards the relief of the- distressed 
Ic^al party it) England, 800/.; for repairing the banks in 
Howdenshire, 100 maiiu; towarda repairing St JPaul's ca* 
tliedraMh London, 50& ' Inni-iviord, this generous bishop^ 
daring the eleyen years he sat* in the see of Durham, is 
said to have sp^nt above 9000/. yearly in pious and charita^ 

He died, Jan. 15, 1672,. of > pectoral dropsy, in his 
79th year, after having been tnnch afflicted with the jitone 
for some tiole before ;. and his body was conveyed from his 
house in Westminster to Bisbpp-a Aukland, where it was 
buried in the cliapet belonging to the palace, under a tomb . 
of black marble, with a plain inscription prepared by the 
bishop 'in his life-^time. Besidea the son already men* 
tioned, he had four daughters. By his will he bequeathed 
considerable siims of money to charitable purposes : to be 
distributed among the poor in several places, a sum 
amounting to near 400/.; towards rebuilding St. Paulas 
eadiedraly when it should be raised five yards from the / 

ground, 100/.; to the cathedral at Norwich, whereof the 
one h^ to be bestowed on a marble tablet, with an in- 
scription in memory of Dr. John Overall, some time bishop 
there, whose chaplain he had been, the rest for providing 
some useful ornaments for the altar, 40/^; towards repair- 
ing the south and north side of Peter-house chapel in Cam* 
bridge, suitable to the east and west sides, already by 
him perfected, 200/. ; towards the new building of a chapel 
at Emanuel college in Cambridge,. 50/.; to the children of ^ 

Mr. John Hayward, late prebendary of Lichfield, as a 
testimony of his gratitude to their deceased father, who in 
JRs younger years placed him with his uncle bishop Over- 
all, 20/. each ; to some of bis domestic servant 100 marks, 
to some 50/. and to the rest half a year's wages, over and 
vabove their last quarter's pay* In his will also, he made 
a large and open declaration of his faith, and was particu- 
larly explicit and emphatical in vindicating himself from 
the imputation of popery : '< I do profess," says he, ^^ with 

t94f CO SIN. 

holy observation, and from *iny very heart, that I am now^ 
and ever have be^n from my youth, i&ltogether free and 
averse from the corruptions, and impertinent, new^faogled^ 
or papisiioal superstitions and doctrines, long since intro- 
duced, contrary to the holy scripture, and the rules and 
customs of the ancient fathers.^* In the third volume of 
the . Clarendon State Papers, lately published, we hnd a 
letter, written, in 1658, to the lord chancellor Hyde, by 
Dr. Cosin, which affords a. farther proof that, notwithstand- 
ing his superstition and his fondness for the pomp, of ex« 
liieroal worship, be was steadily attached to the pro^staiit 
religion, in this letter, speaking .of the qiij^n dowager 
Henrietta and lord.Jermyn, he says, " Tliey hold it for a 
mortal sin to give one penny towards the mainteqaiDce of 
sUch heretics .'as Dr.. Cosin is," The accusattpn'of 'popery* 
however, answered the purposes of his persfic^H/ora, aiid 
his minute attention to the decorations and repairs .of 
churches and cathedrals afforded some ground of suspicioii 
^ven with those of more honest and candid tninci^. 

Dr. Cosin wrote a great number of bopks^ from, all which 
he has sufficiently confute the calumny of his being a 
papist, or popishly affected. Besides his < '^ Collection of 
Private Devotions," mentioned above, he published " A 
Scbolastical History of the Canon of the Holy Scripture; or, 
the cfertatn and indubitable books thereof, ai^ they are re-- 
ceived in the .Church of England," London, 1657, 4t6, 
reprinted in 1672. This history, which is still in esteem, 
i^deduced from the time of the Jewish church, to the year 
1546, that is, the time when the council of Trent cor* 
rupted, and made unwarrantable additions to, the anciei>t 
Canon of the Holy Scriptures, and was written by the au- 
thor during his exile at Paris. He dedicated it to Dr. M« 
Wren, bishop of Ely, then a prisoner in the Tower. Dr. 
P. Gunning had the care of the edition. — Since the bishop's 
decease the following books and tracts of his have been 
published : 1. ^^ A Letter to Dr. Collins, concerning the 
Sabbath/' dated from Peterbouse, Jan. 24, 1635, printed 
in the ^^ Bibliotheca Literaria," 1723, 4to; in which he 
proves, that the keeping of our Sunday is immutable, as 
being grounded upon divine instiuition and apostolical tra- 
dition, which he confirms by several instances. 2. ^' A 
Letter from our author to Mr. Cordel, dated Paris, Feb. 7, 
1650," printed at the end of a pamphfbt entitled ^'The 
Judgment of the Church of England, in the case of Lay- 

) C S ^ N. ^Pf 

baptism^ and'^of Disscuters l^apM^/' a;3ecaB^ edition qyf 
tvhich waa ..published in 171%, Syo. .3^ ^^ ^egni Anglise 
Religio Catbolica, prisca,. cast^^ .de.foeicata ; ^ ppnibji^ 
Cbri&tianis mpnfrcfiis, grincipibus^.. ocfliuibus, ostensa 
i^ono MDClf^JL*' i, e. A »bort scbeme ot.thi;. ^nci^nt^ aqj 

?ttre docirioe and discipline o^^. the Cb^l^^pf . I^iglajig 
Written at tbe request of sir Edward J^yde^a^^erwardseai^ 
of ClareadoOy and prioted at tbe en^ of Saiitb's Lif^ of 
bishop C^sin. 4. " The Histpry of pQpi*h^Tra.usub$taij^y 
tiation/' &.c, .written in Latin by the autbpr at Paris^ /toy 
the use of aoixie of his couxitrymeu, wh^ were frequent Fy 
attacked upon that poin^ by the papists.,. ]|: was publislif^d 
by Dr. Durrell^ at London, 1675, 8vo, and tmnslated iuto 
English in 1676, by Luke de Beaulieu, 8v,o. . There is.^^ 
secoud partiStill io manuscript.. 5. ^' The differences i4> th^ 
chief points of religion be(W(sen the, Catbolics 'dxy^ 
us of the Chyrch of England ^ tpgether with . the agree- 
nientfi.w^ich we^ for purp^irts;, profe^s^ and arie ready tq 
embracei vjfii they, for thjei:^'s,,.we,i,e. as ready tpaccpcd wltjU. 
|ia in t^e;S^iAe. Writteu to,tpe countess of Peterborough/^ 
prioted a£,thQ end of , bishop Bull's ^^ Corrjupti^ns of t|i^ 
Church qf. Ilomer'' ^t "No.tps on tbe ]p^o^ pf CongimDj^l 
Prayer." jPublisbed by Dr. William NicholU,.at. the ^^ 
of his Conunent on the Book of. Commou-Prayer, tond^ 
1710, fol..,;j7. /* Account of ,a Conferepce in P^ris, be- 
tween Cyril, archbishop .of Trapezpnd^.^i^d Dr. John Cp.j 
sin >' prioted in the same bpok. 8. " A, Letter froip Dr, 
Cosin to bishop Moreton bis predecessor, giving an ac^ 
count of his studies and eoipioym^nt when a,n exile 
abroad ;" and,^ ^* A MeoaQrial of hisi, against ivha{: .the Ho? 
manists call the Great General Council of Lateral undef 
Innocent IIL in 12 15,'V both published by Des JMaizeau:^ 
in vol. VL of " The Present State of the Republic of Letr 
ters/V 1730* 9. "An Apology of Dr. John Cosin," in 
answer to Fuller's misrepresentations of him in that aur 
thorns Church History, priuted at the end of tbe first part 
of Heylin's " Examen Historicum.'* The fQllpwing piece.s 
were also written by bishop Cosin, but never printed ; 
1. " An Answer to a Popish pamphlet pretending that 
St. Cyprian was a Papist." 2. "An Answer to four queries 
of a Rooian Catholic, about the Protestant Religion.'* 
3. " An Answer to a paper delivered by a Popish biishop 
to the lord Inchiquin. ' 4. "Annates Ecclesiastici," im- 
perfect. 5. " An Answer to Father Robinson's Papers 
congerning the validity of the Ordinations of the Chur9h 

6{ EnglatiA.** 6: f< HistDria Gonciliorani/* imperfect 
7. ^ Against the fenakeiis of cbe Cbarch of Engfaind, and 
their seducers in this time of bet. tryal/* 8. ** Chronolo* 
gia Sacra,^' imperfect* 9* *^ A Treatise concerning tbd 
abuse of auricular cotkfession' in the Church' of Rome." — * 
fiome few bf Dr. CosinV letters are extant among Dn 
Birch's collections in the British Museiim.^ - - -■ 

COSM AS, of Alexandria in Egypt, called foiDOPLEOSTcs 
or iNPicpPLEimtBS, on account of a Toyage which he made 
to the Indies, was at firsts merchant^ afterwards a mook^ 
and author, and is supposed to have flourished about the 
year 547. He wrote several things, particularly the 
*^ Christian Topography,- or the opinion of Christmns con» 
eerning the World, in 12 books ; stiM extant, andpublished 
by MoBtfaucon in J 707, in the ^* Nova coHectio Patrum,'! 
vol. II. Cosmiis perfbmied his Toyage in 522, and pub-^ 
Ijsbed his book at Alexandria in 547 : it cooftaiiis some 
Very curious infommtion, but contrary to the sentiments of 
all astronomers, he denies the earth to be sph^ieal, and 
endmivours to prove his opinion from reason, scrtpture, and 
Christian writers, who lived before^ him« As his testimony 
to the authenticity of the scriptures^ ^however, is vteiy con- 
siderable, Lardner has selected many passages from '<^The 
Christian Topography,'' in his "Credibility."* • 

COSME (John be St.), whose family name was Ba* 
SElLCiAC, was a monk of the order of the Feuillans, in Paris, 
and bom in 1703. He. was educated to the practice of 
surgery ; but at his father's death, which happened wheri 
he was young, he retired from the world, and becaoM a 
inonk, yet went on improving himself in the art to which 
he had been bred, and gave his assistance to all who «p» 
plied without any reward. He had bestowed his jmncipal 
attention on lithotomvi and the instrument with which h^ 
performed the operation he called liihotome €achSy a hoUow« 
tube, in which was concealed a knife, with which he cut 
through the prostate gland, into the bladder. His care 
was to make the wound sufficiently large, to enable him to. 
extract the stone easily, and without bruising the psMs. 
To this, it is probable, his success, which was far superior. 

1 Besire*s Funeral Sermon and Life, 1675, ISokx— life bj Smith Jn .« Vila 
Xmditisiiiiionnn Virornm," 4to.— Bio|f. Brit..— Barwickl Life i see Index.-<-Hut- 
chinsoii's Hist of Durham. 

% Lardner's Works.— -CaTe, vol. I^*— Gibbon^ Histqy.TrRobensott*! nis(|iii« 
aitionS'On anotent Indis.-»Sa«ii Onoittasticon. . . ^ 

ttrmy tt^ hi^ rmilr, nrast beattribiit^d. >Tbefame;bea€« 
UpBtired drew ttpon faim tke envjr of tfae mrgeom of P^ris so 
fcr, that they applied to* the king to iaterdiiet bis pi^Gtistngs 
Not succeeding fn-tbis atteiiipt, Mons.'Le Cat pttbtish^ 
<< Lettre au siijet du Lithotome Cacb^ ftc. centre E. 
G^me Dissert^'* 1749. Oosaoe^s dMsieitation^ describing 
tbe operation, bad been pubtisbed the preoedihg year, m 
the ♦* Jonmiil dtes 'Savam/' This pmdcided an' answer 
from De Cosne; under tbe title of *< RecoeH des pieces 
importantes sur«l*operation da ia Taille,'* 'I^ris, 175-i ; ift 
vrbick he acknowledges some faiinres, < and that be bad host 
one patient by b«aiorrhage; but chaitenges his adversaries 
to predoee lists of soeGessfal cases equat to< his. In 4779, 
be ' pobKsbed ** Nonvdle metbode d'extraire la Pierre,*^ 
Paris, • 1 2nio« After having for some 'time been director df 
the'hiDspkal<rf Bayeux, he esmMisbed )an hospital in tbe 
FeaiUant, where be practised gratis^ Itis tboagbt that in 
the ctaarse of bis life be . bad' performed tbe operation for 
the stone abo^e a thoiisfiind times. He died ^^uly 29, 1781) 
most particaiarly lamented by the poor, towards indiom' he- 
was equaily oompassionate and charitable. When any 
father- of a* family offered him money,' 'he used to say; 
*< Keep it; I nnfst not injure ybur children :" and often; 
instead of accepting a fee from the opulent^ be would re^- 
commend some poor object to be relieved by t^em.* 
. COSSART (GABHtEL),* n learned Jesuit,' was boi^i ie 
Pontoiae in 1615; and aitfer being- educated among the 
Jesuits, taught rhetoric ^ Paris witH muth reputation for 
Iteren years. He then joined with -fttber Labbe, who -bad 
commenced his vast collection of the <^ Councils ;" and 
Labbe dyittg<wfaen the eleventh volume was printing, Cos^ 
sart ledmpleted tbe whole in ^ 1672, in eighteen volumes; 
Gossart also wrote some orations and poems, a collection 
- of wbicb was published in 1675, and reprinted at Paris in 
1723, 12mo. He wais thought one* of the best orators and 
poets wbioh the society of Jesuits had produced. He died 
^Parra, Sept, 18, 1674.! 

COSTANZO (Angblodi), lord of Oantalupi>^ was borit 
in 1507^ at Naples. In bis youtb he was :)oli^ited by San* 
nazario and Poclerico to undertake the task of writing the 
history of Naples, << Istoria del Regno di Napoli," &c. 
published in a folio, printed at Aquila in 1581. On this 

» Diet Hiit.«»Reci*i Cjclossdia. * Moreri.— >Dtct. Hbt 

tH C 0>S T A N Z O- 

be .be$tow0d 53. years pf . peraievQciog inTesUgsttiont TUb 
first eduipD» scarce evei^ ia .l4^1y» .reacfaes^ fmxm the y€W 
1260 to 1489s that i^, from tl^ dea^ of Fre(leric II. to tbe 
war of Milan, under Ferdinau.d h, Costanzo enliveo/ed by 
the c.ulture. of Latin po^U'y. tbe dryness of history, and 
suQce^ded both in one and tbe.othen He is .said :to. have 
improved the ari.^. wrilwg 9oai>ei^^ by gracea of bis own 
invention. His Italian poetry W9^ pubiisbed ia 1 70.99^ i 72$^ 
1728^ &c. H^.died abput 159Q,'atf a very advanaed age* 
4 second edition of bis history cSppeiHred atV;eaice, 1710« 
4to ; and a third atso in 4to, atrlSIaples^ 1735,. with^ a life 
of CoBstanzo by Bernardino Tafnci.^ 

CQSTAR (Peter), a bachelor of the Sorbontie, was 
born 1603 at Paris, son of; a hatter* He bad neither the 
laste, learning, nor m^rit, of. M. 4e Oirac, bn^ ^vas not 
ignopint, aa that writer accuses him of bfing,.ia. his dis^ 
piate epon Voitnre.. ; M< du Ilueil, bishop pf Sayo^ne, and 
afteriwards of Angers, wished to have Costai:- ajlways abonlt 
bioi as a literary man, and gave faigi many benefioes. He 
was eagerly received at the H6telide JUmbouiliet, and in 
the best companies, notwithstanding, his afFtucted airs ; for 
wbi^h reason it j was said, ^^ Ht wa». the most b.eauish pe-^ 
dant, and most pedantic beau, that ever was known.'' He 
di^d JVlay 13, 1660. Besides bis works in defence of.Voi-! 
ture, against M. de Girax:, there is aeoUeotion of bis Let^* 
tersrinvS vols. 4to, containing much literary anecdote and 
criticism, 'the latter rather in a frivpk>us taste, which is 
likewi^e.visible in sonuei other of bfs pieces.' 

. CQSTARD (GfioaGE), a learned clergyman of the 
qhvircb pf England, was bocn at Shrewsbury about the year 
1710. He was educated at Wadham-eollege, Oxford, of 
which he was admitted a member in 1726, if not eariier; 
and on^the 28th of June 1733,. took the degree pf master 
of arts. He also became a tutor, and fellow of his coUege.; 
and, indeoil, seems to have spent a great part of his life 
there, though the fellows of Wadbam-college hold their 
fellowships only for a limited number of years. The same 
year in which he took the degree of M.A. be published, in 
8vp, '^ Critical observations on some Psalms/* The first 
ecclesiastical situation in which be was placed, was that of 
curate of Islip in Oxfordshire. He afterwards became vicar 
of Whitchurch^ in Dorsetshire, where he served two churcfaea 

> Mpreri,— Diet. HUt.-^CIement Bibl, C^riease.. *. Moreru-<»Dici. Hiit« 


far some years. Part of a letter written by him to' Mr. Jobn 
Catlain, containing an account of a fiery meteor seen by 
him in the atr, on tbe- 14^h of Jtily 1745, was read at' the 
Royal Society on the 7ih of November in that year, and 
publi^Iied in th^ Philosophical Transactions, No. 477. The 
Ibltowing year he published at London, in Svo, <^ A Let^ 
ter to Martin Folkes, esq. president of the Royal Society, 
eoncerning the rise and progress of Astronomy amongst the 
Ancients,'' in which he endeavoured to pix>ve, that the Greeks 
derived bojt a veryrsiiiall portion of their astronomical know- 
ledge from the Egyptianso'r Babylonians ; and that though 
the Egyptians ami Babylonians may be allowed, by their 
observations of the heavens, to have laid the foundation of 
astroBomy^ yet, as k>bg as it continued amongst theoi) it 
cousi^ted of observatiotts only, and ^nothing more ; till Geo- 
metry being improved by the Greeks, and themalone, into 
a science^ and applied to the heavenis, they became the true 
and proper jaui^bors of every thifig deserving the name of 

In'1747, Mr. Costavd published, in 8vo, " Some obser- 
vations tending to illustrate the book of Job; and in parti-^ 
cuifir the words, I kaow that my Redeemer livetfa^ &c.^' 
To which wSkft anneKedj ^* The third chapter of Habakkuk, 
parapbrast4eally tfrauslated into English verse," The same 
year a ourious letter written by him to the Rev. Dr.* Shaw, 
principal of St. Edmuud h^lij relative to the Chinese chrO- 
oolc^y. a;nd astronomy, was read at 4he Royal Society, and 
publishecl in the Pbilo^opbioal Transactions, No. 483. In 
this letter he Ipok notice, that it had been the affectation 
of some natiQns,^ and -particularly of the Babylonians and 
Egyptians, to parry up their histories to so immoderate a 
height^ as plainly to shew these accounts to be fictitious. 
This also was the case with the Chinese ; and Mr. Costard 
urged a variety of arguments to prove, that the mathema- 
tical and astronomical kn<)wledge of the Chinese was in* 
considerable, and that little dependance was to be placed 
on the pretended antiquity of their history. The following 
year he published, at Oxford, in 8vo, <^A farther account 
of the rise and progress of Astronomy among the Ancients, 
in three letters to Martin Folkes, esq.'' Of these, the first 
treats of the astronomy of the Chaldeans ; the second is an 
elaborate inquiry concerning the constellations spoken of 
in.thebpok of Job ; and the fourth is on the mythological 
astronomy of the ancients ; and in all be has displayed a 


considerable extent both ef oriental sad of Grecian lit«« 

Hi8 next publicationi which a(>peared in 1750, in Siro, 
was ** Two dissertations : L Containing an inquiry into the 
meaning of the word Kesitah, mentioned in Job, ch. xlit» 
ver. 1 1.'* attempting to prove, that though it most probably 
there stands for the name of a coin, yet that there* is 'n<i 
reason for supposing it stamped with any^fi^ureat ail; and*, 
therefore, not with that of a iamb in parttcuhtr. II. ^* On the 
signification of the word H«rmes; in whiebis explained 
the origin of the ctistom, among the Greeks^ of erecting 
stones called Hermae ; together vrhh some other particulifers^ 
delating to tbe mythc^oigy of that people.'* At the conclth- 
sion, Mr. Costard observes, that tbe study of the oriental 
languages seems to be gaining ground in Europe every 
day ;- and provided tbe Greelc and Latin are equally culti^ 
iBated, we may arrive in a few years at a greater k^towledge 
of the ancient worlds tban^ may be expected, or ^a^ be 
imagined; and beadids, thatfor such researches few places,- 
if any, in Europe are so well adapted as tbe university of 
Oxford* : : 

In 175.(3,. he published, in 8vo, at Oxford^ '* Disserta* 
ttones It. > Critico<»SacraB, qnarum prima eacplieatur Eze^kv 
mnu I8a Altera vero^ 2 Reg. x. 22/% The same year it 
translation was published of tbe latter of these ^ssertationsy 
under the following title : ^* A Disserution on -2 Kings x; 
22^ trajbtlated from^ tbe Latin of Rabbi C '  d (i; e. Cos-^ 
tard, with' a dedication, preface, and postscript, ^riticail 
and explanatory, by the' translator/'. In the prelace and 
dedication to. diis publidation, tbe -^ satiricail atthor has 
pKiced Mr.. Costtfrd in a very ludicreus liglm On tbe 25tb 
of January, in the year following, a letter written by Mr. 
Costard, to Dr. Bevis,. concerning the year of the eclipse 
foretold by Thales, was read afit the Royal- Society^ and #M 
afterwards published in the Pfaiiosepbical Transactions, tA 
was also another letter written. by him* to-thes«»me gentle^ 
man, concerning an eclipse meneioaed^by Xenopbom At 
the close of the fsameyear, ^ifdtbei* letter writtet) by Mr, 
Costard, and- addressed ta tkie earlof Maode^flekt, eon- 
oeroing the age of Homer and Hesiod, was likei^is^ read 
at the Royal Society, and afosrwards p«iblidied in thePbi- 
I.osopbieal Transactions for the year r754, in wbi€h be fixes 
the sge^of Homer aini Hesiod much lower than the ordi^* 
nary computations. He endeavouir^ to make it appear, frod^ 

C'.OSTAHTD. ; 301 

astfoiiadlical argumeat^. that Homer and Heaiod both pro** 

bably lived about theyeac before Christ 580; which is three 

centuries later than the computatiQii of sir Isaac Newtoo, 

and mere than four later than that of.Petavius. Ib nS5, 

he wrote a letter to Dr. Birch, which is preserved in the 

British Museiuoiy respecting the meaning of the phrase 

Sphseira Barbaticib ^ocne time after this, he undertook to 

publish a second edition of Dr« Hyde's '^ Historia religio* 

HIS veterum Persarum eorumque . Magorum ;" .and which 

was accordingly pnQted> nnder bis inspection, and with hid 

eorrectioof^ ^x tibie Clarendon press at Oxford, in- 410^ in 

11 M4 Mr* Cp$tard*8 extensive learning having now re* 

cooiaiended hitn to the notice of lord Chancellor Noicthiiig'* 

M/Btn^ b# obtaiBedy by. the favour of that n(d>leman| in June 

1764^ the vicarage af Twiclsenhaaiy t« Middlesex, in which 

situation he contintifiijl till his death. « The same year be 

publisbedt ia ^to, ^^ The U3e of Astronomy in history and 

Qbroiw4og^f, •exemplified in an inquiry into the. fall of the 

%im^ into the .JEgospotiUttiis» ^d to be foretold by Anaxa-*^ 

gQm ; ia whicb is attempted to be shewn^ that Anaxagoraa 

did not foretell the fall of that stone, but the solar eclipse 

ia tlurtoe year of the Peloponnesiao wan That what he 

mn^was a conaiety at the time jof the battle of Salamb : and 

^t thishMtle was probably fought the year before Christ 

47ft; jor twov years later than it is com^ionly fixed by 


. In 1767, hepublidie^ inone volume 4tt^ ^< The History 
qC Astroaomyy with ita application to geograpbyi bistpry^ 
and chronology ; occasicually jexempUfied by the globes,** 
chiefly. inteudeld Ibr the use of students, and containing a 
distinct view of the several improvements made in geon 
grapby and astrenomy, at what time, and by whoo^ the 
principal discoveries have been made in geography and 
. astronomy,; bow each discovery has paved the way to what 
jEpllQwed, and by what easy steps^ through the revolution <>£ 
sQ. maiiy ikges, these very useful sciences have advaiu:ed to« 
wards their present state iif perfection. The following 
yeilr he published, in 4to, *' Astronomical and philologicid 
canjectures on a passage in Homer :^' but these conjectures 
appear tabe fancuful and ill grounded. . About dais: time » 
correspondence took place between the learned Jacob.Bry* 
ant, esq. and Mr. Costard, concerning the land of Goshen, 
which was afterwards published by Mt. Nichols, in his 
MiscelUMous Tracts by Mr. Bowyer.** We do not find 


i02 COSTA R D. 

that from this period our kuthor printed ahy work for norrng 
years; but in 1778, he published, ih 8vo, "A Letter to 
Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, esq. containing some remarks 
on his Preface to the code of Getitoo laws/' This appears 
tO' have been the last oJF his pubtitiatioiis ; and its object 
was, to invalidate Mr. Halbed's opinion concerning the gi*eat 
antiquity of the Gentoo laws, and to refute the notion 
which had beien adopted by several writers, drawn from the 
observation of natural pheenomena, tkihat the world is far 
more ancient than it is- represented to be by the Hebrew 
chronology. Mr. Costard died on the fOth ef January 
1782, and was buried on the South side of Twickenham 
church-yard, but without any monument -or inscription, 
agreeably to his own desire *. He was a man of uncotn-^*- 
moh learning, and eminently skilled iti Grecian and orien- 
tal literature; but upon the whole dealt too much in con- 
jectures, and appears to have been possessed of more eru- 
dition than judgment. His private character wa& amiable, 
and he was much respected in the neighbourhood in wbjich 
he lived for his humanity* and benevolence. From- isdtne 
passages in his writings, he appears to have been strotig;iy 
attached to the interests of public freedom* He had a 
^reat veneration for the ancient Greeks ; of whom he says,^ 
that *' *Ti8 to the happy genius of that once glorious people,- 
and that people alone, that we- owe aH that can pro- 
perly be styled astronomy." And in another place, h& 
says of' the Greeks, that "their public spirit and love of 
liberty claim both our admiration and imitation. How far 
£be sciences suffer where oppression, superstition, andar^' 
bitrary power prevail, that once glorious nation aflbrds at 
this day too melancholy a proof.*' Mr. Costard's library,' 
drientat ntanuscripts, and philosophical instruments, were* 
sold by auction by Mr. Samuel Paterson, in March, 17^. * 
COSTE (HiLLARio DE), a Minime friar, eminent for bis 
writings and his piety, was born September 6j 1595, at' 
Paris, of a noble family, originally of Dauphiny. He died at- . 

* So says the author of a life of Mr. topan, not to the ^r»ifta<le of a. nation • 

Costard, which accompanies bis per- whose literary character he had contri'* 

tirait in the Geut. Mag. vol. LXXV. 'buied to exatt, but to the priTateoha^ 

B»t «Doardio|: to nn account very ieel* ^rity of a few buivJik iodivi^iiatit; .who^. 

ingly given in the Month. Rev. vol. . while they wept over the ashes of their 

EXXVI. p. 419, It appears that he pastor, knew not the Variety of his ta-* 

ilied so poor at 4 to ** indebted, eVeu l^le» or the- extent of 'hit- acquive* r 

for the last tad duties tlfatrnfin Of et a)entt.r 

( Bio^. ^rit.— I^^idiols's Bowyer.»--Ir4MMide% TwickenhaiQ, and <3ent. Magi 
L^ICXV. with'' a characteristic portrait. -*Iu the Phil. Trans, ace some papers not 
enumerated above. 

C O S T E. 30J 

Paris Aoigust 21, 1661 9 aged 66, leaving several works, 
full of carious and interesting particulars, but written with^ 
out any regard to the rules of criticism. The principal 
are : l. '^ Hist. Catholique, ou sont ecrites toutes les vies, faits, 
&c. des hommes et dames iliustres, du 16emeet I7eme 
siecle,'^ 1625, fol. 2. ^^ La Vie de Jeanne de France, fonda- 
trice des Annonciades.'* S. ^^ Les eloges et les vies des reines, 
des princesses, et dames iliustres,'* 1647, 2 vol. 4to. 4. 
V Les etoges de nos rois et des enfans de France qui ont 
tok Dauphins,'* 1643, 4to. $. << Vie du pere Marin Mer- 
sene,'' 1649, 8vo. 6. ^ Le portarait en petit de St. Fran* 
fbisdePauV 1655, 4to. 7. <^ Le parfait E^eclesiastique, 
ou la vie de Francois le Picart, docteur de Paris, avec les 
■eloges de 40 autres docCeurs de la Facutt6,'' 1658, 8vo. 
This last work is the most sought after, and the most 
curious.' * 

C08TE (PfiTEii), was a native of Uzez, who fled to 
England on- accomit of religion in the time of queen Anne, 
and' after residing man}"" years* in 'London, where he was 
employed in literary purstiits, returned to Paris some time 
before his death/ which, happened in 1746. Hi9 principal 
works were : 1. Translations into French of Locke's Essay 
on human understanding, Amsterdam, 1736, 4to, and Tre» 
V0U7C, 4 vols. 12mo; of Newton's Optics, 4to, and of the 
fteasonahleness of Christianity, by Locke, 2 vols. 8vo. 2. An 
edition of Montaigne's Essays, 3 vols. 4to, and 10 vols. 
l2mo,. with remarks and annotations. 3. An edition of 
Fontairi^'s Fables, 12mQ> with cursory notes at the bottom 
of the pages. He ventured to add a fable of his own, which 
served to prove that it was far more easy to comment on 
Fontaine than to imitate him* 4. The defence of la Bruy- 
era, against the Catthusian d'Argonne, who assumed the 
name^of Vigneui MarviUe : which is prefixed to O^ell^s 
English' tmnslatoon of •Bl'uyisre^s works, 1713, 2 vols. 8vo, 
5. TheJtfe of tfaev Grand Cond6, 4to and 12mo. Coste, 
as an editor, was often tediously minute, and, as an original 
author, not above mediocrity ; but he bestowed great at- 
tention on whatever he did. He was an excellent coi*^ 
rector of the press, thoroughly versed in his own language, 
well acquainted with the foreign tongues, and had a ge- 
neral knowledge of the' sciencei$» In this country be must 
)>ave been highly respected, as, although he died in France, 

» Moreci.— Nfcmn, rblXVU. 

304 C O S T E. 

a moBUmeni was erected to his memory in the old church 
of Pgddingtotii in which parish he probably veriided. This 
monument is now in a light vault under the present church ^ 
COSTER (Lawrekce), or Laurensz Jansz Koster, an 
inhabitant of Haerlem, who died about 1440, has acquired 
a name in the annals of printing, as the Dutch affirm hia> 
to be the inventor of that art about the year 1430, but this 
claim has been obstinately disputed. It is objected that it was 
not till 130 years after the first exercise of this art at Ment?, 
that the town of Haerlem formed any pretence to the honout 
of this, invention ; and that, to the known and certain facts^ 
to the striking and incontestable proofs of its belonging to 
Mentz, the men of Haerlem oppose nothing but obscure 
traditions and conjectures,, and not one typographical pro<* 
duction that can in any way shew the merit of it to belong 
to Coster. All that such objectors allow to Haerlem, is thd 
cireumstatice of being one of the first towns that practiseci 
the art of cutting in wood^ which led by degrees to th^ 
idea of printing a book, first in wooden blocks engraved^ 
then in moveable characters pf wood, and lastly in fusile 
types. But it still remains to be proved, that this idea was 
conceived and executed at Haerlem ; wherens it .is demons 
strated that Gutemberg printed, first at Strasburg* aud after<« 
wards at Mentz, in moveable characters of wood^ and that 
the fusile types were invented at Mentz by Schceffiert. 
The learned Meerman^ counsellor and pensionary o^ Rot'^ 
terdam, zealous for .the honour of bis country, supported 
the cause of Haerlem with all the sagacity and all the eru** 
dition that could be exerted, in a work entitled ** Qri«« 
gines Typographies,^* printed at the Hagqe ia 1765, 2 vain*. 
4 to, and of which an abridgment may be aeon in fiowyer 
and Nicholses ^^ Origin of Printing/* The question is .too 
complicated for discussion ia.thisplaae : we.shaU therefore 
only add the tradition respectieg Cos|er!s invention. . ft is 
said that walking in a wood near Haerlem^ be :amused hiaim 
self by cutting letters upon the back «f a tree^ which he. 
impressed upon paper* Improving this ioeident, he pio^ 
ceeded to cut single letters upon wood, and uniting them 
by, means of thread, he primed a line or two for his chil^ 
dren. It is added, that be afterwards printed a book, enw 
titled, '^ Speculum salvationis." Baron Heinecken, who 

1 Diet tiitt.— Lyions's Environt, vol. IK.—^ee i •'ne particuUn of him in the" 
notes to Uie life of Locke, .in t)ie .Biog, Briu . 

COST E R. .30? 

has minutely investigated the whole story, considers it ap 
not entitled to the least credit.; and pronounces the prints^ 
attributed to Coster^ to be the worVs of a later date. V , ■» 


COTELERIUS (John Baptist), B.D, pf Sorbonn^ 
and king's Greek professor, was. born at Nismes,. in Lanr 
guedoc, in 1627. He made an extraordipary proficiency 
in the languages under his father, when very young : for 
being, at twelve years only, brought into the haii of the 
general assembly of the French clergy held at Mante in 
1641, he construed the New Testament in Greek, and the 
Old in Hebrew, at the first opening of the book. He un- 
folded, at the same time, several difficulties proposed ia 
regard to the peculiar construction of the Hebrew lan- 
guage ; and explained also the text from the customs prac- 
tised among the Jews. ' After this, he. demonstrated cerr 
tain mathematical propositions, in explaining Euclid's de^ 
finitions. This made him looked upon as a prodigy of ger 
nius ;' and his reputation rose as he advanced in life. In 
1643 he took the degree of M. A. ; ;B. D. in 1647 ; and was 
elected a fellow; of the Sorbqnne in 1649. In 1651 he lost 
his father, who died at Paris, whither he had come to reside 
with his children in 1638 ; and he lamented him much, as 
a parent who had taken the greatest pains in. bis education* 
This appears from a Jetter of Cotelerius to his father, in 
which he' says, '^ j piust necessarily be obedient in every 
respect to you, to whom, besides innumerable benefits and 
favours, I owe not only my life, but also the means of 
living well and happily, those seeds of virtue and learning 
which you have been careful to plant in me from my in- 
fancy. Now, if Ale^^ander of Macedon could Own himself 
so much indebted tp his father Philip for begetting him, 
and so much more to Aristotle for forming apd educating 
him, what ought not I -to acknowledge myself indebted 
io you, who have been both a Philip and an Ariatptle 
tome?'* ' 

In 1654, when the archbishop of Embruh jre'tired into 
hi^ diocese, he took Cotelerius along with him, as one. who 
would be an agreeable companion in^ his solituije/ and with 
hini^he remained four years; but afteirwards, when he re- 
turned to Paris^ complained heavily of the want of books 

* Bowser and Nichols's Origin of Printing.— History of Printing in the Eocy- 
•lopadiA Britwuiica — Strttt^ ^ngrwv^rs.— Frelieri Tb«aHtiU.-*Fi>ppeiii 'BibL 
Belg. — Saxii Onomast. 

Vot. X. X 


and eonyersation with learned men in that retreat. He da^ 
elined going into orders, and spent bis time wholly in ec- 
clesiastieal antiquity. The Greek fathers were his chief 
study, whose works he read, both in print and manuscript, 
with' great exactness ; made notes upon them, and trans- 
lated some of them into Latin. In 1660 he published 
^< Four homilies of St. Chrysostom upon the Psalms/' and 
his ^* Commentary upon Daniel," with a Latin translation 
Endnotes. He then commenced his 'VCollection of those 
Fathers who lived in the apostolic age ;'' which he published 
in two vols, folio, at Paris, 1672, reviewed and corrected 
from several manuscripts, with a Latin translation and notes* 
The editor's notes, which are learned a^d curious, explain 
the difficulties in the Greek terms, clear up several histo<* 
rical passages, and set matters of doctrine and discipline in 
a perspicuous light. He would have published this work 
some years sooner, but was interrupted by beiing ap- 
pointed, with Du Cange, to review the MSS. in the king's 
library. This task he entered upon by Colbert's order in 
1667, and it occupied his time for five years. 

In 1676 he was made Greek professor in the royal zoa* 
demy at Paris^ which post he maintained during his life 
with the highest reputation. He had the year before pro- 
duced the first volume of a work entitled '* Monumenta 
EcclesisB Grsecae," a collection of Greek tracts out of the 
king's and Colbert's libraries, never published before. He 
added a Latin translation and notes ; which, though not so 
large as those upon the ^' Patres Apostolici," are said to be 
very curious. The first volume was printed in 1675, the 
second in 1681, and the third in 1686 ; and he intended to 
have added others, if he had lived. His age was not great, 
but his constitution was broken with intense study : for he 
took vast pains in his learned performances, writing all the 
Greek text and the version on the side with his own hand, 
and msing the greatest care and exactness in all his quota- 
tioiis. Aug. 3, 1686, he was seized with an inflammatory 
disorder in his breast, which required him to be let blood : 
but he had such a dislike to this operation, that, sooner 
than undergo it, he dissembled his illness. At last, how- 
ever, he consented ; but it was too late ; for he died the 
10th of the same months when he was not 60 years of age, 
leaving nine folio volumes of MSS. now in the Imperial 
library, consisting of extracts from the fathers, &c« with 

C O T E L E R I U S. Sot 

Besides his great skill in the languages, and in ecclesias<^ 
tical antiquity, he was remarkable for his probity and can- 
dour. He was modest and unpretending, without the least 
tincture of stiffness and pride. He lived particularly re-" 
tired, made and received few visits ; and thus, having but 
little acquaintance, he appeared somewhat melancholy and 
reserved, but was in reality of a frank,/ conversable, and 
friendly temper. * 

COTES (Francis), an English artist, was one of the 
founders of the Royal Academy, he and three others (Mo<^ 
ser. West, and Chambers) being the only persons who 
aigned the petition presented to his Majesty, to solicit that 
establishment. He was the son of an apothecary, who re- 
sided, in Cork-street, Burlington^-gardeirs. and was bom in 
1726. He was the pupil of Knapton, out in the sequel 
much excelled his master. He was particularly enEtment 
for his portraits in crayons, in which branch of the art he 
surpassed all his predecessors ; though it must be confessed 
that he owed something of his excellence to the study of 
the portraits of Rosalba. He also painted with considerable 
' ability in oil colours ; and at one time Hogarth declared 
him to be superior to sir Joshua Reynolds; an opinion, 
however, which must have arisen from some prejudice, for 
sir Joshua had then produced some of his best portraits* 
But though those of Cotes deserve not this high character^ 
they were very pleasing, well finished, coloured with great 
spirit, and, by the aid of Mr. Toms's draperies (who gene« 
rally supplied him with these), were justly ranked with the 
best portraits of the time. Yet his greatest excellence was 
in crayons, which were much improved under his hands, 
both in their preparsition and application. Lord Orford 
says, that his pictures of the queen holding the princess 
royaJ, then an infant, in her lap ; of his own wife ; of Polly 
Jones, a woman of pleasure ; of Mr. Obryen, the come- 
dian ; of Mrs. Child, of Osterley-park ; and of Miss Wil-* 
ton, afterwards lady Chambers; are portraits which, if 
they yield to Rosalba's in softness, excel hers in vivacity 
and invention. 

Mr. Cotes was, very early in life, afflicted with the 
stone ; and before he attained the age of forty-five, fell a 
victim to that disease. He died at his house in Cavendish* 
square, July 20, 1770, and was buried at Richmond, Sur-* 

* Moreri. — ^Diot. Hist — Life by Baliue^ pnfiMd to tb« tditioB of the Patrei 
Apoftolici, 1724»«-»Suii OnomasttceiK 


308 COTES. 

rej. His younger brother, Samuel Cotes, painted minia- 
tures, both in enamel and water-colours, and was in great 
practice during the life of the elder, but quitted the art 
some years ago. ^ 

COT£S (Roger}, a celebrated mathematician, philo-^ 
sopher, and astronomer, was born July 10, 1682, at Bur- 
bach in Leicestershire, where his father Robert was rec- 
tor. He was first placed at Leicester school ; where, at 
only twelve years of age, he discovered a strong inclina- 
tion to the mathematics. This being observed by his 
^ncle, the rev. Mr. John Smith, he gave him all imagin- 
able encouragement ; and prevailed with his father to send 
him for some time to his house in Lincolnshire, that he 
might assist him in those studies. Here he laid the foun- ^ 
dation of that dee|) and extensive knowledge, for which he 
was afterwards so deservedly famous. He removed from 
thence to London, ^md was sent to St.PauVs school ; where 
also be made a great progress in classical learning ; yet 
found so much leisure as to keep a constant correspondence 
with his uncle, not only in mathematics, but also in meta- 
physics, philosophy, and divinity. This fact is said to 
have been often mentioned by professor Saunderson. His 
next remove was to Cambridge; where, April 6, 1699, he 
was adnajtted of Trinity college ; ^nd at Michaelmas 1705, 
after taking his first degree in arts, chosen fellow of it. 
He was at the same time tutor to Anthony earl of Harold, 
and the lord Henry de Grey, sons of the then marquis 
(afterwards duke of) Kent, to which noble family Mr. Cotes 
was related. 

January 1706, he was appointed professor of astronomy 
and experimental philosophy, upon the foundation of Dr. 
Thomas Plume, archdeacon of Rochester ; being the fii*st 
that enjoyed that office, to which he was unanimously 
chosen, on account of his high reputation and merits. He 
took the degree of M. A. in 1706 ; and went into orders in 
1713. The same year, at the desire of Dr. Bentley, he 
published at Cambridge the second edition of sir Isaac 
Newton's *^ Mathematica Principia, &c.'* and inserted all 
the improvements, which the author had made to that time. 
To this edition he prefixed a most admirable preface, ia 
which he expressed the true method of philosophising,, 
sbev^ed the foundation on which the Newtonian philosophy 

I WalpoU't AnecMeff, aad Bdwsrdt's Snppleinnil; 

cotes: 3od 

was built, and refuted the objecti6ns of the Cartesians and 
all otjher philosophers against it. It may not be amiss to 
transcribe a paragraph from this preface, in which the edi-^ 
tor has given an answer to those who supposed that gravity 
or attraction, in sir Isaac Newton^s system, was in no wise 
a clearer principle, and more adapted to explain the pbae- 
nouiena of nature, thai^ the occult qualities of the peripa- 
tetics; because there are still philosophers who persist in 
the same supposition. Gravity, say the objectors, is an 
occult cause ; and occult causes have nothing to do with 
true philosophy. To this Mr. Cotes replies, that " occult 
causes are, not those whose existence is most clearly de- 
monstrated by observation and experiment, but those only 
whose existence is occult, fictitious, and supported by no 
proofs. Gravity therefore can nevef* be called an occult 
cause of the planetary motions ; since it has been demean- 
strated from the phenomena, that this quality really exists. 
Those rather haye recourse to occult causes, who make 
vortices to govern the heavenly motions ; vortices, com- 
posed of a matter entirely fictitious, and unknown to the 
senses. But «h^ll gravity, therefore, be called an occult 
cause, and on that account be banished from philosophy, 
because the cause of gravity is occult, and as yet undis- 
covered ? Let those, who affirm this, beware of laying 
down a principle, which will serve to undermine the foun- 
dation of every system of philosophy that can be establish- 
ed. For causes always proceed, by an uninterrupted con- 
nexion, from those that are compound, to those that are 
more simple ; and when you shall have arrived at the most 
simple, it will be impossible to proceed farther. Of the 
most simple cause therefore no mechanical solution can be 
given ; for if there could, it would not be the most simple. 
Will you then call these most simple causes occult, and 
banish them from philosophy ? You may so ; but you must 
banish at the same time the causes that are next to them, 
and those again that depend upon the causes next to them^ 
till philosophy at length will be so ' thoroughly purged of 
causes, that there will not be one left whereon to build it** 
The publication of this edition of Newton's Principia 
added greatly to his reputation ; nor was the high opinion 
the public now conceived of him in the least diminished, 
but rather much increased, by several productions of his 
own, which afterwards appeared. He gave a description 
of the great fiery meteor, that was seen March 6, 1716, 

310 COTES. 

ivhich was published in the Phil. Trans, a little after hiir 
death. He left behind him also some admirable and judi-* 
cious tracts, part of which, after his decease, were pub-> 
lished by Dr. Robert Smith, his cousin and successor in his 
professorship, afterwards master of Trinity college. His 
f' Harmonia Mensurarum,^' &c. wa^s published at Cam- 
bridge, i722y 4to, and dedicated to Dr. Mead by the 
learned editor ; who, in an elegant and affectionate pre-* 
face, gives us a copious account of the performance itself, 
the pieces annexed to it, and of such other of the author's 
works as were unpublished. He tells us how much this 
work was admired, by professor Saunderson, and how dear 
the author of it was to Dr. Bentley. The first treatise of 
the misciellaneous works annexed to the ^* Harmonia Men** 
f urarum*' is '^ Concerning the estimation of errors in mixed 
mathematics.'' The second, ^^ Concerning the differential 
method ;" which be handles in a manner somewhat diffe-* 
rent from sir Isaac Newton's treatise upon that subject, 
haying wiitten it before he had seen that treatise. The 
name of the third piece is '^ Canonotechnia, or concerning 
the construction of tables by differences." The book con* 
eludes with three small tracts, << Concerning the descent 
of bodies, the motion of pendulums in the cycloid, and the 
motipn of projectiles ;" which tracts, the editor informs us, 
were all composed by him when very young. He wrote 
also ^^ A compendium of arithmetic, of the resolutions of 
equations, of dioptrics, and of the nature of curves." Be- 
sides these pieces, he drew up a course of ^VHydrostatical 
ftnd Pneumatical Lectures" in English, which were pub** 
lished by Dr. Smith in 1737, and again in 1747, 3vo. 

This uncommon genius in mathematics died, to the re* 
gret of the. university, and all lovers of that science, June 
fi"^ 1716, in the very prim^ of his life ; for he was advanced 
1)0 farther than to his 33d year. He was buried in the 
chapel of Trinity college ; and an inscription fixed over 
him, from which we learn that he had a very beautiful 
person. The inscription was written by Dr. Bentley, and 
is very elegant ; but the most lasting and decisive tribute 
to his memory was paid by sir Isaac Newton, who said, 
*^ Had Cotes lived, we should have known something." 

When Dr. Plume's professorship for astronomy and ex- 
perimental philosophy was contended for, Mr. Wbiston 
was one of the electors. Besides Mr. Cotes, there was 

another candidate, who had beep i^ scholar of Dr. Harris'^u 

COTES. 311 

As Mr. Whiston was the only professor of mathematics 
who was directly concerned in the choice, the rest of the 
electors naturally paid a great regard to his judgment. At 
the time of election, Mr. Whiston said, that he pretended 
himself to be not much inferior to the other candidate's 
master, Dn Harris ; but he confessed ^* that he was but a 
child to Mr. Cotes." The votes were unanimous for Mr* 
Cotes, who was then only in the twenty-fourth year of his 

' In 1707, Mr. Whiston and Mr. Cotes united together id. 
giving a course of philosophical experiments at Cambridge. 
Among other parts of the undertaking, certain hydrostatic 
and pneumatic lectures were composed. They weUpe iu 
number twenty-four, of which twelve were written by Mr. 
Cotes, and twelve by Mr. Whiston. But Mr. Whiston 
esteemed his own lectures to be so far inferior to those of 
Mr. Cotes, that he could never prevail upon himself to 
revise and improve them for publication. 

The early death of Mr. Cotes is always spoken of with 
regret by every mathematician and every philosopher ; 
since, if his life had been continued, he would undoubtedly 
have proved one of the greatest men which this country 
has produced. ^ 

COTIN (Charles), a member of the French academy, 
so ilUtreated by Boileau in his satires, and by Moliere iti 
his comedy of the ** Femmes Savantes," under the name of 
Trissotin, was born at Paris, and has at least as good a title 
to a place in this work, as some^of VirgiPs military heroes 
in the JEneid, who are celebrated pufely for being knocked 
on the head. It is said, that he drew upon him the indig- 
nation of Boileau and Moliere : of the former, because he 
counselled him in a harsh and splenetic manner, to devote 
his talents to a kind of poetry difierent from satire ; of the 
latter, because he had endeavoured to hurt him with the 
duke de Montausier, by insinuating that Moliere designed 
him in the person of the Misanthrope. Cotin, however, 
was a man of learning, understood the learned languages, 
particularly the Greek, Hebrew^ and Syriac, was respected 
in the best companies, where merit only could procure 
admittance, and preached sixteen Lents, in the principal 
pulpits of Paris. He died in that city in 1682, leaving 

> Biog. Brit.— Nicliols^s Bowyer, and Hist, of Leicestershire.— Whiston's Life* 
-»Kni|flit'« Life of Colet. 

312 C O T I N. 

several works tolerably well written : the principal are, 1. 
'^ Tb^ocl^e, ou la vraie Philosopbie des principes dd 
monde." 2. " Traits de VAme immortelle." 3. 
:*'OraisGn funeb. pour. Abel Servien." 4. ^^ Reflexiotm 
.flur la conduite du roi Louis XIV. quand il prit le soin des 
affaires par lui-m^me/' 5. ^^ Salomou^ ou la Politique 
Royale." 6. " Poesies Chretiennes," 1668, 12aio. 7. 
.**QEuvresgalanteSy' 1665, 2 vols. 12uio, &c. The sonnet 
to Urania in the "Femmes Savantes" of Moliere, was 
reallj written by abb^ Cotin : he* composed it for Ma- 
dame de Nemours, and was reading it to that lady when 
•Menage entered, who disparaging the sonnet, the two 
, scholars abused eacfk other, nearly in the same terms as 
Trissotin and Vadius in Moliere. * 

. COTOLENOI (Charles), an advocate in the parlis^ 
inent of Paris, and a native of Aix or of Avignon, who died 
.at the beginning of the eighteenth century, gained a re- 
putation in the literary world by several works. The pria^- 
cipal are : 1. " The voyages of Peter Texeira, or the his- 
tory of the kings of Persia down to 1609,^* translated from 
the Spanish into French, 1681, 2 vols. 12mo. 2. "The 
Life of St. Francis de Sales," 16«9, 4?to. ^3. " The Life of 
Christopher Columbus,'' translated into French, i6i$l, 2 
vols. 12mo. 4< "The Life of the Duchess of Montmo- 
:fpnci," 2 vols. 8vo. 5. " Ariequiniana^ or bon-mots,'* 
':&o. collected from the converaati4»QS of Harlequiii, 1694. 
<6." The book without a name,'" 1711, 2 vols. 12mo, and, 
,as his countrymen say, worthy o€ its title. ?» " Disserta- 
tion on the works of St. Evremont," 1704, 12mo, under 
the name of Dumont. *^ I find many things in this work, . 
justly censured,'' says St. Evremont ; " I cannot deay that 
.the aAitbor writes well ; but his zeal for religion and morals 
.ftorpasses all thing's else. I shcHiid gain letss in changing 
/iny style for his, than my coikscience for his.-*-Favour sur- 
passes^everity in the judgment, and I feel more gratitude 
for* the foraier than resentment against the latt^er.'' 
This certainly discovers modesty, which, if sincere, should 
:atone for many faults in St' Evremout.^ 

. COTTA (John), an elegant modern Latin poet, was 
.bora in a village near Veronai in 1483, and gained coiisi- 
der^le reputatk>n by bis talents. He followed to the army 
Bartholomew d'Alviano, a Venetian general who had a 

I Moreri Diet. Hist. • Ibid. 

C O T T A. -313 

ji^gard for him ; but be wi» taken by. :tbe French at the 
battle of Gbiata d'Adda, in the year 15Q9, lost some of his 
manuscripts, and did not regain his liberty for some tiip^. 
'His patron se^t him to pope J alius II. at Viterbo, where 
he died in 15U, ^ a pestilentUl fever. Several of hie; 
epigrams and orations are printed in the collection entitled 
'' Carolina qdinque poetarum/* Venice, 154$^ 8vo. ' 

.COTT£R£L) (Sir Charles), was ttfe son of sir Clement 
Cotterel of Wylsford in Lincolnshire, groom porter to 
James i» He was in the interregnum steward to the queen 
of Bobemia; and in 16:70, when he was created LL«D. in 
the univeraity of Oxford, it appears that he was master of 
the requests to Charles II. He possessed in an exjtraoiS' 
dinary degree the various accomplishments of a gentle<- 
man» and particularly excelled in the knowledge of mo>- 
dern lang^ia^s. During the exile of his royal master, be 
transl4|led froipa the French ^^ Cassandra the famed ro- 
mance/" which has been several tinies printed ; and had. a 
principal baod in translating ^< Davila's History of the civil 
wan» of Fran^" from the Italian, and several pieces of less 
note from the Spanish. In 1686 he resigned his place of 
mauer of thei ceremonies, and was succeeded by his son 
.Charles Lodowick Cotterel, esq. He is celebrated by Mrs. 
Catbepipe PbiUips under the name of Poliarcbus, and to 
doe of bis descendants, colonel Cotterel of Rousham near 
Oxford-, Pope addressed his second epistle in imitation, of 
Horace. It is unnecessary to add thsLi the office of master 
of the ceremonies has long been in this family. ^ 
• COTTIN (Sophia oe), a French lady of considerable 
talents, whose maiden name was Ristau, was born in 1772, 
the daughter of a merchant at Bourdeaux, according to 
whose wish she was married, at eighteen,, to M. Cottin, a 
rich banker at Paris, who was also a relation. Her hus- 
band left her a beautiful widow at the age of twenty-two. 
She resided for some time with a lady to whom she was 
warmly attaiched, who was also a widow, and she dev6ted 
mucn of her attention to ibe education of that lady's two 
daughters ; but it does not appear that madame de Cottin 
herself ever was a mother. Much of her time seems like- 
wise to have been occupied in writing those novels which 
have established her fame in that branch in her own 
country. She died at Paris, August 25, 1807. Her prin- 

1 Moreri.-— Diet. Hist. « Ath. Ox. vol. II.— -Granger. 

314 G O T T I N. 

cipal novels are, 1. "Claire tfAHbe,*' 1798. 2. " Mai- 
▼iaa," 1800, 4 vols. 12mo. 3. " Amelia Mansfield,'' 1802, 
4 vols. 12mo. 4. " Mathilde," 6 vols. 12mo. 5. "Eliza- 
beth, oo les Exiles de Siberie," 1806, 2 vols. 12ino. Some 
of these have been translated into English, and published 
here. Madame Cottin is of the high sentimental east, with 
all that warmth of imagination which distinguishes the more 
elegant French novelists ; but the moral tendency of her 
writings seems rather doubtful. ' 

GOTTON (Charles), an English poet, was the son of 
Charles C6tton, esq. of Beresford in Staffordshire, a man 
of iconsiderable fortune and high accomplishments. His 
tton, who inherited many of these characteristics, was born 
on the 26th of April, 1630, and educated at the university 
of Cambridge, where he had for his tutor Mr. Ralph Raw* 
Bon^ whom he celebrates in the translation of an ode of 
Joannes Secundus. At the university, he is saidto have 
studied the Greek and Roman -classics with distinguished 
success, and to have become a perfect master of the French 
and Italian languages^ It does not appear, however, that 
he took any degree, or studied with a view to any learned 
profession ; but after his residence at Cambridge, travelled 
into France and other parts of the continent. On his re- 
turn, be resided during the greater part of his life at the 
family seat at Beresford. In 1656, when he was in his 
iwenty-sixth year, he married Isabella, daughter of sir 
Thomas Hutchinson, knt. of Owthorp in the county of 
Nottingham, a distant relation, and took her home to his 
fiitber's house, as he had no other establishment. In 1658 
be succeeded to the family estate encumbered by some 
imprudencies of bis deceased fether, from which it does 
not appear that he was ever able to relieve it. 

From this time, almost all we have of his life is com- 
priced in a list of his various publications, which were 
chiefly translations from the French, or imitations of the 
writers of that nation. In 1664, he published Mons. de 
Vlaix's "Moral Philosophy of the Stoics," in compliance, 
sir John Hawkins thinks, with the will of his father, who 
was accustomed to give him themes and authors for the 
exercise of his judgment and learning. In 1665, he trans* 
lated the Horace of Corneille for the amusement of his 

> Short notice of her life prefixed to her novel ** Malvina."-«-MoQtb. Ber. 
K. S. ?oji. LVXI.T-Dia. Hist. 


sister, who, in 1670, consented that it should be printed. 
In this attempt be suffered little by being preceded by sir 
William Lower, and followed by Mrs. Catherine Phillips* 
In ] 670 he published a translation of the Life of the duke 
D'Espernon ; and about the same time, his afiairs being 
much embarrassed, he obtained a captain^s cdmmission in 
the army, and went over to Ireland. Some adventures he 
met with on this occasion gave rise to his first burlesque 
poem, entitled ** A Voyage to Ireland,'* in three cantos. 
Of his more serious progress in the army, or when, or why 
he left it, we have no aeoount. 

In 1674, he published the translation of the ^^ Fair One 
of Tunis," a French novel ; and of the ** Commentaries of 
Blaise de Montluc,*' marshal of France ; and in 1 675, '^ The 
Planter's Manual," being instructions for cultivating' all 
sorts of fruit-trees. In 1678 appeared his most celebrated 
burlesque performance, entitled '^ Scarronides, or Virgil 
Travestie; a mock poem, ^ on the First and Fourth Books 
of Virgil's MneiSf in English burlesque." To this was 
afterwards added, ** Burlesque upon Burlesque, or the 
Scoffer scoffed ; being some of Lucian's Dialogues newly 
put into English fustian." In 1681, he published ^^The 
Wonders of the Peak," »ii original poem, which, however, 
proved that he had not much talent for the descriptive 
branch of poetry. His next employment was a translation 
of Montaigne's Essays, which was highly praised by the 
marquis of Halifax, and has often been reprinted, as con- 
veying the spirit and sense of the original with great 
felicity. His style at least approaches very closely to the 
antiquated gossip of that ^^ old prater." Besides these he 
wrote '^ An elegie upon th^ Lord Hastings," signed with 
his name, in the ^* LachrymsB Musarum," published on that 
nobleman's death, London, 1649, 8vo; and in 1660,. be 
pbblished a folio of about forty leaves, entitled *^ A Pane-* 
gyrick to the King's most excellent majesty." This last is 
in the British Museum. His father has also a copy of 
verses in the ** Lachrymse Musarum,'.' on the death of lord 
Hastings, published by Richard Brome. 

The only remaining production of our author is connect^ 
ed with his private history. One of his favourite recrea- 
tions was angling, which led to an intimacy between him 
and honest Izaac Walton, whom he called his father. His 
house was situated on the banks of the Dove, a fine trout 
f treaii); which divides the counties of Derby and St^ffordr 


Here he built a little fishing^-houae dedicated to anglers, 
piscatoribtcs sacrum, over the door of which the initials of 
the names of Cotton and Walton were united in a cypher. 
The interior of this house was a cube of about fifteen feet, 
paved with black and whife marble, the walls wainscotted, 
with ipainted pannels representing scenes of fishing ; and 
on the doors of the beaufet were the portraits of Cotton 
and Walton. I}is partnership with Walton in this amuse- 
ment induced him to write ^^ Instructions how to angle for 
a Trout or Grayling, in a clear stream," which have since 
been published as a second part, or supplement to Walton's 
** Complete Angler." 

At what . time his first wife died, is not recorded. His 
secdnd was Mafy, countess dowager of Ardglass, widow of 
Wingfield lord Cromwell, second earl of Ardglass, who 
died in 1 649. She must therefore have been considerably 
cilder than our poet, but she had a jointure of 1500/. a 
year, which, although it probably afforded him. many com^ 
forts, was secured from his imprudent management. He 
died in tlie parish of St. James's, Westminster, in 1687, 
and, it would appear, in a state of insolvency, as Elizabeth 
Bludworth, his principal creditor, administered to his ef- 
fects, his widow and children haviyg previously renounced 
the administration. These children were by the first wife. 
One of them, Mr. Beresford Cotton, published in. 1694 the 
^^Memoirs of the Sieur de Pontis," translated by his father; 
and perhaps assisted in the collection of bis. poems which 
appeared in 1689. This gentleman had a company given 
him in a regiment of foot raised by the earl of Derby, for 
the service of king William; and. one of his sisters was 
married to the celebrated Dr. George Stanhope, dean of 

The leading features of Mr. Cotton's character may be 
gatliered from the few circumstances we have of his life, 
and from the general tendency of his works. Like his 
father, he was regardless of pecuniary concerns, a lively 
and agreeable companion, a man of wit and pleasure, and 
frequently involved in difficulties from which he did not 
always escape without some loss of character. 
 His fate as a poet has been very singular. The " Virgil 
Travestie," and his other burlesque performances, have 
been perpetuated^ by at least fifteen editions, while hit 
^^ Poems," published in 1689, in which he displays true 
taste and elegance^ have never been reprinted until they 

COTTON. 317 

were admitted into the late edition of the Poets ; or, at 
least, a selection, for many of his smaller pieces abound in 
those indelicacies which were the reproach of the reign of 
Charles II. In what remaiti, we find a strange mixture of 
broad humour and drollery, mixed with delicacy and ten- 
derness of sentiment, and even with devotional poetry of 
a superior ca^t. His Pindarics will probably not be thought 
unworthy- of a comparison with those of Cowley. His 
verses are often equally harmonious, while his thoughts are 
less encumbered with amplification. In his burlesque 
poems, Butler appears to have beea his model, but we 
have the Hudibrastip measure only ; nothing can be more 
vulgar, disgusting, or licentious than his parodies on Virgil 
•and Lucian. That they should have been so often re- 
printed, marks the slow progress qf the refinement of pub- 
lic taste during the greater part of the eighteenth century; 
but within the last thirty years it has advanced with ra- 
pidity, and Cotton is no longer tolerated. The Travestie, 
indeed, even when executed with a more chaste humour 
than in Cotton's Virgil, or Bridges's Homer, is an extra- 
vagance pernicious to true taste, and, ought never to b^ 
encouraged unless where the original is alegitiniate object 
of ridicule. ' 

COTTON (Nathaniel), an English physician, poet, 
and amiable man, was born in 1707, but in what county, 
or of what family, is not known. He studied physic under 
the celebrated Boerhaave, at Leyden, and is supposed to 
have taken his degree at that university, which was then 
the first medical school in Europe, and the resort of all 
who wished to derive honour from the place of their educa- 
tion* On his return he endeavoured to establish himself 
as a general practitioner, but circumstances leading hini 
more paiticularly to the study of the various species of 
lunacy, he was induced to become the successor of a Dr. 
Crawley, who kept a house for the reception of lunatics 
at Dunstable, in Bedfordshire : and having engaged the 
housekeeper, and prevailed on the patients' friends to con- 
sent to their removal, he opened a house for their recep- 
tion at St. Alban's. Here he continued- for some years, 
adding to bis knowledge of the nature of mental disorders, 
and acquiring considerable fame by the success and hu- 
manity of his mode of treatment. When his patients be- 

t JobniOD and Chalmers's Eoglish Poets> 1810.— Biog. Brit. 5cc. 

318 COTTON. 

gan to increase, be found it necessary to hire a larger 
hoase, where he formed a more regular establishment, and 
dignified it by the name of The College. His private re- 
sidence was in St. Peter's street in the town of St. Alban's,' 
and was long known as the only house in that town de^ 
fended from the effects of lightning by a conductor. 

The cares of his college, and the education of his nu^^' 
merous family, occupied near the whole of his long life.- 
His poems and prose pieces were probably the amusement 
of such hours as he could snatch from the duties of his 
profession. He carried on also an extensive correspond- 
ence with some of the literary characters of the day, by 
whom, as well as by all who knew him, he was beloved for 
his amiable and engaging manners. Among others, be 
corresponded with Dr. Doddridge, and appears to have 
read much and thought much on subjects which are usually 
considered as belonging to the province of divines. He 
is not known to have produced any thing of the medical 
kind, except a quarto pamphlet, entitled ^^ Observations 
on a particular kind of Scarlet Fever that lately prevailed 
in and about St. Alban's," 1749. The dates of some of 
his poetical pieces show that be was an early suitor to the ; 
muses. His " Visions in Verse" were first published in- 
1751, again in 1764, and frequently since. He contri- 
buted likewise a few pieces to Dodsley's collection. A 
complete collection of his productions, both in prose and 
verse, was published in 1791, 2 vols. 12mo, by one of his^ 
sons, but without any memoir of the author. 

Dr. Cotton was twice married: first, about the year 
1738, to Miss Anne Pembroke, sister to George Pembroke, 
esq, formerly of St. Alban's, receiver-general for the coun- 
ty of Hertford, and to Jqseph Pembroke, town-clerk of St- 
Alban's. By this lady, who died in 1749, he had issue, 1. 
Mary, who became the second wife of John Osborn, esq. 
of St. Alban's, and died without issue, Nov. 2, 1790 ; 2, 
Anne, who became the second wife of major Brooke of 
Bath, and died July 13, 1800, leaving a son and daughter, 
since dead; 3. Nathaniel, who was entered of Jesus col« 
lege, Cambridge, where he pt-oceeded B. A. 1T66, and 
M. A. 1769, and is now vicar of Welford, in Northamp^ 
tonshire; 4. Joseph, now a director of th^ hotkourable 
East India company ; 5. Phebe, married to George 
Bradshaw, esa. since dead } 6. Katherine, who died un- 
married, Dec. 2, 1730, and is buried under an altar tomb 

COTTON. tld 

in the churchyard of St. Peter's, St. Alban^s. H^ had also 
by his first wife, a son and daughter, who died in infancy. 
He married, secondly, in 1760, or 1751, Miss Hannah 
Everett, who died May 1772, leaving a son, now living, 
and two daughters, since dead. 

from his letters it appears that about the year 1780 his 
health was greatly impaired. He was much emaciated, 
and his limbs so weak as to be insufficient to support his 
weight. The languors, likewise, which -he suffered, wer6 
so Arequent and severe, as to threaten an entire stop to the 
circulation, and were sometimes accompanied with that 
most distressing of all sensations, an anxiety circa pnecor^ 
dia. His memory too began to fail, and any subject which 
required a little thought was a burthen hardly supportable. 
He died August 2, 1788, and we are told his age was s6 
far unknown, that the person who entered his burial in 
the parish register, wrote after his name, '^eighty-eight 
at least." In a letter^ however, written on the death of 
his daughter Katherine, in 1780, he says, '^ he had passed 
almost three winters beyond the usual boundary appro- 
priated to human life, and had thus transcended the lon« 
gevity of a septuagenarian.^^ This, therefore, will fix his 
age at eighty-one, or eighty-twow He was interred with 
his two wives in St: Peter's church-yard, under an altar- 
tomb between those of his two daughters, Mary and Ka- 
therine, on which nothing more is inscribed than ^' Here 
are deposited the remains of Anne, Hannah, aiid Nathaniel 

If we have few particulars of the life of Dr. ,Cotton, we 
have many testimonies to the excellence of his character: 
We find from Mr, Hayley's Life of Cowper, that he had at 
one time among his patients, that amiable and interesting 
poet, who speaks of Dr. Cotton's services in a manner that 
forms a noble tribute to his memory : and Mr. Hayley says, 
th|tt Dr. Cotton was ** a scholar and a poet, who added to 
many accomplishments, a peculiar sweetness of manners, 
in very advanced life," when Mr. Hayley had the pleasure 
of a personal acquaintance with him. In a subsequent part 
of:, bis Life of Cowper, the latter^ alluding to an inquiry 
respecting Dr. Cotton's works, pays the following compli- 
ment to his abilities : <^ I did n<»t know that he had writtei;t 
any thing newer than bis Visions : I have no doubt that it 
is so far worthy of him as to be pious and sensible, and I 
beUeve no man living is better qualified to write on such 


subjects as his title seems to announce. Some years bav^ 
passed since I heard from hkn, and considering liis great 
age, it is probable that I shall hear from him no more : 
but I shall always respect him. He is truly a philosopher^ 
according to my judgment of the character, every tittle of 
his knowledge in natural subjects being connected in his 
mind with the firm belief of an omnipotent agent/' His 
writings, indeed, are uniformly in favour of piety and her 
iievolence, and his correspondence, from which many ex- 
tracts are given in the late edition of his Works, justities 
the high respect in which he was held by his niimerous 
friends. His prose pieces consist of reflections on some 
parts of scripture, which he has entitled ^^ Sermons ;'' and 
various essays on health, husbandry, zeal, marriage, and 
other miscellaneous topics. One of these, entitled ^* Mirza 
to Selim'^ (an imitation of Lyttelton^s Persian Letters) is 
said to relate to the death of the Rev. Robert Romney, D. D: 
-vicar of St. Alban^s, which happened in 1743. When 
dying, this gentleman prophesied that his brother and 
heir would not long enjoy his inheritance, which proved 
true, as he died in June 1746. Some of these essays were 
probably written for the periodical journals, and others 
for the amusement of private friends. As a poet, he wrote 
with ease, and had a happy turn for decorating his reflec- 
tions in familiar verse : but we find very little that is ori- 
ginal, fanciful, or vigorous. He scarcely ever attempts 
imagery, or description, and nowhere rises beyond a cer^ 
tain level diction adapted to the class of readers whom he 
was most anxious to please. Yet his " Visions" have been 
popular, and deserve to continue so. Every sensible and 
virtuous mind acquiesces in the truth and propriety of his 
moral reflections, and will love the poems for the sake of 
the writer. * 

COTTON, or GOTON (Peter), a Jesuit, horn in 
1564, at N^ronde near the Loire, of which place his fa- 
ther was governor, distinguished himself early in life by 
his zeal for the conversion of protestants, and by his suc- 
cess in the pulpit. He was csdled to the court of Henry 
IV. at the instance of the famous Lesdiguieres, whom he 
had converted, and the king pleased with his ^it, manners, 
and conversation, appointed him his confessor. M. Mer^ 
cier censures the king, for " having too peculiar a defer* 

} Johnson aad Chalmerses English PoeUt 1810. 

COTTON. 321 

ence for this Jesuit, a man of very moderate talents, solely 
attached to the narrow views of his order ;'* and it was 
commonly said, ** Our prince is good, but he has cotton in 
his ears." Henry was desirous of making him archbishop 
of Aries, and procuring him a cardinaPs hat ; but Cotton 
persisted in refusipg his offers. His brotherhood, after 
their recall, unable easily to settle themselves in certain 
towns, that of Poitiers especially, started great difficulties, 
and Cotton wished to persuade the king that this opposi- 
tion was the work of Sulli, governor of Poitou ; but Henry 
having refused to listen to this calumny, and blaming Cot* 
ton for having adopted it with too much creduhCy : '^ God 
forbid," said Cotton, *^ that I should say any harm of those 
whom your majesty honours with his confidence ! But, 
however, I am able to justify what I advance. I will 
prove it by the letters of Sulli., I have seen them, and I 
will shew them to your majesty." Next day, however, 
he was under the necessity of telling the king that the let- 
ters had been burnt by carelessnesa. This circumstance is 
related in the '* Cours d'histoire de Condillac," torn. XIII. 
p. 505. After the much lamented d^ath of Henry, Cot- 
ton was confessor to his son Louis XIII, but^ the court 
being a solitude to him, he asked permission to quit it, and 
obtained it in 1617, so much the more easily as the duke 
de Luynes was not very partial to him. Mezerai and other 
historians relate, that when Ravaillac had committed bis 
parricide, Cotton went to him and said : ^* Take care that 
you do not accuse honest men !" There is room to sup* 
pose that his zeal for the honour of his society prompted 
him to utter these indiscreet words, and his notions on the 
subject appear to be rather singular. We are told that 
Henry IV. having one day asked him, *^ Would you re- 
veal the confession of a man resolved to assassinate me ?" 
he answered ^* No; but I would put my body between 
you and him." The Jesuit Santarelli having published a 
work, in which he set up the power of the popes ov^r that 
of kings. Cotton, then provincial of Paris, was called to 
the parliament the 1 3th of March 1626, to give an account 
of the opinions of his brethren. He was asked whether 
he thought that the pope can excommunicate and dispos- 
sess a king of France ? *^ Ah !" returned he, ^' the king 
is eldest son of the church ; and he will never do any thing 
to oblige the pope to proceed to that extremity." — "But," 
said the first president, " are you not of the same opinion 

322 * C O T T O K 

with your general, who attributes that power to the pope ?'' 
•— '^ Our general follows the opinions of Rome where he is ; 
and we, those of France where we are.*' The many dis- 
agreeable things experienced by Cotton on this occasion, 
gave him sp much uneasiness, that he fell sick, and died a 
few days afterwards, March 19, 1626. He was then 
preaching the Lent-discourses ^t Paris in the church of St. 
Paul. This Jesuit wrote, '^ Traits du Sacrifite de la 
Messe;? " Geneve Plagiaire,'' Lyons, 1600, 4to; " L'ln- 
stitution Catbolique," 1610, 2 torn, fol; ''Sermons^'' 1617, 
8 vo ; " La Rechute de Geneve Plagiaire ;** and other 
things, among which is a letter declaratory of the doctrine 
of the Jesuits, confprmable to the doctrine of the council 
of Trent, which gave occasion to the " Anti Cotton,'* 
1610, 8vo, and is round at the end of the history of D. Ini- 
go, 2 vols. 12 mo. This satire, which betrays more malig- 
nity than wit, was attributed to Dumoulin and to Peter du 
Coignet, but is now given to Ceesar de Plaix, an advocate 
of Paris. Fathers Orleans and Rouvier wrote Cotton's Life, 
12mo, and as well as Gramont, give him a high character, 
which from the society of the Jesuits, at least, he highly 
deserved. * 

COTTON {Sir Rodert Bruce), an eminent English 
antiquary, ^^ whose name," says Dr. Johnson, ^ must al- 
ways be mentioned with honour, and. whose memory cannot 
fail of exciting the warmest sentiments of gratitude, ' whilst 
the smallest regard for learning subsists among us," was 
son of Thomas Cotton, esq. descended from a very ancient 
family, and born at Denton in Huntingdonshire, Jan. 22, 
1570; admitted of Trinity college, Cambridge, where he 
took the degree of B^ A. 1585 ; and went to London, where 
he soon made himself known, and was admitted into a so<- 
ciety of antiquaries, who met at stated seasons for their 
own amusement. Here he indulged his taste in the prose- 
cution of that study for which he afterwards became so 
.famous; and in his 18th year began to collect ancient re- 
cords, charters, and other MSS. In 1600 be accompanied 
• Camden to Carlisle, who acknowledges himself not a little 
oblic^ed to him for the assistance he received from him in 
carrying on and completing his ^^ Britannia;'' and the 
same year he wrote ^VA brief abstract of the question ef 
Precedency between England and Spain." This was oC- 

^ Moreri.— Diet. fIisU-^»x«|'Onomasticoto. 


casioned by queen Elizabeth^s desiring the thoughts of ;tfae 
society of antiquaries upon that point, and is still extant 
in the Cotton library. Upon the accession of James I. he 
was created a knight ; and during this reign was very much 
courted and esteemed by the great men of the nation, and 
consulted as an oracle by the privy counsellors and minis^ 
ters of state, upon very difficult points relating to the con- 
stitution. In 1608 he was appointed one of the comrois'^ 
sioners to inquire into the state of the navy, which had lain 
neglected ever since the death of queen Elizabeth ; and 
drew up a memorial of their proceedings, to be presented 
to the king, which memorial is still in his library. In 1609 
he wrote ^' A discourse of the lawfulness of Combats to be 
performed in the presence of the king, or the constable 
and marshal of England,'* which was printed in 1651 and 
in 1672. He drew up also, the same year, ^' An answer to 
such motives as were offered by certain military men to 
prince Henry, to incite him to affect arms more than 
peace.'' This was composed by order of that prince, and 
the original MS. remains in the Cotton library. New pro-> 
jects being contrived to repair the royal revenue, which 
had been prodigally squandered, none pleased the king so 
much as the creating a new order of knights, called ba- 
ronets ; and sir Robert Cotton, who had been the principal 
suggester of this scheme, was in 1611 chosen to be one^ 
being the thirty-sixth on the list. His principal residence 
was then at Great Connington, in Huntingdonshire ; which 
he soon exchanged for Hatley St. George, in the county 
of Cambridge. 

He was afterwards employed by king James to vindicate 
the conduct of Mary queen of Scots, from the supposed 
misrepresentations of Buchanan and Thuanus ; and what 
he wrote upon this subject is thought to be interwoven in 
Camden's *^ Annals of queen Elizabeth,'' or else printed 
at the end of Camden's " Epistles." In 1616 the king or- 
dered him to examine, whether the papists, whose num* 
bera then made the nation uneasy, ought by the laws of the 
land to be put to death, or to be imprisoned ? This task 
he performed with great learning, ^nd produced upon that 
occasion twenty- four arguments, which were published after- 
wards in 1672 f among ^^ Cottoni Posthuma." It wa» pro- 
bably then that he composed a piece, still preserved in 
MS, in the royal library, entitled, <* ConsideraticHis for the 

Y 2 

524 COTTON. 

repressing of the encrease of preests, Jesuits^ aod recii' 
santSy witDOUt drawinge of blood/' He was» also employeid 
by the house of commons^ when the match between pviuce 
Charles and the infanta of Spain was in agitation, to shew, 
by a short examination of the treaties between England 
and the house of Austria, the unfaithfulness and insincerity 
of the latter; and to prove that in all their transactions 
they aimed at nothing but universal monarchy. This piece 
is printed among " Cottoni Posthuma," under the title of 
** A remonstrance of the treaties of amity," &c. He wrote 
likewise a vindication of our ecclesiastical constitution 
against the innovations attempted to be brought in by the 
puritans, entitled, ^^ An answer to certain arguments 
raised from supposed antiquity, and urged by some mem- 
bers of the lower house of parliainent, to prove that eccle- 
siastical laws ought to be enacted by temporal men.'* In 
1621 he compiled *^ A relation to prove, that the kings of 
England have been pleased to consult with their peeres, in 
the great couhcel and commons of parliament, of marriadge, 
peace, and war;" printed first in 1651, then in 1672 
among " Cottoni Posthuma," and then in 1679 under the 
title of ^* The antiquity and dignity of Parliaments." Being 
a member of the first parliament of Charles I. he joined in 
complaining of the grievances which the nation was said 
in 1 628 to groan under ; but was always for mild remedies, 
zealous for 'the honour and safety of the king, and had no 
views but the nation^s advantage. 

lu 1629 the remarkable transaction happened, which 
gave rise to the following very curious particulars : > 

Letter from I)r. Samuel Harsnet, archbishop of York, to 
sir Henry Vane, ambassador at the HAgue, dated Lon- 
don, Nov. 6, 1629. 

" On Saturday in the evening there were sent Mr. Vice- 
^chamberlain and others to seal up sir Robert Cotton's IL^ 
brary, and to bring himself before the lords of hi^'iiiajeftty's 
council. There were found in his custody a pestilent 
tractate, which he had fostered as his child, and hadflent it 
abroad into divers hands; containing a project how 9l 
prince may make himself an absolute ty^'ant. This perni- 
cious advice he had communicated by copies to divers 
lords, who, upon his confession, are questioned $thd re- 
straiued; my lard of Somerset sent it tto the- bishop of 
London ; the lord Clare to the bishop of Winchester ; and 



die lord Bedford I know not well to Whom. Cotton him- 
self is in custody ^. God send him well out t 

I am, &c.** 

The sam^,' to the same, dated Nov. 9. 
^' Yesterday his majesty was pleased to sit in council with 
all the board, and commanded that devilish project found 
upon sir Robert Cotton to be read over unto us. For my 
own party I never heard a more pernicious diabolical de- 
vice, to breed suspicious, seditious humours amongst the 
people. His majesty was pleased to declare his royal 
pleasure touching the lords and others restrained for com-- 
municating that project ; which was, to proceed in a fair» 
moderate, mild, legal course with them, by a bill of infor- 
' mation preferred into the star-chamber, whereunto they 
might make their answer by the help of the most learned 
counsel they could procure. And though his majesty had 
it in his power most justly and truly to restrain. them till 
the cause was adjudged, yet, out of his princely clemency^ 
he commanded the board to call them, and to signify untf» 
them to attend their cause in the star-chamber. They 
were personally called in before the lords (the king being 
gone) and acquainted by the keeper with his miyesty^ft 
gracious favour. Two never spoke a word expressing 
thankfulness for his majesty's so princely goodness ; two 
expressed much thankfulness, which were my lord of Bed- 

' * This account (as was afterwards 
«bseryed by a -correspoDdeat in Gent 
Mag. HG^?, p. 38S) Mcau in some re- 
spects doubtful, in others defective ; 
lor *' among some records in the paper* 
office i$ a waraant for the commitmaot 
of sir Rooert Cotton, so early as the 
year 1615, being suspected of a cor- 
respondenoe with the Spanish ansbas- 
tador, prejudicial to the affairs of go- 
▼erDinent. From this confinement, it 
-it, however, probable, he was soon re- 
leased, and that he had his library, 
which was at that time shut up, re- 
stored to him not long after his enlarge- 
ment ;. but I ha,ve reason to believe, 
that after his last confinement in 1629^ 
he never had bis library restored ; for 
I have veen a letter which mentions his 
death in 1631, in which it is said, 
** Xb»t before he died, he requested sir 
Henry Spelman to signify to the lord 
privy aeal, and the rest of the lords of 
the council, that their so long detain- 
ing of his books firom him* wilLout ren- 

dering any ' reason for the same, had 
been ihe cause of his mortal malady ; 
upon which meaiage, the lord privy 
seal came to sir Hubert, when it wat 
too late, to' comfort him ftrooi the king ; 
from whom the earl of Dorset likewise 
came, within half an hour after sir Ro* 
bert's death, to condole with sir Thomas 
Cotton, his son, fqir his death, and to 
tell him from his majesty, that as he 
loved his father, so he would continue 
to love him. That sir Robert had en- 
tailed, as far as law could do it, his 
library of books upon his son, who 
makes no doubt of obtaining the same j 
but for all these court holy-waters, 
says the writer, I, ^r my part, for » 
while suspend my belief.^' 

From this it would appear, that the 
government was iir possession of sir 
Robert's library at the time of his d'eatb, 
and that it was even doubtful whether 
it woqM ever be restored to his post^^ 
rity. . ^ 

326 CO T T O N. 

ford und sir Kobert Cotton. St. John and Jiipies are 
still in prison ; and farther than unto these the paper 
reachetb not in direct travel, save to Selden, who is also 
contained in the bill of information. I fear the nature of 
that contagion did spread farther ; but &s yet no more ap- 
peareth. I am of opinion it will fall heavy on the parties 

I am, sir, &c.** 

Sir Symonds D*Ewes's account .of this affair, in his ma- 
nuscript life, written by himself, and still preserved among 
the Harleian MSS, will give further light to this very in- 
teresting fact. 

♦* Amongst other books,'* says he, " which Mr. Richard 
James lent out, one Mr. St. John, of Lincoln's-inn, a 
^ung studious gentleman, borrowed of him, for money, 
^ dangerous pamphlet that was in a written hand, by which 
a course was laid down, how the kings of England might 
oppress the liberties of their subjects, and for ever enslave 
them and their posterities. Mr. -St. John shewed the book 
to the earl of Bedford, or a copy of it; and so it passed 
from hand to hand, in the year 1629, till at last it was lent 
to sir Robert Cotton himself, who set a young fellow he 
then kept in his house to transcribe it ; which plainly 
proves, that sir Robert knew not himself that the written 
tract itself bad originally come out of his own library. 
'This untfpsty fellow, imitating, it seem^^, the. said James, 
took one copy secretly for himself, when he wrote another 
for sir Robert ; and out of bis own transcript sold away 
^several copies, till at last one of them came into Weut^ 
worth's bands, of the North, now lord deputy of Ireland^ 
He ac(][uaiiited the lords and others of the privy-council 
with it. They sent for the said young fellow, and examin- 
ing him where be had the written book, he confessed sir 
Robert Cotton delivered it to him. Whereupon in the 
beginning of November, in the same year 1629, sir Ro-r 
bert was examined, and so were divers others, one after, 
the other as it had been delivered from hand to hand, till 
at last Mr. St. John himself was apprehended, and, being 
conceived to be the author of the book, was comoiitted 
close prisoner to the Tower. Being in danger to have 
been questioned for his life about it, upon exapnination 
upon oath, be made a clear^ full, and punctual declara- 
tion that he bad recmed the same manuscript pamphlet of 

G O T T Q H 


ifatt wretched mercenary fdilow James *, who by thb means 
proved the wretched instrument of shortening the hfe of 
sir Robert Cotton ; for he was presently thereupon sued 
in the Sttar-chamber^ his library locked up from his use^ 
and two or more of the guards set to watch his bouse cour 
tinually. When I went several times to visit and comfort 
him in the year 1630, he would tell me, * they had broken 
his hearty that had locked up his library from him.* I 
easily guessed the reason, because his honour and esteem 
were much impaired by this fatal accident ; and his house, 
that was formerly frequented by great and honourable per- 
sonages, as by learned men of all sorts, reDaained now 
upon the matter desolate and empty. I understood from 
himself and others, that Dr. Neileand Dr. Laud, two pre-* 
lates that had be^n stigmatized in the first session of par* 
liament in 1628, were his sor€| enemies. He was so out- 
worn, within a few months, with anguish and grief, as his 
face, which had< been formerly ruddy and well coloured^ 
(such a9 the picture I have of him shews), was wholly 
changed into a grim blackish jpaleness, near to the resem- 
blance and hue of a dead visage. — I, at one time, advised 
him to look into* himself, and seriously consider, why God . 
had sent this chastisement upon him ; which, it is possible, 
be did; for I heard from Mr. Richard Holdesworth, a great 
and learned divine, that was with him in his last sickness, 
a little before he died, that he was exceedingly penitent, 
and was much confirmed in the faithful expectation of a ' 
better life." . 

It may be necessary, in order to elucidate this matter 
still farther, to take notice, that one of the articles in the 
attorney-generars information against sir Robert Cotton 
was, ^^ that the discourse or project was framed and con* 

* This was Klchard James, fellow of 
Corpus Chrisli coliei^e, in Oxford, born 
at Newport, in the Isle of Wight, and 
author of several sermons, >oth in La- 
tin and English. He died at the house 
of sir Thomas Cotton, hart, in the be- 
ginniog of Dec. 1636. Sir Symonds 
B'Ewes gives a very severe character 
of him; an atheistical profane scholar, 
boit otherwise witty and moderately 
learned ; and he adds, that he had so 
screwed himself into the good opinion 
of sir Robert Cotton, ** that whereas 
at first he had only permitted him the 
us« of bis hooikh At last, some two or 

three years before his death, he be- 
stowed the custody of his whole library 
on him ; and he being a needy shark- 
ing companion, and very expensive,, 
like old sir Ralph Starkie when he 
lived, let out, or tent out, sir Robert 
Cotton's most precious manuscripts for 
money, to any that ^puld be his cus- 
tomers; which," says sir Symonds, ** I 
once made known to sir Robert Cotton^ 
before the said James's face." But this 
appears to be in some essential points 
incorrect, as will be shewn when wo 
come to the artiole of Richacd Janes, 

328 COTTON. 


trived within five or six months past here in England ; 
but sir David Foulis testified upon oath, being thereunto 
required, that it was contrived at Florence seventeen years 
before, by sir Robert Dudley; upon which most of the 
parties were released, and sir Robert Cotton had his library 
restored to him soon after. 

The other works of sir Robert Cotton, not already men- 
tioned, are, 1. " A relation of the proceedings against 
Ambassadors, who have miscarried themselves, and ex- 
ceeded their commission." " 2. That the, sovereign's per- 
son is required in the great councils or assemblies of the 
states, as well at the consultations as at the conclusions." 
3. ** The argument made by the command of the house of 
commons, out of the acts of parliament and authority of 
law expounding the same, at a conference of the lords, con- 
cerning the liberty of the person of every freeman," 4. 
** A brief discourse concerning the power of the peers and 
commons of parliament in point of judicature." These 
four are printed in " Cottoni Posthuma." 5. " A short 
view of the long life and reign of Henry III. king of Eng- 
land," written in 1614, and presented to king James I. 
printed in 1627, 4to, and reprinted in *^ Cottoni Post- 
huma." 6. " Money raised by the king without parlia- 
ment, from the conquest until this day, either by imposi- 
tion or free gift, taken out of records or ancient registers," 
printed in the " Royal treasury of England, or general his- 
tory of taxes, by captain J. Stevens," 8vo. 7. " A narra- 
tive of count Gondomar's transactions during his embassy 
in England," London, 1659, 4to. 8. " Of antiquity, ety- 
mology, and privileges of castles." 9. ** Of towns." 10. 
'* Of the measures of Land." 11. " Of the antiquity of 
Coats of Arms." All printed in Hearne's Discourses, p. 1 66, 
174, 178, 182. He wrote books upon several other sub* 
jects, that remain still in MS. namely. Of scutage; of en- 
closures, and converting arable land into pasture; of the 
antiquity, authority, and office of the high steward and 
marshal of England.; of curious collections; of military 
affairs; of trade; collections out of the rolls of parlia- 
ment, diffefent from those that were printed under his 
name, in 1657, by William Prynne, esq. He likewise 
made collections for the history and antiquities of Hunting- 
donshire ; and had formed a design of writing an account 
of the state of Christianity in these islands, from the first 
Reception of it here to the reformation. The first part of 


COTTON. 329 

this design was executed by abp. Usher, in his book " De 
Britannicarum ecclesiarum primordiis/' composed probably 
at the reqnest of sir Robert Cotton, who left eight voJmnes 
of collections for the continuation of that work. Two of 
sir Robert's speeches are printed in the Parliamentary His- 
tory. A " Treatise of the Court of Chancery," in MS. by 
sir Robert Cotton, is often cited in disputes concerning 
the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery, and the autho- 
rity of the Master of the Rolls, as a MS. in lord Somers's 
library. A copy of it, however, is in Mr. Hargrave*s Col- 
lection of Law MSS. The " Cottoni Posthuma," so often 
mentioned above, was published by James Howell, fol. 
1651, 1672, and 1679. The first of these editions con- 
tains a life of Henry III. omitted in the subsequent edi- 
tions. Mr. Petyt, however, terms this a fictitious work 
(Petyt's MS. vol. IL p. 281.), yet it contains several va- 
luable and curious particulars. 

But, without intending to derogate from the just merits 
of this learned and knowing man as an author, it may rea- 
sonably be questioned, whether he has not done more ser- 
vice to learning by securing, as be did, his valuable library 
for the use of posterity, than by all his writings. This 
library consists wholly of MSS. many of which being in 
loose skins, small tracts, or very thin volumes, when they 
were purchased, sir Robert caused several of them to be 
bound up in one cover. They relate chiefly to the history 
and antiquities of Great Britain and Ireland, though the 
ingenious collector refused nothing that was ctirious or 
valuable in any point of learning. He lived indeed at a 
time when he had great opportunities of making such a fine 
collection : when there were many valuable books yet re- 
maining in private hands, which had been taken from the 
monasteries at their dissolution, and from our universities 
and colleges, at their visitations : when several learned an- 
tiquaries, such as Joceline; Noel, Allen, Lambarde, Bow- 
yer, Elsinge, Camden, and others,* died, who bad made it 
their chief business to scrape up the scattered remains of 
oar monastical libraries : and, either by legacy or purchase, 
he became possessed of all he thought valuable in their 
studies. This library was placed in his own house at 
Westminster, near the house of commons ; and very much 
augmented by his son sir Thomas Cotton, and his grand- 
son sir John (who died in 1702, aged 71). In 1700 an act 

«3a COTTON. 

of parliament was made for the better securing and pre-* 
serving that library in the name and family of the Cottony 
for the benefit of the public ; that it might not be sold, or 
otherwise disposed of and embezzled. Sir Jobn^ great 
grandson of sir Robert, having sold Cotton-house to queen 
Anne, about 1706, to be a repository for the royal as well 
as the Cottonian library, an act was made for the better 
securing of her Majesty's purchase of that house ; and both 
bouse and library were settled and vested in trustees. The 
books were then removed into a more convenient room, the 
former being very damp ; and- Cotton-house was set apart 
for the use of the king's library-keeper, who bad there the 
royal ;and Cottonian libraries under his care. In 1712 the 
Cottonian library was removed to Essex house, in Essex- 
street; and in 1730 to a house in Little Dean's-yard, 
Westminster, purchased by the crown of the lord Ash-t 
burnham; where a fire happening, Oct 23, 1731, 111 
books were lost, burnt, or entirely defaced, and 99 ren- 
dered imperfect. It was thereupon removed to the Old 
Dormitory belonging to Westminster-school ; and finally, 
in 1753, to the British Museum, where they still remain. 

It is .almost incredible bow much we are indebted to this 
library for what we know of our own country : witness the 
works of sir H. Spelman, sir W. Dugdale, the ^^ Decern 
Scriptores,'* dean Gale, Burners History of the Reforma* 
tion, Strype^s works, Rymer^s Foedera, several pieces pub* 
lisbed by Heame, and almost every book that has appeared 
since, relating to the history and antiquities of Great 
Britain and Ireland. Nor was sir Robert Cotton less com- 
•municative of his library and other collections in his lite- 
time. Speed's History of England is said to owe most of 
its value and ornaments to it; and Camden acknowledges, 
that he received the coins in the Britannia from this col- 
lection. To KiioUes, author of the ^^ Turkish History,'* 
he communicated authentic letters of the masters of the 
knights of Rhodes, and the dispatches of Edward Barton, 
ambassador from queen Elizabeth to the Porte ; to sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh, books and materials for the second volume of 
his history, never published ^ and the same to sir F. Bacon, 
lord Verulam, for his History of Henry VII. Selden was 
highly indebted to the books and instructions of sir Robert 
Cotton, as be thankfully acknowledges in more places 
than one. In a word, this great and worthy man was the 

COTTON. 331 

generous patron of aU lovers of aatiquities^ ond^his boose 
and library were always open to ingenious and inquisitive 

Sucb a nian» we may kmagine, must haute had many 
friends and acquaintance : and indeed he was not only ac- 
quainted with all the virtuosi and learned in his own coun« 
try,' but with many also of high reputation abroad ; as 
Gruterus, Sweeruus, Dtichesne, Bourdelot, Puteanus, 
Peiresk, &c. 

He died of a.fever, at his house in Westminster, May 6^ 
1631, aged 60 years, three months, and 15 days. He iQar* 
ried £lizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Wil- 
liam Brocas, of Tbedingworth in the county of Leicester, 
esq, by whom lie left one only son, sir Thomas the second 
baronet, who died 1662, and vras succeeded by sir John 
the third, and he, 1702, by his son John, who died in the- 
life«time of his lather, 1681, leaving two sons, of whom 
the elder, John, succeeded his grandfather^ and died with- 
out issue 1731. The title and part of the estate went to 
his uncle Robert, by whose deatli, at the age of 80, 
July ]2, 1749, the title became extinct. He had one son, 
John,, who died before his father ; and one grandson, John^ 
who died of the small-pox, on his return from his travels, 
in 1739; » 

. COVEL (Dr. John), a very learned English divine, was 
born at Horningsbeath in Suffolk, in 1638, and educated 
in classical learning in the school of St. Edmund's Bury, 
March 31, 1654, he was admitted of Christ's college, in 
Cambridge ; of which, after taking his degrees in arts> he 
was elected felloyv. Some time after he went into orders^ 
and in 1670 went as chaplain to sir Daniel Harvey^ am-^ 
bassador from Charles H. to the Porte; where he served, 
in that quality, both him and his successor, sir John Finch, 
for the space of seven years. Upon hh return to England 
in li679, he was created D. D. and the same year efadsen 
lady Margaret's preacher in the university of Cambridge. 
March 15, 1680, he had institution to the sinecure rectory 
of Littlebury in Essex, to which he was presented by Gun- 
ning, bishop of Ely. In 1681 he got the college living of 
Kegworth in LeicestersfaiTe, and was also made one of the 

1 Biog. Brit.r-Preface to the Cottoaian Catalogue, published I802» folio; and 
Life prefixed to 0r. Smith's Catalogue, Oxford, 1696, fol. — Nichols's Leicester- 
shire; HMiory of Hiuekley; Life of Bowser; and Gei|t; Mag. n67.<^Brid^'* 
lutn's L«gal Bibliograpby. 

332 C O V E L. 

chaplains to the Princess of Orange, afterwards qneen 
Mary, and on that account resided at that court, till^, 
for some cause or other, which he never would mention to 
bis moist intimate friends, he was dismissed his attendance 
at three hours warning, and came over to England. On 
Nov. 9, 1687, he was installed- into the chancellorship of 
York, conferred upon him by the king during the vacancy 
of that see. July 7, 1688, be was elected master of 
Christ's college, in Cambridge, and the same year he was 
made vice-chancellor of the university. In October, 1689, 
king William being at Newmarket, came to Cambridge ; 
and it being commonly known that Dr. Covel was in dis- 
grace with his Majesty, it was asked his Majesty whether 
he would be pleased ta see the vice-chancellor ; tt> which 
he replied, that he knew how to distinguish Dr. Cov^ from 
the vice-chancellor of Cambridge ; and it was remarked, 
that the royal visitor was more than usually gracious and 
afikble with him. In 1708 he again served the office 
of vice-chancellor; and in 1722, just before his death, 
published his account of the Greek church. 

At length, after having led*a kind of itinerant life, as he 
himself informs us, at York^ in Holland, and elsewhere, 
he arrived at bis long journey's end Dec. 19, 1722, in his 
85tb year, and was buried in the chapel of Cbrtst'scollege, 
where there is an epitaph to his memory. He gave a bene* 
faction of 3/. a year to the poor of the parish of Littlebury 
above mentioned. Mr. Thomas Baker, who was well ac^ 
quainted with him, says that he was a person noted for po- 
lite and curious learning, singular humanity, and knowledge 
of the world. 

As the femous dispute between M. Arnauld, of the Sor« 
bonne, and M. Claude, minister at Cbarenton, concerning 
the faith of the Greek church in the article of the real pre* 
sence, was then in its full height, which much interested 
learned men of all denominations in Europe, and parti- 
cularly the English clergy, Dr. Covel was desired, by some 
of the principal persons of the university of Cambridge, 
particularly the doctors (afterwards bishops) Gunning, 
Pearson, and Sancroft, to inquire into this matter at Con- 
stantinople. When he arrived there, the controversy was 
bandied with great warmth by the Roman Catholic party, 
at the head of which was the marquis de Nointel, ambas- 
sador from the king of France at the Porte, a man of great 
learnings birt Dr. CovePs disputes with him were con- 

C O V E fc, 333 

ducted nuber in^an amicable manBer, Nointelbeing.a man 
of a liberal mind. Dr. Covel remained ber^ a« we ba^e 
already noticed, for tbe space of seven years, dMFing wbich 
be bad an opportunity of informing bimself well. of the sax- 
cient and present state of tbe Greek cburcb; and having 
collected several observations and notices relating thereto, 
digested them afterwards into a curious and useful book, 
entitled ^' Some account of tbe present Greek cburcb, with 
reflections on their present doctrine and discipline, par- 
ticularly in the Eucharist/' .&c. Cambridge, 1722, folio. 
In the preface be informs us, that Arnauld, not content to 
say that tbe church in all ages believed transubstantiation^ 
did also positively affirm, that all the- eastern churcbes dp 
at this very day believe it, in the same sense as it was de« 
fined by the council of Trent Claude, in answer to him, 
brought most authentic proofs of the contrary ; upon which 
Arnauld set all tbe missionaries of the East at work tp 
procure testimonies for him : these, by bribes and other 
indirect means, they obtained in such numbers, that there 
was soon after a large quarto in French, printed at Paris, fuH 
of the names of patriarchs, bishops, and doctors of those 
churches, who all approved the Roman doctrine. But Claude, 
having bad most certain information, by means of a French 
gentleman at Colchis, that some of those testimonies were 
mere fictions, and others quite different from what they 
.were represented, sent some queries into tbe East, and de^ 
sired the English clergymen residing there to inquire of 
the Greek?, and other eastern Christians of the best note^ 
who had no connections with tbe Romanists, ^* Whether 
transubstantiation, or tbe real and natural change of tbe 
whole substance of tbe bread into the same numerical sub- 
stance as tbe body of Christ, which is in deaven, bean 
article of faith amongst them, and tbe contrary be ac-* 
(Counted heretical and impious ?*' Dr. Covel, having in* 
stituted this inquiry, published the result in the volume 
above menfioned. 

It has been objected that be ought to have published hia 
report on bis return, when public curiosity was eager for 
information -, but be delayed it, for whatever reason, until 
the decline of life, and when public curiosity bad mucb 
abated. It is thought also that he put many' things into it, 
transcribed from bis memoranda on the spot, which he 
would have suppressed had he undertaken to write his work 
sooner. Of his general accuracy, however, there can be 

334 C O V E L. 

no doubt; and as he had made use 'of several curfoas, and 
before unknown, MSS. he took care, for the reader's satis^ 
faction, to deposit them in the late earl of Oxford's library 
at Wimple, near Cambridge; and some are now in the 
. Harleian collection, in the British Museum, particularly 
five MSS. of different parts of the New Testament, which 
were collated by Mill. The 1st contains the four Gospels: ; 
the second is a manuscript of the Acts, Epistles, and Re- 
velation, written in the year 1087 : from several of its very 
extraordinary readings, it appears to be of no great value : — 
the 3d has the Acts of the Apostles, beginning with chap. i. 
11. with all the Epistles, and was supposed by Mill to be 500 
years old : — the 4th contains the Acts and Epistles, written 
in a modem hand : — the 5th, called likewise Sinaiticus, be- 
cause Covel brought it from mount Sinai, contains the 
Acts, Epistles, and Revelation ; but it has been injured, 
and rendered illegible in many places^ by the damp, which 
has had access to it. It begins with Acts i. 20. and the 
last lines of the book of Revelation are wanting. The 
first, second, and fourth, have been examined by Gries- 

With respect to his election to the mastership of Christ's 
college, we are told that the society elected him imme- 
diately on the death of Dr. Cudworth, in order to prevent a 
mandate taking place, which they heard had been obtained 
of king James; and when the king was told whom they 
bad chosen, be assented to their choice. But'it is thought, 
that if tlie election had been more free. Dr. Covel would 
not have been successful. * . 

COVENTRY (Francis), the eldest son of Thomas Co- 
ventry, esq. by Anna Maria Brown, was born in Cambridge- 
shire, and educated at Magdalen college, Cambridge, 
where he took his bachelor's degree in 1748, and his mas- 
ter's in 1752. He was a young man of very considerable 
talents, and would probably have been more distinguished 
for polite literature, had he not been cut off in the prime 
of life by the small pox, in 1759, soon after he had beeii 
presented by his relation, the earl of Coventry, to the do- 
native or perpetual curacy of Edgware. He published 
•* Penshurst," an elegant poem, 1750, reprinted in Dods- 
ley's collection, with a poetical epistle to " The hon. 

Wilmot Vaughan in Wales." He was also the author of 


^ Biog, Brit.-r<;ob'« MS Athena aitd MS collecti<»D8, vol. XX. in B;it. 

Mus, ' ' 


at paper 'in the ^^\^rld/' on the absurdities of modem 
gardening; and of the well-known satirical romance of 
" Pompey the Little," 1751. Mr. Gray told Mr. Wal- 
pol^ in a letter of that date, ^' Pompey is the hasty pro* 
daction of Mr. Covetitry (cousin to him you know), a young 
clergyman. I found it out by three characters, which 
made part of a comedy that be shewed me, of his own 
writing.*' This cousin was Henry Coventry, author of the 
f' Letters of Philemon to Hydaspes,'* and who was one of 
the writers of the ^' Athenian Letters." He was a fellow 
of Magdalen college ; once, we are told, a religious enthu- 
siast, and afterwards an infidel. He died Dec. 29, 1752.* 

COVENTRY (Thomas), lord keeper of the great seal 
of England, in the reign of king Charles L was son of 
Thomas Coventry, one of the justices of the couit of com* 
mon pleas. He was born at Croome d'Abitot in Worcds* 
tershire in 1578; and at fourteen years of age became a 
gentleman comtnoner in Baliol college in the university of 
Oxford ; where^ having continued about three years, he 
was ^removed to the Inner Temple in order to pursue his 
father's steps in the study of the common law. In 1616. 
be was chosen autumn reader of that society ; on the J 7th 
of November the saime year appointed recorder of the city 
of London ; and on the 14th of March following, solicitor- 
general, and received the honour of knighthood two days 
after at Theobald^.. January 14th, 1620'-i, he was made 
attorney-general; and thence advanced to the office of 
lord keeper of the great seal of England by king Charles L 
on the 1st of November, 1625; and on the lOtb of April, 
16-23, dignified with the degree of a baron of this realm^ 
bythe. title of lord Coventryj of Aylesboroughin the county 
of Worcester. 

- He' died at Durham-house in the Strand on the 14th 
of January, 1639-40, and was interred in the church of 
Croome d'Abitot on the 1st of March following, after he 
had' continued in his post of lord^keeper with an universal 
reputation for his exact administration of justice, for the 
space of about sixteen years ; which was another important 
circumstance of his felicity, that great office being of a 
tenure so precarious, that no man had died in it before 
for near the space of forty years; nor had his successors 
for some time after him much better fortune. And he 

y Nichols's Bgwyer.— Cole's MS Athene^— British Essayists, nrefkce to the 
World.— Lord Orford's Works, vol. V. p. 388. . 

336 COVE N TRY* 

himself twd made use. of all his strength to preserve htm-* 
self from f|iJling by two at|su:ks; tbeone by the earl Port* 
land, lord high tre^so^rer of, England; the other bjr the 
marquis of HamiltoQi who hsul the greatest power over Aef 
affections of the king of any maa of that time. • Wbite- 
locke indeed tells us, that he was of >^ no transcendant 
parts or £ame ;'* and sir Anthony Weldoni an author^ 
whose very m.anner of writing weakens the authority. -of 
whatever he advances, asserts, that if bis. actions had been 
scanned by , a parliament, he had b^en found as foul a man 
as ever lived. But our other historians represent him in a 
much more advantageous light. Mr. Lloyd observeSy .that: 
be had a venerable aspect, but was neither haughty nor 
ostentatious; that in the administration of justiee»..het 
escaped even the least . reproach or suspicion; 
served . the king most faithfully ; and the more faithfully^,., 
becauste he was a zealous opposer q{ all counsels whicfe 
were prejudicial to his majesty, and highly • disliked tbos<». 
persons who laboured \o stretch the prfsrogatlve. . But 
lord Clarendon's character of him seems entitled to higher: 
, respect, not only as a faithful portrait, but a iiseful )easQn« 
^^ He was,'' ss^ys that noble writer^ '^ A map of wondQrflri«^ 
gravity and wisdom; and not only understood the whol^: 
science and mystery of the law, at least equally with any* 
man who had ever sat in bls<post, but bsul likewise a cleair^ 
conception, of the whole policy of the government both of ; 
church and state ; which, by the unskilfulne^s of ^inc^. 
well-meaning men, jostled each other too much. He kiiiewi 
the temper, disposition, and genius of the kiiigdqm moat- 
exactly ; saw their spirits grow every d^y mqre sturdy,, 
inqui^tive, and impatient; and therefore n^urally abr 
horred ail innovations, which be foresaw would produce, 
ruinous effects. Yet many, who stood at ^.. distance,, 
thought be, was not active and stout enough in opposing; 
diose innovations. For though by his place he presided in . 
all public councils^ and was most sharp-sighted in the con* 
sequence of things, yet he was seldom known to. speak iix 
matters of state, which he well knew were, for the most, 
part,, concluded, before they were brought to that public 
agitation ; never in foreign aflairs, which the vigour of his 
judgment could well have comprehended; nor ijndqe^ 
{^eely in any thing, but what immediately and plainly 
concerned the justice of the kingdom ;. and in tbat^ a^ 
much as he could, he procured references to the judges^^^ 


Though iftiiis nature he had not only a firm gravity, bnt a 
severity, and even some moroseness; yet it was so hap**^ 
piiy tempered, and his courtesy and affability towards all 
men so transcendent, and so much without affectation, 
that it marvellously recommended him to men of all de-' 
grees; and he was looked upon as an excellent courtier, 
without receding from the natural simplicity of his own 
manners. He had in the plain way oF speaking and de-^ 
livery, without much ornament of elocution, a strange 
power of making himself believed (the only justifiable de- 
sign of eloquence) so that though he used very frankly to 
deny, and would never suffer any man to depart from him 
with an opinion that he was inclined to gratify, when in 
truth he was not ; holding that dissimulation to be the worst 
of lying : yet the manner of it was so gentle and obliging, 
aitd his coRdescension such, to inform the persons whom 
b4 could not satisfy, that few departed from him with ill- 
will and ill-wishes 

" But then this happy temper, and those good faculties, 
rather preserved him from having many enemies, and sup- 
plied him with some well-wishers, than furnished him with 
any fast and unshaken friends, who are always procured in 
courts by more ardour and more vehement professions and 
applications than be would suffer himself to be entangled 
with : so that he was a man rather exceedingly liked, than 
passionately loved ; insomuch that it never appeared that 
be had any one friend in the. court of, quality enough to 
prevent or divert any disadvantage he might be exposed 
to. And therefore it is no wonder, nor to be imputed to 
him, that he retired within himself as much as he could ; 
and stood upon his defence, without makiug desperate sal- 
lies against growing mischiefs ; which, he knew well, he 
had no power to hinder, and which might probably begiix 
in his own ruin. To conclude, his security consisted very 
much in his haVing but little credit with the king ; and he 
died in a season- the most opportune in which a wis6 man' 
would have prayed to have finished hi^ course, and which, 
in truth, crowned hi$ other signal prosperity in the world." 

Wood says the: lord keeper Coventry has extant *• Art- 
Answer to the Petition against Recusants," and " Perfect 
and exact directions to all those that desire to know the 
true and just Fees of all the offices belonging to the court 
of Common Pleas," Chancer}', &c.'* Lond. 8vo, Wood 
has al»o recorded ttine different speeches by his lordship 

VOU. X. Z 

338 C O V E N T R Y. 

in 1625, 1626, 1627, and 1628. Others occur among the 
Harleian MSS. In No. 2207 are " Ordinances made by 
the lord-keeper Coventry (with the advice and assistance 
of sir Julius Ccesar, &c.) for the redresse of sundry errours, 
defaults, and abuses in the High Courte of Chancerye ;*' and 
in No. 2305 is what bears the title of " The lord-keeper's 
Parlaphrase of the king's speech, Mar. 17, 1627,'* but it 
seems rather to be the chancellor's address on the first day 
of meeting of a new parliament, before the house of com- 
mons has elected a speaker. ' 

COVENTRY (William), youngest son of the prece- 
ding, was born in 1626, and in 1642 became a gentleman- 
commoner of -Queen's college in Oxford ; and after he had 
continued there some time, he travelled on the continent, 
and at his return, adhering to Charles 11. was made se- 
cretary to the duke of York, also secretary to the ad- 
miralty ; and elected a burgess for the town, of Great Yar- 
mouth in Norfolk, in the parliament which met at West- 
minster, May 8, 1661 ; and also to that which was sum- 
moned in 1678. In 1663 he was created doctor of the civil 
law at the university of Oxford. He was sworn of the 
privy-council, and received the honour of knighthood June 
26, 1665, and was made one of the commissioners of the 
treasury on May 24, 1 6^7 ; being, as bishop Burnet relates, 
*' a man of great notions and eminent virtues ; the best 
speaker in the house of commons, and capable of bearing 
the chief ministry, as it was once thought he was very- 
near it, and deserved it more than all the rest did," Yet, 
as he was too honest to engage in the designs of that reign, 
and quarrelled with the duke of Buckingham, a challenge 
passed between them ; upon which he was forbid the court, 
and retired to Minster-Lovel, near Whitney, in Oxford- 
shire, where he gave himself up to a religious and private 
course of life, without accepting of any employment, 
though he was afterwards offered more than once the best 
posts in the court. He died June 23, 1686, unmarried, at 
Somerhill, near Tunbridge-wells, in Kent (where he had 
Went for the benefit of the waters, being afflicted with the 
gout in the stomach) and was buried at Penshurst, in the 
same county, under a monument erected to his memory. 

By his last will he gave 2000/. for the relief of the French 


1 CoUins'8 Peerage.— Birch's Lives — Ath. Oz. vol. I.— Lloyd's SlaU Woithict. 
-^Fuller's WorU)i€8.— Park's Royal and Noble AuUiors. 


protestants then lately come intd England, and banished 
their country for the sake of their religion ; and 3000/. for 
the redemption of captives from Algiers. 

Sir William Coventry wrote, 1. ** England's Appeal frOm 
the private Cabal at Whitehall to the great Cotincil of the 
nation, the Lords and Commons in parliament assembled,^^ 
Lond. 1673, 4to. 2. <* Letter written to Dr. Gilbert Bur- 
netj giving an account of cardinal Pole's secret powers^ 
&;c." respecting the alienation of the abbey lands, ibid* 
168^, 4to. 3. « The Character of a Trimmer," ibid. 1689, 
2d edition, with- his name, which did not appear to the^ 
first. * 

COVERDALE (Miles)^ the pious and learned bishop 
of Exeter in the reign of Edward VL was born in York- 
shire in 1487, as appears by his age on his epitaph. He 
was educated at Cambridge, in the house of the Augustine 
friars, of which Dr. Barnes, afterwards one of the pto- 
testant martyrs, was then prior. One of his name took 
the degree of bachelor of law in 1530, but Lewis thinks 
this must have been too late for the subject of the present 
article; yet it, is not improbable it was the same, as be 
appears to have been in Cambridge at that time. He af- 
terwards, according to Godwin, who does not furnish\th6 
date, received the degree of D. D. from the university of 
Tubingen, and was, though late in life, admitted ad eun-^ 
dem at Cambridge. Being in his early years attached to 
d^ religion in which he was brought up, he became an 
Augustine monk. In 1514 he entered into holy orders, 
being ordained, at Norwich; but afterwards changing his 
religious opinions. Bale says he wa» one of the first, who^ 
together with Dr. Robert Barnes, his quondam prior, taught 
the purity of the gospel, and dedicated himself wholly to 
the service of the reformation. About this time, probably 
1530, or 1531, the reformed religion began to dawn at 
Cambridge. Various eminent men, not only in the col* 
leges, but monasteries, began to assemble for conference 
on those points which had been discussed by the reformers 
abroad, and their usual place of meeting was^e house 
called the White Horse, which their enemies nicknamed. 
Germany, in allusion to what was passing in that country ; 
and this house being contiguous to King^s, Queen's, and 
St. John's colleges, nftany members of each could have 

1 Ath. Ox. voU II.— CoHins's Peerage. 

Z 2 

340 C O V E R D A L B. 

access unobserved. Among the names on record of these^ 
early converts to protestantism, we find that of Coverdale. 
In 1532 he appears to have been abroad, and assisted Tyn- 
dale in his translation of the Bible, and in 1535 his own 
translation of the Bible appeared, with a dedication by 
bim to king Henry VIIL It formed a folio volume, printed, 
as Humphrey Wanley thought^ from the appearance of 
the types, at Zurich, by Christopher Froschover. If so, 
Coverdale must have resided there while it passed through 
the press, as his attention to it was unremitting. He t;bus 
had the honour of editing the first English Bible allowed 
by royal authority, and the first translation of the whole 
Bible printed in our language. It was called a special 
translation, because it was diffierent from the former Eng-* 
lish translations, as Lewis shews by comparing it withTyn^ 
dale's; and the psalms in it are those now used in the Book 
of Common Prayer. In 1538 a quarto New Testament, iii 
the Vulgate Latin, and in Coverdale's English, though it 
bore the name of Hollybushe, was printed with the king'^ 
licence, and has a dedication by Coverdale, in which b^ 
says, ^^ be does not doubt but such igndrant bodies as, 
having cure of souls, are very unlearned in the Latin 
tongue, shall, through this small labour, be occasioned tq 
attain unto more knowledge, or at least be constrained ip 
say well of the thing which heretofore they have blas'-^ 

About the end of this year we find Coverdale again 
abroad on the business of a new edition of the Bible,- on 
which occasion an event happened which shewed the vi-- 
^ilance and jealousy of the Romanists with respect to ver- 
nacular translations. Grafton, the celebrated printer, bad 
permission from Francis 1. king of France, at the request 
of king Henry himself, to print a Bible at Paris, on ac- 
count of the superior skill of the workmen, and. the com- 
parative goodness and cheapness of the paper. But, not- 
withstanding the royal licence^ the inquisition interposed 
by an instrument dated Dec. 17, 1538. •The French prin- 
ters, their English employers, and our Coverdale, who 
was the corrector of the press, were summoned by the 
inquisitors; and the impression, consisting of 2500 copies, 
was seized and condemned to the flames. But the avarice 
of the officer who superintended the burning of these 
** heretical books,'* as they were called, induced him to 
sell some chests of them to a haberdasher for the purpose 

C V E R D A L E. 341 

of wrapping his wares, and thus some copies were pre*- 
iserved. The English proprietors, who fled at the alarm; 
returned to Paris when it subsided ; and not only recovered 
some of those copies which had escaped the fire, but 
brought with them to London the presses, types, and 
printers. This valuable importation enabled Grafton and 
Whitchurch to print in 1539, what is called Cranmer's, 
or the ** Great Bible," in which Coverdale compared the 
translation wjth the Hebrew, corrected it in many places', 
and was the cliief overseer of the work. Dr. Fulk, who wai 
one of Coverdale's bearers when he preached at St. Paul's 
^£ross, informs us that he took an opportunity in his ser- 
mon to defend his translation against some slanderous re^ 
ports then raised against it, confessing, ^^ that he himself 
now saw some faults, which, if he might review the book 
once again, as be had twice before, he doubted not he 
should amend : but for any heresy, he was sare that ther6 
was none maintained in his translation." In all these la« 
hours Coverdale. found a liberal patron in Thomas lord 

It is highly probable also that Coverdale was held iii 
estimation for piety or talents at courts for he was almoner 
to queen Catherine Parr, the last wife of Henry VIII. a 
lady who was a favourer of the reformed religion, and as 
such he officiated at her funeral in Sept. 1548, in the 
chapel at Sudeley castle in Gloucestershire, the seat of 
her third husband^ Thomas, lord Seymour of Sudley; and - 
took that opportunity of declaring his sentiments on reli- 
gion in the sermon he preached, which, says our manu- 
script authority, >^ was very good and godlie, and in one 
place thereof he toke occasion to declare unto the people 
howe that therq shulde none there thinke, seye nor spread 
abrode, tliat the offeringe which was there don, was don 
anye thing to profFy tt the deade, but for the poore onlye ; 
and also the lights which were carted and stode abowte 
the corps, were for the honnour of the parson, and for 
none other entente nor purpose ; and so wente thorowghe 
with his Sermonde, and made a gociflye Prayer, &c." 

In 1547 we find him preaching at St. Paul's with such 
effect against certain anabaptists, that they are said to have 
recanted their opinions. On the 14th of August, 1551, he 
succeeded Dr. John Harman, or Voysey, in the see of 
Exeter, his collocation, with licence of entry, bearing- data 
July of that year, and it was expressly stated that king 

342 C Q V E B D A L E. 

JIdward VL had promoted him '^ on account of his ex^ 
traordinary knowledge in divinity, and bis unblemished 
character.'* When lord Russel was sent down to quell the 
rebellion in the West of England in 1549, he was attended 
by Coverdale to preach among them, and it was probably 
the influence of his preaching in composing the religious 
differences in that quarter, which pointed him out as a fit 
person to succeed Harman, a bigotted papist, who seldom 
resided, and took little care of his diocese, and to whom, 
liome time before, Coverdale had been appointed coadjutor, 
fin office not uncommon ip those days. On his appointment 
to this bishopric, Coverdale was so poor as to be unable to 
pay the first fruits, which, therefore, the king, at the so* 
licitation of archbishop Cranmer, excused. In the same 
year he was nominated one of the commissioners for com- 
piling a new body of ecclesiastical laws, a favourite object 
with Cranmer, which, however, did not then take effect. 

In his diocese he exerted himself to promote the re- 
formed religion, and as he was not technically versed in 
civil and ecclesiastical law, which he wished to be exe- 
cuted with justice and equity, he applied to the university 
of Oxford for a competent person to be chancellor of his 
diocese; and Dr. Robert Weston, afterwards lord chan*- 
ceilor in Ireland *y being recommended, he invested him 
with full ecclesiastical jurisdiction, allowing him not only 
^1 the, fees of office, but a house for him and bis family, 
with proper attendants, and a salary of 40/. per annum. 
Yet, notwithstanding the integrity of his chancellor's con- 
duct, and his own endeavours to promote religion, by 
preaching constantly every Sunday and holy day, and by ^ 
divinity lecture twice a week in one or other of the churches 
pf Exeter, and notwithstanding his hospitality, charity, and 
humility, the enemies of the new religion, as it was called, 
took every opportunity to thwart his endeavours, and to 
misrepresent his conduct, all which, however, during the 
ireign of Edward VI. gave him but little disturbance. 

On the accession pf queen Mary, and the consequent 
re-establishment of popery, he was ejected from the see 
^nd thrown into prison, out of which he was released after 
two years confinement, at the earnest request of the king 
pf Penmark. Coverdale and Dr. John Machabaeus^ chap- 

* Dr. Weston does not occar in Le Neye's litst of ChanceUqr^, but there cap- 
))e 1^0 dpubt of the fact. 

C O V E R D A L E. 343 

lain to that monarch, bad married sisters *, and it was s^t 
his cbaplain^^ request that the king interposed, but was 
obliged to send two or three letters before he could ac-^ 
xomplish his purpose. By one of these, dated April 25, 
1554, it would appear that Coverdale was imprisoned in 
consequence of being concerned in an insurrection against 
the queen, but this is not laid to his charge in the queened 
answer, who only pretended that he was indebted to her 
concerning his bishopric. As the first fruits had been for* 
given by Edward VI. this must be supposed to allude to his 
tenths ; and Coverdale's plea, as appears by the king of 
-Denmark's second letter, was, ^that he had not enjoyed the 
bishopric long enough to be enabled to pay the queen. 
This second letter bears date Sept. 24, 1554, and, accord- 
ing to Strype, the queen's grant of his request waS not 
given till Feb. 18, 1555. Strype, therefore, from his own 
evidence, is erroneous in his .assertion that in 1554 Cover- 
dale was preacher to a congregation of exiled protestants 
at Wesel, until he was called by the duke of Deux Ponts> 
to be preacher at Bergzabern f. On his release, wbicli 
was on the condition of banishing himself, he repaired to 
the court of Denmark, where the king would fain have 
detained him, but as he was not so v^ell acquainted with 
the language as to preach in Danish, he preferred going tOs 
the places above mentioned, where he could preach wi^h 
facility in Dutch ; and there and at Geneva he passed his 
time, partly in teaching and partly in preaching. He also, 
while here, joined some other English exiles, Goodman, 
Gilby, 'Whittingham, Sampson, Cole, &c. in that trans- 
lation of the Bible usually called the *' Geneva translation;" 
part of which, the New Testament, was printed at Geneva, 
by Conrad Badius, in 1557, and again in 1560, in which 
last year the whole Bible was printed in the same place 
by Rowland Harte. Of this translation, which had ex- 
planatory notes, and therefore was much used in private 
families, there were above thirty editions in folio, quarto, 
and octavo, mostly printed in England by the king^s and 
queen's printers, from the year 1560 to 1616. On the 

* This circumstance seems to have shop of St. David's, Taylor, Philpot, 

given rise to the assertion ia some his. Bradford, Hooper, and others, mar- 

tories, that . Coverdale was a Dane, tyrs, drew up and signed a confession 

Burnett wKo ought to have known bet- of their faith, dated May 8, 1 554. 

ter, says he was a foreigner. This is another proof of Strype's error 

f During his con6nement he was one noticed in the text. 
of the prisoners, who, vith Fernur, hi- 

tu G O V E R D A L E. 

accession of queen Elizabeth^ he returned £rom his exile^ 
but, unfortunately for the church, bad imbibed the prin- 
ciples of the 'Geneva reformers, as far as respected the 
ecclesiastical habits and ceremonies. In 1559, however, 
we find him taking his turn as preacher at St. Paul's Cross, 
and he assisted also at the consecration of archbishop Par- 
ker, in which ceremony, although he performed the func- 
tions of a bishop, he wore only a long black cloth gown. 
This avowed non*compliance with the habit^ and cere- 
monies prevented his resuming his bishopric^ or any pre- 
ferment being for some time offered to him. In 1563 
bishop Grindal recommended him to the bishopric of Llaiii- 
daff; and in 1564, Coverdale had the honour to admit that 
prelate to his doctor's degree, by a mandate from the vice- 
chaficellar of Cambridge, a proof that he was still in high 
estimation. Grindal, particularly, had a great regard for 
him, and was very uneasy at his wat>t of preferment. On 
one occasion he exclaimed, '^ I cannot^excuse us bishops." 
He dlso applied to the secretary of state, ** telling him, 
that surely it was not well that father Coverdale,^' as he 
styled him, *' qui ante nos omnes fuit in Christo," " who 
was in Christ before us all,'' should be now in his age with- 
out stay of living.^' It was on this occasion that Grindal 
recommended him to the bishopric of Lla-ndafF, as already 
noticed, but it is supposed Coverdale's age and infirmities, 
and the remains of the plague, from which he had just 
recovered, made him decline so great a charge. In lieu 
of it, however, the bishop collated him to the rectory of 
St. Magnus, London Bridge; and here again thegbod 
man^s poverty presented an obstructioUj as appears from 
some affecting letters he wrote to be excused from the 
first fruits, amounting to 60/. which he was utterly inca^ 
pable of paying: one of these letters, in which he men- 
tions his age, and the probability of not enjoying the pre- 
ferment long, he concludes with these words : " If poor 
old Miles might be thus provided for, he should think 
this enough to be as good as a feast.'* His request being 
granted, he entered upon his charge, anxl pi'eached about 
two years; but resigned it in 1566, a little before his 
death. He was very much admired by the puritans, who 
flocked to him in great numbers \vhile he officiated at St. 
Magnus's' church, which he did without the baibtts, and 
v^hen he bad resigned it, for it does not appear that he was 
deprived of it, as Neal asserts, his followers were obliged 

C 6 V E R D A L E. S4S 

to send to his house on Saturdays, to know where they 
might hear him the next day, v^icb he decUhed answer- 
ing lest he should give offence to government. Yet, ao- 
-cording to Strype, he had little to fear; for. Fox, Hum- 
phrey, Sampson, and others of the same way of thinking, 
were not only eonnived at, but allowed to hold preferments. 
He died, according to Richardson in his edition of 
Godwin, May 20, 1565 ; and according to Neal in his His- 
tory of the Puritans, May 20, 1567 ; but both are wrong. 
The parish register proves that he was buried Feb. 1 9, 1 568, 
in the chancel of the church of St Bartholomew, Ex- 
change, with the following inscription on his tombstone, 
which was destroyed at the great fire along with the church. 

*' Hie tandem requiemque ferens, finemque laborumj 
pssa Coverdali mortua tumbus babet t 
Exoniae qui prsesul erat dignissimus olimi 

Insignia vitte i4r prolntate suse* 
Octoginta annos grandsevus vixit et unvm, 
. , Indignum pasaus aspius exilium. 

Sic demum vaiiis jactatus casibus ista 
Excipit gremio^ terra benigna, suo.*' 

Coverdale was.the. author of several tracts calpuUted to 
promote the dootrines of the ri^formation, and of several 
translations from the writings.of the foreign reforolei's. All 
tbese are now of such rare occurrence, that it is very dif- 
ficult to make out a correct list., 7'hat in Bale,« and in the 
meagre account of him in the Biographia Britann^ca, is 
both defective and indistinct. The following, which pro- 
^bably is also imperfect, may, in some measure, assist the 
collectors of curiosities, and has been taken principally 
from Ames and Herbert : 1. " A faithful and true Pro- 
gnostication upon the Year 1548, &c." translated from the 
German, 8vo, 1536, 1543, and often reprinted* 2. Trans- 
lation of ^^ Luther's Exposition of the 23d Psalm,^' 1537, 
16mo. 3. ^^ How and whither a Chryten man ought to fly 
the horryble Plague and Pestilence,^' a sermon, from the 
German, to Which is udded, " A comfort concerning theoi 
that be dead, and howe wyfe, chyldren, and other frendes 
shal be comforted, the husband being dead,*' 1537, 8vo» 
,4. "The Olde Faithe,*' 1541 and 1547, 16mo. 5, A 
translation of BuUinger's " Christen State of Matrimony,'* 
1541, 8vo, and 1543, one of the books prohibited by pro* 
clamation of Henry VIII. but reprinted twice in 1552. 6, 
^< A Confutacion of that Treanse,wiiicb one John Standish 

24fi C O V E R D A L B. 

made agaiiist the Protestacion of D. Barnes, in the year 
1540," 154^ 8vo. 7. Translation of " The Actes of the 
.Disputation in the cowncell of the empyre^ holden at Re- 
.genspurg,'^ Svo, about 1542« ,8. Translation from theGer*- 
.man of ^^ The Defence of a certayne poore Christen Man ; 
who als shuld have beene condemned by the Popes Lawe/^ 
Nuremberg, 1545, 16mo. 9. ^^ An Abridgment of Eras- 
anus's Enchiridion militis Christiani," 1545, 12mo. 10. 
.A translation of the JSpistles to the Romans, Corinthians, 
jand Galatians, in 5^ The second volume of the Paraphrase 
^i Erasmus on the New Testament," 1549, {oh l\. 
Tjranslation of ** A godly Treatise, wherein is proved the 
.Ime Justification of a Christian Man to come freely to the 
Mercie of God,'' 1579, 16mo. 12. Translation of " The 
Hope of the Faithful!, &c." 1579^ 16mQ, and of 13. " The 
Booke of Deaths or bow a Christian Man ought to behave 
himself in the danger of Death, &c." 1579, 16mo. 14. 
Translation of ^* A spiritual and most precious pear]e> 
teaching all men to love and embrace the Cross," from the 
German of Otho Wermylierus, or Wermulerus, no date» 
but printed by Singleton about 1588. 15. ** Fruitful Les- 
sons upon the passion, buriall, resurrection, ascension^ 
and of the sending of the Holy Ghost,'* 1593, 4to, 16* 
Translation of ^^ The Supplication of the nobles and com- 
mons of Ostericke made unto king Ferdinandus, in the 
cause of Christian Religion, &c." 8vo, no date. 17. ** De- 
claration of the Order that the churches in Denmark, and 
many other places in Germany, do use, not only at the 
Holy Supper, but also at Baptisme," printed beyond sea ; 
no date, 16mo. No mapuscripts of bishop Coverdale exist 
in any of our public libraries, except a short letter in the 
Harleian collection, lately printed in the Gentleman*s 

COUDRETTE (Christopher), a French Jesuit, who 
died at Paris Aug. 4, 1774, at an advanced age, connected 
)iimself with the Jansenists, and particularly with the 

1 Bale and Tanner.-r-Strypa^g Life of Cranmer, p. 59, 82, 138, 266, 271, 
874, 310, 314, 444.— Strype'f Parker, p.6— 7, 54, 56—58,148, 241— 3— Strype's 
Grindal, p. 27, 91, 95, 116.— Strypc'g Memorials, vol. 11. p. 90, 277,464; vol. 111. 
p. 152.— Strype>s Annals, Tol. 1. p. 366 ; vol. II. Appendix, book I. No. 22.—- 
Clark's lires at the end of his Marty roIogsr.-r-I'otvhele*s Hist, of Devonshire.— 
Gent. Ma|^. vol. LXI. — A MS. in the College of Arms, I. 15, F. 93, a part of 
which was communicated to the editors of the last edition of the Biog. Brit and 
is the only astide of the least consequence in that very imperfect accotiut,. 
jwbich concludes with a gross misrepresentation by Neal,-r-Lewis and archbishop 
NewGombe's Hist, of the Translations of the Bible* 

C O U D R E T T E. 3« 

learned abbe Boursier. His sentiments on the bull Uni- 
genitus occasioned his being imprisoned for some weeks at 
Vincennes in 1755, and for more than a year in the Bas- 
tille in 1758-9. He wrote some works in defence of his 
opinions, and some political tracts ; but his most celebrated 
publication was his " History of the Jesuits,** '1761, 4 vols, 
12mo, to which he added 2 vols, of a supplement in 1764« 
This work cost him so much litei^ary research, as to have 
injured his sight ; but it is more remarkable, that, notwith- 
standing he o.ved his advancement to the Jesuits, and was 
the friend of many members of that society, he was a decided 
enemy to the society itself; and when their dissolution 
was concerted, in 1762, this work is said to have furnished 
many arguments in favour of the measure. His character 
was that of a laborious, active, useful, and disinterested 
ecclesiastic. ' 

COULON (Lewis), a French historian, was bom at 
Poitou in 1605, entered the society of the Jesuits in 1620, 
and quitted them in 1640, after having taught classical 
learning in their schools for some time. He afterwards de« 
voted his time to historical and geographical pursuits, and 
published ; 1. " Trait6 historique des rivieres de France,** 
Paris, 1 644, 2 vols. 8vq. 2. An enlarged edition of " Tre- 
fior de THistoire de France de Gilles Corrozet,** 1645, 8vo- 

3. " Histoire universelle du royaume de la Chine," trans- 
lated from the Italian of Alvares Semedo, 1645, 4to. 

4. An enlarged edition of '^ Introducteur en la Cosmogra- 
phie," supposed to have been written by M. de Renti, 
1645. 5. A translation of Turselin's " Universal History/* 
continued to 1647, 1647, 2 vol. 8vo. 6. An enlarged edi- 
tion of " Voyages de Vincent de Blanc,'* 1648 and 1658, 
4 to. 7. A translation of Platina's " Lives of the Popes," with 
a continuation to Innocent X. 1651, 4to. 8. An original 
" Histoire des Vies des Papes,'* 1656, 12mo, often re- 
printed, with additions and alterations by other hands. 
9. ^< Harmonie des Evangelistes sur la Passion de notre 
Seigneur, avec des eclaircissemens,*' 1645, l2mo. 10. 
" Lexicon Homericum," 1643, 8vo. 11. " Histoire de 
Juifs," 3 vols. 12mo, two only of which were Coulon's, the 
third being completed by his friend father Comte. Cour 
Ion died in 1664, a.nd this history of the Jews was pub- 
Jished the year after*-' 

} Diet Hift, < 9foreri.-^Le Long, Bibl Hist 


/ COUPLET (Philip), a Jesuit, born at Malines, went 
%o China in quality of missionary in 1659, and returned in 
)680« Being embarked in the intention of making a se* 
concl voyage, he died on his passage in 1693. He com- 
po^^ed some works in the Chinese language, and many in 
L^ii^ ;, of which are: 1. ^' Confucius Sinarum philoso- 
phus; .s>ve Scientia Sinica Latine exposita,'* Paris, l^^Js 
JToiip. This curious and tincommon work is a compendium 
of th^ theology and the ancient history of the Chinese^ 
He extols the morality of that people as excellent, and 
carrier up their annaU to a very remote period. 2. ^^ His- 
toria CandidoB Hiu, Christianas Sinensis,** translated into 
French at Paris 1688. 3. " The catalogue (in Latin, 
Paris, 1688) of the Jesuits that have gone as missionaries 
to China." ^ 

COURAYER (Peter Francis), a learned divine of the 
church of Rome, who was long resident fn England, was 
born at Vernon, in Normandy, in the year 1 68 1, and being 
educsvted for the church, became canon regular and libra- 
rian of the abbey of Sti Oenevieve, a situation extremely 
favourable to the prosecution of his studies, as the library 
«f which he had the care is a very cdntsiderable one. Among 
other theological inquiries, he engaged in one, which was 
productive of very important consequences respecting hi& 
future life. Having been employed in reading abb6 Re- 
Baudot's ^' Memoire sur la validity des Ordinations des 
Anglois," in^rted in abb^ Gould's " La veritable croyance 
de Teglise Catholique,'' he was induced to enter into a far^ 
ther examipation of that subject. Accordingly he drew up 
a memoir upon it, for his own satisfaction only, but which 
grew in^nsibiy into a treatise ; and at the instance of some 
friends to whom it was communicated, he was at liengtb 
prevailed with to consent to its publication. He therefore 
msuie the usual application for permission to print it ; and 
obtained the approbation of Mons. Arnaudin, the royal li« 
censer of the press. Some persons, however, afterwards., 
found means to prevail on the chancellor to refuse to affix 
the seal to the approbation of the licenser. Terms were 
proposed to father Courayer, to which he could not accede, 
and he gave up all thoughts of publishing. Some of his 
friends, however, being in possession of a copy, resolved 
to print it ^ and this obliged him to acquiesce in the pubn 

* Mor^ri. • . . 

CO U R AY E R. 345 

lication; .When he first wrote his treatise, all hirmate- 
rials were taken from printed authorities, and he had no 
acquaintance or correspondence in England. But sundry 
difficulties, which occurred to him in the course of his in* 
quiries, suggested to him the propriety of writing to Eng- 
land, in order to obtain clearer information on some points; 
and knowing that a correspondence had been carried on 
between Dr. Wake,, then archbishop of Canterbury, and 
Dr. Dupin, on the project of re^uniting the churches of 
England and France, he took the liberty, in 1721^ although 
entirely unknown to that prelate, tp desire his information 
respecting some particulars. Tha archbishop answered his 
inquiries with great readiness, candour, and politeness, and 
many letters passed between them on this occasion. Father 
Courayer's book was at length published in 1723, in two 
volumes small 8vo, entitled, ** Dissertation sur la validity 
^es Ordinations des Anglois, et sur Ik Succession des 
Evesques de TEglise Anglicane: avec les preuves justifi* 
catives des faits .avancez dans cet ouvrage." It was printed 
at Nancy, though Brussels is placed in the title* It was 
afterwards translated into English, by the rev. Mr. Daniel 
Williaqis, and . published at London in. one volume dvo, 
under the title : " A Defence of the validity of the English 
Ordinations, and of the Succession of the Bishops in the - 
Church of England : together with proofs justifying the* 
facts advanced in this treatise." Father Courayer*s work 
was immediately attacked by several popish writers, parti- 
cularly by father le Quien and father Hardouin. But in 
1726 he publ^hed, iu four volumes .12mD, << Defense de la- 
Dissertation sur la yalidite des Ordinations des Ansriois. 
contre les differentes r6ponses qui y ont 6t^ faites. Avec les* 
preuves justihcatives des faits avancez dans cet ouvrage. 
Par TAuteur de la Dissertation." An English translation* 
of this also was afterwards published at London, in two 
volumes 8vo, under the following title : " A Defence of 
th^ Dissertation on the validity of the English Ordina* 
tions," &c. 

But father Courayer was not only attacked by those 
writers who published books against him : he was likewise 
censured both by th^ mandates and by the assemblies of 
several bishops, and particularly by cardinal de Noailles, 
archbishop of Paris, and the bishop of Marseilles. During 
this time he retired from Paris into the country, but was 
recalled by his superior to reside at the priory of Henne^^ 

S^SO C O U R A Y E R. 

inonte, four leagues from Paris. Here be received a di- 
ploma for the degree of doctor in divinity from the uni- 
versity of Oxford, dated Aug. 28, 1727: and from hence 
be returned his thanks to the University in an elegant 
Latin letter, dated Dec. 1 , the same year, both of which 
he afterwards printed. But though his book had procured 
this honourable testimonial of his merit from an English 
university, his enemies in France were not satisfied with 
publishing censures and* issuing episcopal mandates against 
him, but proceeded to measures for compelling him to re- 
^nt what he had written, and to sign such submissions as 
were inconsistent with the dictates of his conscience. In 
this critical state of things, he resolved to quit his native 
country, and to seek an asylum in England. He was thd 
niore inclined to embrace this resolution in consequence of 
the warm and friendly invitations which he bad received 
from archbishop Wake, who bad conceived a great regard 
for him. After having spent four months very disagreeably 
at Hennemonte, , he obtained leave to remove to Senlis; 
but, instead of going thither, he-took the road to Calais in 
the common stage-coach, from thence got safely over to 
Dover, and arrived. in London on the 24th of January^ 

He was well received in England : the marquis of Bland* 
ford made him a present of fifty pounds, and he obtained 
a pension of one hundred pounds a year from the court. 
In 1729 he published, at Amsterdam, in two vols. ISmo, 
*^ Relation Historique et Apologetique des sentimens et de 
la conduite du P. le Courayer, chanoine regulier de Ste* 
Genevieve : avec lespreuvesjustificatives des faits avancez 
dans I'ouvrage." In this work he entered into a farther 
justification of his sentiments and of his conduct, and 
shewed the necessity that he was under of quitting France, 
from the virulence and power of his enemies. In 1733 he 
was at Oxford, and was present in the theatre at the public 
act that year, and made a speech there upon the occasion^ 
which was afterwards printed both in Latin and English. 
In 1736 he published at London, in two vols, folio, a trans- 
lation, in French, of " Father Paul's History of the Council 
of Trent ;*^ with notes critical, historical, and theological. 
He dedicated this work to queen Caroline, and speaks of 
it as having been undertaken by her command ; and he ex- 
presses, in the strongest terms, his gratitude to her ma- 
jesty for her patronage, and for the liberality which sh^ 

C O U R A Y E R- 351^ 

had manifested towards him. A list of subscribers is pre« 
fixed, in which are found the names of the prince of Wales^/ 
the duke of Cumberland, the prince and princess of Orange^ 
the princesses Amelia and Caroline, the archbish<^ of 
Canterbury, the lord Cbaucellor, lord Hardwicke, then 
chief Justice of, the King^s Bench, sir Robert Walpole,- 
and many of the nobility, and other persons of distinction* 
By the sale of this work hoi is said to have gained fifteen. 
hundred pounds, and the queen also raised bis pension to- 
two hundred pounds per annum. He gave sixteen hundred 
pounds to lord Feversham, for an annuity of one hundred 
pounds per annum, which he enjoyed forty years. By 
these means he came into veryeasy circumstances, whiob 
were rendered still more so by the*" reception wfarch b«i 
agreeable and instructive conversation procured him, amongf 
persons of rank and fortune, with many of whom it was his 
custom to live for several months at a time. He wrote 
some other works in French, besides those that have been 
mentioned ; and, in particular, he translated into that lan<^ 
guage Sleidan's ^' History of the Reformadon." His exile 
from his own country was probably no diminution of hia 
happiness upon the whole ; for he appears to have pasted 
his time in England very agreeably, and he lived to an 
uncommon age. • Even in his latter yean, he was distin«* 
guisbed for the cheerfulness of his temper and the spright* 
liness of his conversation. He died in Downing-street, 
Westminster, after two days illness, on the 17th of Oc-« 
tober, 1776, at the age of ninety-fiiTe. Agreeably to his 
own desire, he was buried in the cloister of Westminster- 
abbey, by Dr. Bell, chaplain to the princess Amelia. In 
his will, which was dated Feb^ 3, 1774, be declared^ 
^^ That he died a member of the Catholic church, but with«^ 
out approving of many of the opinions and superstitions 
which have been introduced into the Romish church, and 
taught in their sehools and seminaries, and which they have 
insisted on as articles of &ith, though to him they appeared 
to be not only not founded in truth, but also to be highly 
improbable.'* It is said, that soon after he came to Eng^ 
land, he went to a priest of the Romish church for con- 
fession, and acquainted him who he was. The priest would 
not venture to take his confession, because he was excom-' 
. municatedy but advised him to consult his superior of Ge-> 
nevieve. Whether he made any such application, or wbi^ 
was the result, we are not informed ^ but it is certain that^ 

352 C O U R A Y E R. 

wben in London, he made 'it his practice to go to mass ; 
and when in the country, at Ealing, he constantly attended 
the s«fvice of the parish-church, declaring, at all timesi, 
that he had great satisfaction in the prayers of the church 
of England. In discoursing on religious subjects he was 
reserved and cautious, .^voiding controversy as much as> 
possible. He left 500/. to the parish of St. Martin ; and 
gave, in his life-time, his books to the library there, 
founded by archbishop Tenison. He bequeathed 200/. to 
the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, and a handsome 
sum of money to the poor of Vernon, in Normandy ; and, 
%ifter m^ny legacies to his friends in England, the remainder 
to two nephews of his name .at Vernon. During his Jife- 
time, he was occasionally generous to some of his relations 
in France, and in England was very liberal to the poor. 
He had two sisters, who were nuns; and a brother at 
Paris, in the profession of the law, to whom he gave a 
handsome gold snuff-box, which had been presented to 
him by queen Caroline^ 

In 1787 was published, in octavo, by tlie rev. William 
Bell, D. D. prebendary of Westminster, ^^ Declaration de 
mes derniers sentipaens sur les differens dogmes de la Religion. 
Par feu Pierre Francois le. Courayer, docteur en theologie,'* 
&c. An English translation of this has been since published. 
The original manuscript, which was given by father Cou- 
rayer to the princess Amelia,, who had a great esteem for 
him, was' written in 1767, which was about nine years be- 
fore his death. The. princess^ Amelia left this manuscript 
by will to Dr. Bell ; who, as being of opinion, 
tb^t the last sentiments of a writer of Dr. Courayer^s repu- 
tation, and whose situation was so peculiar, were calculated 
to excite the attention of the learned, and of those who 
were zealously attached to the interests of religion : ^iid, 
indeed, it appears to have been the wish of the. author 
himself that it should be published, though .not. till after 
his death. 

To what has been already said respecting Dr. Courayer*& 
works, it may not be improper here tb add, that he wrote 
<^ Traits de.Poem Epique;^* that his French traiisla- 
tion of father Paul's " History of the Council of Trent,'* 
was printed at London in 1736, in 2 vols, folio; and at 
Amsterdam, the same year, in 2 vols. 4to ; and that hif 
trai)alation of Sleidan's History of the Reformation, to 


wkieh he added copious notes, was printed in 3 tols. 4t09 
in 176T* 

 By his ^* Last Sentiments/' published by Dr. Bell, ft 
appears that ahhoi^gh he professed to die a member of the 
Roman Catholic church, he could not well be accounted a 
onemberof that or of any other established chiirch. In 
rejecting the doctrine of the Trinity, he became nearly, |f 
B0t quite, a Socinian, or modem Unitarian ; he deniied also 
the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, as to matters' of fact ; 
a^d as to baptism, seems to wish to confine it to adults; 
In 1811, however, a mof« fail exposure of his sentiments 
1MB futtbiifthed by Dr. Bell, entitled *^ Trait6 6u Ton ex- 
pose ce qoi'l'ecriture nous apprend de la Divinity de Jesus 
Gbrist,^* 8vo, a pubH<;atioii which ve have little hesitation 
in faying ought tiever to have appeared. At the distance 
ef^ aliiiost thirty years from the publication of his ** Last 
Sentiments,'* itcould not' be wanted to illustrate the wa- ' 
Tttriiig,;.unseUled character of the author, and it was surely 
not necessary to increase the number of writings of the 
sa^e* description, already too numerous. The apology of 
the editor, we observe with regret, is far from being con- 

One other circumstai^ce respecting Courayer's history  
xematns to be noticed. From the fourth volnme of bishop 
Atterbury*8 Epistolary Correspondence, we learn that 
the bishop was exposed to some trouble on account Xtt 
Ckiurayer^s escape from France, which he was supposed td 
haive facilitated. The French king and cardinal Fleury ' 
sent him a message on the subject by the lieutenant de po« - 
liee; ^^ I did not mince the matter to the magistrate," jsayts? 
tlie biahop, ^^ nor am I at all ashamed of what has hap-* 
pened,' or concerned for it. I owned my friendship for - 
Pere Cottrayer ; told them frankly a great deal more than" 
tbey knew- of* that matter^ as far as I was concerned; and ; 
thought thet« was no reason to wonder ^at, or blame my ' 
conduct. I convinced them of that point, and I believe- ' 
tbisrc is an end of it. I shewed the lieutenant the picture 
of Fere Courayer harfgmg up in my rooin ; told him I had' 
Tissled him in I^is retreat at Hanment, while he wa^ in 
disgrace there; and that he came to take his leav^ of -me ' 
the night before he left Paris ; and that in all this I thought ' 
I had done nothing that misbecame me.'' The lieutenant^' 
who behaved with great politeness, was perfectly satisfied - 
with our prelate's explanation ; but this was not the case 

Vou X. A A 

354 C O U R A Y E R. 

wHh the clBii^iDal, who was persuaded that father CotiTa3rer^0 
escape was entirely owing to Atterbury, and displayed 
mvLch resentment on that account The picture of Cou- 
jrayer, in the bishop's possession^ was left by him to the 
university of Oxford.' 

. CPURCELLES (Stepjien i>e)^ descended firom a family 
in Picardy, was born at Geneva iii 1586. He offieiated 
noany years among the reformed in France^ till he became 
a follower of Arminius, when he was obliged to retire into 
tloliand^ where he sucjoeeded the celebrated Episcopius ^ 
professor of theology i^t Amsterdam, and puUished his 
works with a life of the author. He was also the author of 
many theological and controversial ^lieces, which were 
afterwards collected by Elzevir in 16175^ fol. He was a 
ca^pital Greek scholar, and paid great attention to different 
Greek copies of the New Testament, of which he gave a 
new edition, with various readings ; and a preface, to shew 
that those various readings, though numerous, do not tend 
in the least to affect the credit and authenticity of the work 

. COURTEN (William), the son of a tailor at Menin^ 
i^as one of many who experienced the oppression of Oii-> 
varez duke of Alva, who, being appointed by PhiUp IL 
governor of the seventeen provinces, endeavoured, with 
execrable poKcy, to establish over all the Netherlands an 
irreligious and horrible court of judicature, on the model 
of the Spanish inquisition. By consequence, in 1567, great 
numbers of industrious, thriving, and worthy people wefe 
imprisoned by the rigorous orders of this petty tyrant, and 
Veated with great injustice aud cruelty. Courten had the 
good fortune to escape from prison ; aud in the yeoiX toU 
lowing, 1568, arrived safe in London, with his wife Mar* 
garet Casiere, a daughter named Margaret, her husband, 
son of a mercantile broker at Antwerp of the name of Bou^* 
dean, and as much property as they could hastily collect 
under such disadvantages. Soon after their arrival, they 
took Sk house in Abchurch-lane, where they lived together^ 
following for some time the business of making what were 
f^mmonly called French hoods, much worn in those days 

> Biog. Brit Of bii last work, published in 1811, see the Qaartcrly Re« 
iriew, No. 12, and a Vindication Gent Mag. vol. LXXXII. part L p. 620.— 
incfa»lt*s Bowyer, and <* JUlerbary'i Corretpondenoe.^' 

! Mmreri.<-XMct iiist 

C O U R T E N; ^85* 

fttid long'after^ which they vended in wholesale to the shop* 
)ceepers who sold them in retail. Encouraged by grenk 
success in this employment, they soon removed ^to a iarger 
house in Pudding-lane or Love-lane, in the parish of St. 
Mary Hill, where they entered on a partnership trade, ia 
Bilks, fine linens, and such lartides as they /had ^ealt in 
before when in Flanders. Michael Boodean, the daughtenr 
Margaret's husband, died first, leaving behind him, unfor- 
tunately for the family, a son and only chiid> named Peter^ 
after an uucle certainly not much older ^than himself. 
The widow married John Money, a merchant in Londoq^ 
who instantly became an inmate with the family, which 
"was moreover increased by the' parents themselves, with 
two sons, William, born in 1572, and Peter, born in 1581. 
The young men, being instructed in reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, were early initiated in business, and soon after 
sent abroad as faetors for the fomily : William to Haerlem^ 
Peter to Cologne, and Peter Boudean the grandchild to 
Middleburg. At what time William Courten and Marga- 
ret Casiere died is at present uncertain ; most probably 
their deaths happened about the end of queen Elizabeth's^ 
pr in the beginning of king Jameses reign ; but it seems 
<^rtain, that they left their descendants not only in easy^ 
but even in affluent circumstances.-^At the following sera 
of this little history it does not appear clearly, whether the 
old people were actually dead, or had only declined all 
farther active, responsible concern in business: but, in 
1606, William and Peter Courtens entered into partner- 
ship with John Money, their sister Margaret's second hus- 
band, to trade in silks and fine linen. Two parts, or the 
moiety of the joint stock, belonged to William Courten^ 
and to each of the others, Peter Courten and John Moncy^ 
afourdi share. As for Peter Boudean, the son of Marga- 
ret Courten by her first husband, he seems to have been 
employed to negotiate for the partnership at Middleburg 
en some stipulated or discretionary salary ; for it does not 
appear that he bad any certain or detempiate share in the 
Irade, which was carried on prosperously till 16S1, with a 
return, it is said, one year with another, of I5O,00piL 
' During the course of this copartnership, ther^ is nothing 
upon record unfavourable to the character of John Money. 
The characters tpo of William and Peter Courtens appear 
ttnei^ceptionable, fair, and illustrious. They prosper^ 
At seems, remarkably in all their undertakings, for twenty 

$H C O U B T E H 

yeat» end more ; in the course of which time they were 
both dignified with the honours of knighthood. 

The elder brother, sir William Courten, besides his cat* 
pUal concern in the original partnership above mentioned, 
traded very extensively on his own account to Guinea 
Portugal, Spain, and the West Indies. He married fir^t 
n. Dutch woman of the name of Cromling, the daughter of 
Air. Peter Cromling, an opulent merchant in Haerlemt 
who, though both deaf and dumb, was book-keeper |o her 
iathen By this marriage be got, it is said, 60,000/. of 
yrhich he was enjoined to lay put 50,000^. in the purchase 
of lands in England, to be settled upon hi^ son by this 
Iftdy, oi whom she was delivered in L,ondon, and whos# 
name was Peter. This son, who was all the offspring frpin 
this marriage, king James I. made one of the first rank of 
Juis baronets* He was afterwards married to lord Sti^Or 
liope's daughter, but died without issue, leaving the estate 
in lands to his father sir William, who settled that estate, 
and SOOOi. more per annum, upon his only son and heir, 
by a second wife, the daughter of Mr. Moses Tryon.-^Sir 
Peter, the uncle to Peter just mentioned, and brother tq 
fir William Courten, kept the books of the family partner-* 
9hip, and died. unmarried in 1630 at Middleburgh. It is 
affirmed that he was worth at his death 100,000/. and tha^ 
he left his nephew Peter Boudean, the son of his sister by 
her first husband, his sole heir and executor» who seans 
at this time to have taken the name of Courten, which he 
annexed to his own.^ This crafty man took immediate pos-^- 
session, not only of his uncle sir Peter's property, which 
eould not have been ascertained without balancing, the ae-* 
counts of the copartnership, but seized likewise the sbip^ 
ping and goods that belonged unquestional^ly to his other 
uncle ur William, and Mr,. Money, amounting, ^ it i« 
stated, to .ioo,00(y. more ; nor could h0, to the yery epd 
of his Jife, which lasted above thirty years, lopger^ be; 
brought, by argument or law, to settle the acicounts pf ih^ 
company. % 

8ir William Courten, after the death of his Dutch ladjr,- 
married a second wife of the name of Tryon, by whoa^ he 
had one son, named William, and three daughters. $ir 
William seems to have been possessed of a comprehensive 
mind, an' enterprising spirit, abundance of wealthy sMftd 
credit sufficient to enable him to launch out into any pr^^ 
nusing hranqh.of trade and merchandize whatsoever. It it 

C 6 U R T E N. 



Stated, with apparent fairness, that he actually lent' Id 
king James I. and his son Charles I. at different times, of 
his own money, or from the company trade, 27,0002. ikhd 
in another partnership wherein he was likewise concerned 
with sir Paul Pyndar, their joint claims on the croWil 
amounted, it seems, to 200,000^. Sir WilHsmi eoiployed, 
one way o^ other, for many years^ between four and fifli 
thousand seamen ; he built above twenty ships of bbtthen I 
was ^ great insurer, and besides that, a rery considerable^ 
goldsmith, or banker, for so a banker was then called. It 
appears likewise, that he was very deeply engaged in A 
li^rring fishery, which was carried on at one time with greiit 
spirit and at great expence: but shortly after, much to 
bis cost, it came to nothing, in consequence of the stipef-^ 
vening dissensions, confusion, and misery, that accompanied 
the rebellion. Previous to this, however, about the year 
1624, two of sir William Courten's ships, in their return 
from Fernambuc, happened to discover an uninhabited 
island, now of considerable importance to Great Bi'itsiiti^ 
to which sir William first gave the name of Barbadoes. On 
the 25th of February 1627, be obtained theking^s letters 
patent for the colonization of this island, sheltering him- 
"self, for whatever reasons, under the earl of Pembroke. 
On the faith of this grant, afterwards superseded by the 
influence of James then earl of Carlisle, though its validity 
was acknowledged by the first, and indeed by all the law* 
yers^ sir William sent two ships with men, arms, ammuni- 
tion, &c. which soon stored the island with inhabitants^ 
English, Indians, &c. to the number of one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty ; and one captain Powel received from 
air William a conuiiissiori to remain in the island as gover- 
nor^ in behalf of him and the earl of Pembroke. After sir 
William had expended 44,000/. on this business, and been 
in peaceable possession of the island about three years, 
James earl of Carlisle claiming on grants said to be prior,' 
though dated July 2, 1627, and April 7, r628; affirming 
too that he was lord of all the Caribbee islands lying be-» 
tween 10 and 20 degrees of latitude, under the name of 
Carliola, gave his commission to colonel Royden, Henry 
Hawley, and others, to act in his behalf. The commis- 
sioners of lord Carlisle arrived at Barbadoes with two ships 
in 1 629, and having invited the governor captain Powel on 
"board, they kept him prisoner, and proceeded to invade 
And plunder the island. They carried off the factors and 

35« C U R T E N. 

aervanto of sir William Courten and the earl of Pembrok^^ 
and established the earl of Carlisle's authority in Barba- 
does; which continued there under several governors, till 
1646, when the government of it was vested by lease and 
contract in lord Willoughby of Parham. — Sir William 
Courten, it is said, had likewise sustained a considerable 
loss several years before this blow in the West Indies, by 
the seizure of his merchandize, after the cruel massacre of 
his factors at Amboyna in the East Indies. But after all 
the losses above mentioned, he was still possessed, in the 
year 1633, of lands in various parts of this kingdom to the 
▼alue of 6500/. per annum, besides personal estates rated 
at 128,000/. and very extensive credit. Such were his cir- 
cumstances when he opened a trade to China, and, as if 
he had grown young again, embarked still more deeply in 
mercantile expeditions to the East Indies, where he esta* 
blVhed sundry new forts and factories. In the course of 
ihi^.new trade he lost unfortunately two of his ships richly 
Jaden^ the Dragon ahd the Katharine^ which were never 
heard of more : and he himself did not long survive this 
loss, which involved him in great debt ; for he died in the 
end of May or beginning of June 1636, in the 64th year 
of his age, and was buried in thechurch or church-yard of 
St. Andrew Hubbard, the ground of both which was after 
the fire of 1666 disposed of by the city for public uses, and 
partly laid into the street, the parish being annexed to St. 
Mary Hill, There is an abstract of sir William Courten's 
.will in the British Museum.^ 

COURTEN (WiLUAM), the last in the male line of the 
£unily that makes the subject of the preceding article, was 
born in the parish of F^nchurch-in Lgndon, March 28, 

1642, He had probably no knowledge or remembrance of 
his father, who, the next year after his son was born, in 

1643, became insolvent, and quitted this kingdom, to»wfaicb 
it does not appear that fad ever rettgrnedA When he died 
at Florence, in 16^5,' the subject of this article was about 
thirteen years of age i and it is most likely that bis mother ; 
did not survive her husband above four or five years : for 
as no njenti^n is made of lady Katharine in 1660, when 
Mr.. Carew obtained letters of administration to the estates, 
of the Courten family, it is probable she was then dead/ 
Jii a petition to parliament, a rough draught of which is in. 

^t|o|, 3nt<«i>TaUer| with noteti edit. 1786^ ToIii« and 1806, 4 ▼ol», If «• ' 

COU. ItTE.N- $Sfk 

life Briti^ Museum,, there b a like ground for the same 
supposition, no mention being made of his mother ; for it is 
only said there, that he the petitioner, and his only, sister, 
had been left for many years destitute of a livelihood. It 
is not said at what time this gentlemau^s father sold tbej 
great bulk of sir William Courten^s lands. Even the 
greeks of a fortune, once so ample, must have been very f 
considerable, and more than sufficient for the proper edu* 
cation and decent maintenance of William Courten and 
his sister. She could very well live in those days on no 
more incpme, as appears, than 30/. per annum. That thii, 
moderate annual sum was her principal support, we are 
led to believe from a slight attention to two papers still in 
being. If he and his sister had even been more reduced 
in point of income than we can well suppose, they still 
had infallible resource in the number, rank, and riches of 
their relations. Their grandfather the earl of Bridgewater, 
two uncles, with eleven auuts on the side of their mother, 
and three aunts on their fatber^s side, were people of for* 
tune and distinction ; many of them married into honour- 
able jand wealthy families, and all of them apparently ihi 
affluent or easy circumstances. It may therefore be rea- 
sonably concluded that William Courten was well edu- 
cated, though the fact were not ascertained, by other testi- 
mony. Having previously received a good education in' 
this country, forwarded probably with peculiar care, and 
earlier certainly than is now usual, William Courten be- 
gan his travels ; or was sent, while yet a minor, to prose- ' 
cute his studies abroad. The genius of a naturalist, which 
he discovered, it seems, from his infancy, led him to cul-. 
tivate it at, Montpellier, distinguished then, as Upsal since^ 
for its botanical garden, its peculiar attention to natural 
history, and the abilities and celebrity of masters in various 
branches of this science. Here he met, as might be pro- 
bably expected, with students of a congenial taste, and 
persons then and afterwards eminent in various walks of 
literature, with several of whom he appears to have lived 
in great familiarity, and to have cultivated long correspond- 
ence. Tournefort, the celebrated French botanist, was 
of this number. William Courten, who was the senior by 
several years, had no doubt made a very considerable pro- 
ficiency in botany before his acquaintance with this illi|s« 
trious foreigner commenced ; but it must have been much 
improved by the intimacy that appears to have subsisted 


960 c a U II T E N. 

between them. It was at MoDtpellier (Mobably, but many 
years after his primary settlement there^ that WilKani 
Courten contracted his first acquaintance with sir Hans 
SloanO) a sfealous naturalist, who spared no pains or ex-^ 
penc» iif the acquisition and promotion of knowledge in 
natuitil history, and who was yet more honourably distin^^^ 
guiiihed by his sfiill in his own profession, his general pa*^ 
tronage of sebolars, his public spirit, and extensive phi- 
lanthropy. Sir Hans Sloane unquestionably spent a con<* 
siderable time at Montpellier, probably to improve his 
knowledge and to establish his health ; and here too it is 
said he got bis degree of M. D. But at what place and at 
what time soever their acquaintance began, being for-* 
warded by a similarity of studies, in which William Cour-» 
ten had undoubtedly the pre-eminence, it ripened into a 
friendship that continued without interruption to the end 
of his life. 

Immediately on the expiration of his minority, William 
Courten left Montpellier for some time, being obliged to 
Tf pair to London, by the exigency of his own and his 
0ister^s affairs^ in order to procure their final settlement, 
mnd to secure to himself and her the best provision tor the 
future that could be collected from the wide-spread rnins 
of their family. Yet with a turn of mind that biassed him 
strongly to a ccuitemplative life, unexperienced in the 
Ways of the world, torn from darling studies, and under 
the influence of the indolent habits of a mere scholar, this 
youth was ill qualified to be a principal agent for himself 
and his sister in a business so perplexed, so laborious, and 
80 unpromising. 

Soon iafter his arrival in England, in concert With his 
'friends, William Courten began his litigations in behalf of 
himself and his sister. The first object he aimed at was to 
» set aside the letters that, in his absence and minority, 
Carew had surreptitiously obtained, and to get himself 
legally invested with the administration of the estate and 
effects of his ancestors. He contended that George Carew 
wa3 an officious intruder, under false pretexts of being xa 
sufferer, and an agent for other sufferers by the'' losses of 
bis father and grandfather ; and urged that this man^s in- 
termeddling with the wrecks of their fortunes, had been 
equally to the prejudice of the rightful heirs, and to the 
detriment of the legal creditors of the family. He claimed 
therefore for bimselfi as his natural right, the admmistra'* 

C O UR T E N. «6i 

tfoti of the Courten efttatetf ; tiiid his autit^ lady Knightly, 
who deem* to have been then die only anrviving child of sit 
William, from whom the estates descended^ concurred 
with her nephew in ' this claim. Geoi^e Carew, who was 
both a courtier and a lawyer, seems to have exerted his 
ntraost address and professional skill to stop or frastrate 
these proceedings. He expressly owns in one of hi^ 
.papers that he had indeed paid indefinite sums of money 
to William Courten, esq. after he came of age, thodgh he 
iky$ at the same time that he did not pay* the monies be« 
cause Willifamr Gourten had a right to them, but solely to 
prevent and terminate debates. The causes here assigned 
for the payments to William Courten, esq. after he came 
of age, are very questionable ; for Carew does not appeal 
a man likely to have parted with money on such principles 
, merely to prevent or terminate debates. 

Mr. Gourten still persisted in his favourite study of natu*^ 
ral history ; but bb persevered notwithstanding in the vari* 
ous processes instituted in behalf of himself and bis sister. 
About 1663, it seems that some compromise took place 
between Mr. Gourten and Mr. Carew ; when, by a bond, 
it appears that the former abandoned all claim to the ad* 
ministration, for valuable considerations not specified; 
adding, that whatever he had received from the wrecks of 
the fortune of his father was ex dono & gratia, and not ex 
jure. He even relinquished his family name of Courten, 
assumed that^f William Churleton, and publicly announ- 
ced his intention of quitting England, and living in a 
strange land. 

Of the course or duration of his travels no particular in- 
formation can now be given. It may be reasonably judged^ 
that, after a peregrination of three or four years at most, 
he settled in his former place of abode, at Montpellier, 
where he certainly resided for the greatest part of the time 
that he lived abroad. Sir Hans Sloane says expressly that 
he was absent from England, at different times, no doubt, 
twenty-five years in all ; and though the particular year^ 
are not stated, it would not be very difficult, if it was of 
any importance, to ascertain them. Mr. Courten seem^ 
all along to have paid great and general attention to polite 
literature. His papers and place-books, many of which 
are preserved in the British Museum, discover various, 
judicious, and extensive reading, and his own frequent re- 
marks shew that he thought as well as read. About thiji 

3«3 C O U R T E N. 


time be sjeeios to have been engaged la the stttdy of ^€^1% 
both ancient ai>d. modern. On this entertaining and use* 
fuly'but expensive branch of knowledge, he certainly made 
great p^jofictency, and attained at last extraordinary. skilL 
It appears from one of his pocket-book^i that in 1^69 he 
began to collect coins, in both kinds, and in all metals, at 
considerable ^xpence- 

It was most probably abroad, and about the year 1675, 
that Mr. Courten^s acquaintance and friendship with tl|§ 
celebrated Mr. John Locke beg^; for in the .sutpmeir 4^f . 
that year the bad state of Locke's health, and an appre* 
hended consumption, ipduced him to repair to Montpel)ier,. 
then famous for the cure of diseases iu the lungs. Foj:. 
many years past, people have dUqontinued to resort t<|, 
Montpellier, whep afflicted with, piilmonary and consump*. 
tive complaints, its air having been Ipiig j^idged peculiarly 
improper for tb^m ; though it is now said to be OHtch 
meiided, by draining a morass, or planting, or destroying 
a wood. Bishop Atterbury, who ]was there in the sunimej; 
1729, represents it as so uncomfortable,, that he was forced 
to take shelter from the sultry heats, at Vigan ia« the Ce« 
venn^s, ten le^ues distant. 

It appears that Mr. Courten,was one of ^h^ select friends . 
ampng whom Locke practised physic, of which he had 
tak^ a bacbejor's degree at Oxford. That Mr. Courten 
attended particularly to Locke's prescription, and derived 
benefit from it, is evident from his answer, and from the 
following entries in a Saunders's almanac for 1698, in 
which there is a MS diary, not bj* Dr. Walter Charle- 
ton, as it is entitled in the Museum, and the catalogue of 
MSS. bift relative solely to Mr. William Courten, being 
Kis own hand-writing, which is sufficiently distinguishable^ 
aojd moreover vouched as his by the information itself, 
'^'July 27, 1693, being distressed with my headach and 
giddiness, I left off entirely taking tobacco in snu£f, having 
only taken it but four times a day, for several days before, 
and. never after seven at night" ^^ Aug. 20, 1693, must 
shew my things [meaning his Museum] but seldom, never 
t\^o days consecutively for the future." Certainly Mr. 
Courten cultivated medaliic science with pleasure, avidity, 
and considerable success, as is evident in the British Mu* 
seum, ^oth in the coins be collected, and in the accounts 
he has given of them. It appears likewise from many of 
Ifis papers io the same repository, that as a general scholar 

C O U R T E N. , iei 

was far from tieing contemptible, and tba€ he was not 
unskilled in making experiments. jMi*- Courteous intima- 
cies, correspohdenoes and friendships, with doctor, after* 
wards sir Hans Sloane, with doctor, afterwards sir Tancred 
Robinson, physician in ordinary to George L with doctor 
Martin Lister, with Mr. L. Plukenet, with Mr. Edward 
Llwyd, &c. were certainly founded on congenial taste, and 
arj^ue po inferior degrees of proficiency in the various 
benches of natural history. Mr. Courten's own museum 
remains to this day, though improved, as may well be sup- 
posed, and now arranged for the most part to greater ad- 
vantage, accotding to the Linnaean. system. Of his curi- 
ous collection > it is now impossible to ascertain the exact 
c&talogues or precise value. Swelled with short histories 
and accounts of their contents, they amount, it is said, in 
all, to thirty-etght volumes iu folio, and eight volumes in 
quarto. It remained for about half a century after the 
death of Mr. Courten, in the possession of his executor 
and residuary legatee, who certainly added very much to 
it, and was then purchased in 1753, for the use of the 
public, without so much as the mention of the name of its 
first and most scientific collector and proprietor, so far as 
appears in the whol^ course of the transaction, for 20,000/. 
though the coins and precious stones alone were said to be 
of that value. It is now preserved in the British Museum. 
Mr. Courten passed the last fourteen or fifteen years of 
bis life in chambers at the Temple, promoting the know* 
ledge of natural history, and exhibiting his collection gra- 
tis in an instructive way. Latterly the declining state of 
bis health obliged him to practise more abstemiousness than 
was agreeable to his convivial turn ; and for several years 
be was under the necessity of abstaining almost entirely 
from wine and all spirituous liquors, iti which, from a com- 
panionable disposition, and in compliance with a fashion 
then liiuoii more prevalent than at present, it seems that 
be indulged -at times rather too freely. He died at Ken* 
sihgton gravel-pits, on the 26th of March 1702, aged 63, 
and was buried in the church-yard of that parish.' 

COURT! LZ (Gatien de), sieur de Sandras, was born 
at Paris in 1644. After having been captain in the regi- 
ment of Champagne, he went over to Holland in 1683, 
Ivbere he wrote several works, published under diflFerent 

> M'iQg, BriU-^Tatler, with notes, ^cUt 11S6, ^ vols, and 1S06, 4 Tpls. Svo. 

364 ' C O U R T I L 2. 

oameSy and with opposite views. Among tlies6 ire, 1« 
**The conduct of France since the peace of Nimeguen," 
1683, 120109 a work in which he censures the conduct df 
his countrymen. 2. " An answer to the foregoing," iii 
which he produces the arguments on the other side of th^ 
question. 3. " The new interests of the Princes." 4. 
** The Life of Coligni," 1686, 12mo, in which he affects 
to speak as belonging to the reformed religion, although 
he was always a Roman catholic. 5. ** Memoirs of Roch'i 
fort," 12mo. 6. " History of the Dutch War from the 
year 167*2 to 1677; a work which obliged him for some 
time to quit the territories of the republic. 7. " Political 
Testament of Colbert," 12mo. The French clergy were 
highly incensed against him, for relating in it an expres- 
sion ot Colbert, that ^' the bishops of France were so mucft 
devoted to the will of the king, that if he should think fit 
to substitute the koran instead of the gospel, they would 
readily subscribe to it." 8. " Le grand Alcandre firustr6,** 
or the last efforts of love and virtue. 9, " The Memoirs*' 
of John Baptist de la Fontaine; those of Artisan, S^toIs. 
12mo ; those of Montbrun, 12mo ; those of the marchioness 
bufresne, 12mo; those of Bordeaux, 4 vols. 12mo; those 
of Saint- Hilaire, 4 vols. 12mo. 10. ^^ Annals of Paris and 
of the Court, for the years 1697 and 1698." 11. "The 
Life of the Vicomte Turenne," I2mo, published under the 
name of Dubuisson. On his return to France in 1702, he 
was shut up in the Bastille, where he was. kept in a dun- 
geon for nine years, or, as Moreri says, only three years. 
Having obtained his liberty, he married a bookseller's 
widow, and died at Paris the 6th of May, 1712, at %he age 
of 68. He is also the author of, 12. Memoirs of Tyrcon- 
nel, composed from the verbal accounts of that nobleman, 
a close prisoner, like him, in the bastille. 13. "Histd- 
rical and political Mercury,"' &c. He, besides, left manu- 
scripts sufficient in quantity to make 40 votumes^in 12mo. 
^' The Memoirs of Vordac," 2 vols. l2mo, are unjustly at- 
tributed to him ; but enough was avowed to give us but att 
unfavourable opinion of his judgment or consistency. ' 

GOURTIVRON (Gaspard le Compasseur de CreqIui, 
Marquis di ), chevalier de Saint-Louis, and teteran pferi-* 
sionary of the academy of sciences, born at Dijoil in 17i5j 
(iicd tlie 4th of October, 1785, at the age of 70. He signaU 

I Moreri«^t)ict Htst 



C O U R T I V R O N. 865 

wed bimself both as a military and a literary ttiaa. Being 
wounded in the campaign of Bavaria^ in the act of saving 
marshal Saxe from the most imminent danger, he devoted 
himself to the cultivation of mathematics and natural phi-- 
losophy, and communicated to the French academy seve-*- 
jaj valuable memoirs on those sciences. His separate pub- 
licfttions were, 1 . « A treatise of Optics," 1752, 4to. The 
author«bere gives the theory of light on the Newtonian 
system, with new solutions of the principal problems in 
dioptrics and catoptrics. This book is of use as a co mo- 
mentary on Newton's Optics. 2. « Memoirs of an Epi- 
«potia which raged in Burgundy." 3. « The Art of Forget 
and Furnaces;" this he wrote in partnership with M. 
Bpu^buy which was aftenvards incorporated in the Cyclo-^ 
p«dia. The marquis de Courtivron, says his eulogis^ 
was a true philosopher. As he had properly appreciated 
life, be resigned it without disquietude, and perhaps with* 
9Ut regret The only sentiment to be perceived through 
the serenity and silence of his last moments, was that of 
l^ratjtude for the tenderness that was shewn him, and a 
constant attention to spare the sensibility of his family and 
friends. ' 

COURTNEY (William), archbishop of Canterbury in 
the reign of king Richard II. was the fourth son of Hugh 
Courtney, earl of Devon^ire, by Margaret, daughter of 
Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of king Edward I. and was born in 
the year U4i. He had his education at Oxford, where 
he applied himself to the study of the civil and canon law. 
Afterwards, entering into holy orders, be obtained three 
prebends in three cathedral churches, viz. those of Bath> 
K:?eter, and York. The nobihty of his birth, and his emi- 
went learning, recomitiending him to public notice, in the 
r^ign of Edward III. he was promoted in 1369 to the see 
pf Hereford, and thence translated to the see of London, 
SeptQiDiber 12, 1375, being then in the 34tb year of his 
*g«« Jo a synod, held at London in 1376, bishop Courtney 
4istwguished himself by his opposition to the king's demand 
of a Jiub^idy ; and presently after he fell under the dis- 
pleasure of the high court of chancery, for publishing a 
ViuJl Qf pope Gregory II. without the king's consent, which 
k^ wiMi compelled to recs^l. The next year, in obedience 

* Slo^fs del AoademicienSf toI. IV.— Diet. Hist. 


t9 the pope^s mandate, he cited Wickliff to appear hefofk 
iAs tribunal in St. Paul's church : but that reformer being* 
accompanied by John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster/ and 
other nobles, who favoured his opinions, and appeared 
openly in the bishop's court for him, and treated the 
bisbop with very little ceremony, the populace took his 
part, went to the duke of Lancaster's house in the Savoy, 
plundered it, and would have burnt it to the grout>d, had 
not the bishop hastened to the place, and drawn them off 
by bi» persuasions. The consequences of this difference 
with so powerful a nobleman as John of Gaunt^ were pro^* 
bably dreaded even by Courtney; for, with respect to 
Wickliff, he at this time proceeded no farther than to enjoifi 
bim and his foHowers silence. In 1378, it is said by God*» 
win, but without proper authority, that Courtney was road^ 
a cardinal. In 1381, he was appointed lord high chanceUbf 
of England. The same year, he « was translated to the see 
of Canterbary, in the room of Simon Sudbury ; and oiH 
ibe 6th of May, 1382, he received the pall from the bandd 
of the bishop of London in the arcbiepiscopal palace at 
Croydon. This year also he performed the ceremony of 
crowning queen Anne, consort of king Richard II. at West- 
minster. Soon after his inauguration, he restrained, by 
ecclesiastical censures, the bailiffs,, and otiier officers, of 
the see of Canterbury, from taking cogniaancd of adukery 
and the like crimes, which then belonged. to the ecclesias* 
tical court. About the same time, he held a synod at Lon* 
don, in which several of Wickliff's tenets were condemned 
as heretical and erroneous*' In 1383, he behi a synod'at 
Oxford, in which a subsidy was granted to the king, some 
of Wickliff 's followers obliged to recant, and the students 
of the university to swear renunciation of his tenets. The 
sfime year, in pursuance of the pope's bull directed to bite 
for that purpose, he issued his mandate to the bishop of 
London for celebratitig the festival of St. Annej mother of 
the blei^sed virgin. In 1386, the king, by the advice of 
bis parliament, put the administration of the government' 
into the hands of eleven commissioners, of whom arebbisbop 
Courtney was the first; but this lasted only one year.= - In-* 
1387, he held a synod at London, in which a tettth w4s 
granted to the king. The same year, it being moved hi a- 
parliament held at London on occasion of tbe ' diss^isiofl'* 
between the king and bis nobles, to inflict capital punish*^ 
ment on some of tbe ringleaders, and it being prohibited 

COURTNEY. ' i«7 

hy the cMona for bishops to be presient and vote in ca^ft 
of blood) the archbishop and his sufFragans withdrew from, 
the house of lords, having first entered a protest in rela- 
tion to their peerage and privilege to sit upon all other 
matters. In 1S99, he held a synod in St Mary's church in 
Cambridge^ in which a tenth was granted to the king^ on 
condition that be should pass over into France with an army 
before the 1st of October following. This year, archbishop 
Courtney set out upon his metropolitical visitation, in 
which he was at first strongly opposed by the bishops of 
£x^ter and Salisbury ; but those prelates being at last re- 
duced to teriBs of submission, he proceeded in his viiita* 
tion without farther opposition : only, at the intercession 
of the abbot of St. Alban's, he refrained firom visiting' cer- 
tain monasteries at Oxford. The same year, the king di- 
rected his royal mandate to the archbishop, not to coun« 
tenance or contribute any thing towards a subsidy for the 
pope. In a parliament held at Winchester in 1392, arch- 
bishop Courtney, being probably suspected of abetting th^ 
papal encroachments upon the church and state, deiivcHred 
in an answer to certain articles exhibited by the commons 
in relation to those encroachments, which is thought to 
have led the way to the statute of pramunire. The same 
year, he visited the diocese of Lincoln,: in which he en^^* 
favoured to check the growth of WicklifF*s doctrines* 
In 1395, he obtained firom the pope a grant of fouf^pence 
\a the pqund on all ecclesiastical benefices ; in which he 
was opposed by the bishop of Lincoln, who would not 
suffer it to be collected in his diocese, and appealed to the 
pope. But before, the matter could be decided, archbishop 
Courtney died, July 31, 1396, at Maidstone in Kem^ 
where he was buried, but has a monument in the cathe^ 
dral church of Canterbury, on the south side, near the 
tomb of Thomas Becket, and at the feet of the Black 
Prince. His re8(]ains at Maidstone, only a few bones, 
i^rere seen some years ago. This prelate founded f college 
^f. secular priests at Maidstone/ . He left a thousand marks 
£pr ilofi repair of the cathedral church of Canterbury ; also 
to the same church a silver- gilt image of the Trinity, with 
six apostles standing round it weighing 160 pounds; some 
books, and some ecclesiastical vestments. He obtained: 
from king Richard a grant of four fairs to be kept at Can- 
terbury yearly within itbe site of the priory. — ^The charac- 
ttx of archbishop Courtney,, weighed in the balance of 


loaodern. opiDioQs^ isth«k:of a persecuting adherent to the 
cbuigcb 4^ Rome^ ^to whicb» however^ he vras not so touch 
alt^h^ aa t^fotiff^ what was: due to his kMig'^nd ctoatiy* 
,He appears ^> twve. exhibUed in.cchioal emergencies,- h 
l>oJd. and resolute spsm, and occaaioDaUy. a happy pre«> 
;aeiic« of .iinind* 0«e..$iceuDistances inhtcfa displays the 
5 tuengtb and firmnass of ^ Coai^uteyfs viiod^ in the eaerciife 
.of bia religiofUL bigptrjf^^deservei^iocbe nottoedi * WheA 
j^e arcbliistijop^ oOlA oectaui day^^irkb a nuiBl>er of bishopft 
|iud div^nesf,. ;liad ass^oafaled? to . eoadamn < the teneti^ < x>f 
Vi'ioktiSy ju^ • as they were gcHOg • to csiter upon biisiaestf^ 
a violegyt eAr^bquake^sboek- the mona8tery> -Uponthis^^th^ 
ferried bi^ops threw down tbetr papers^ and'^vying out^ 
tba^ the b^ioesa was displeasing to- Ged,«cafneto aiiaisty 
rc^lutioi^ to ptfoeeed^ iie farther. <^ The arcbbishop atone/* 
says Mr* Qilpm.iii bk Life' of WickliH; ^ retnained ern<^ 
SBoyojci .With eqnaLjspiriir and address^ he ohid their siiper*^ 
s|iti4H]s^ fears^ and told tbeiB^i that >if the 'eavth<{iiake -por^^ 
t^Prded ,my things ttqnH^ended the d&wnfoU of hereby | 
SbM;^jiH>Jlioiis^'vapou£s< axie ihldged" muthe bo^eto of tke 
l^rti)^ r:%od, are> expelled by dbete violent cdnoussieos^' so 
by ii^b^ r^l^ceQiima rendeavours^ .diBktngdotn ahiftild' bd 
ip^tifi^d fjopcft :tbe pestilential taint of Isere^, . which ImA 
«^<eeted jt in every.part.. Tbis speech, togedier wkb fii€ 
9^9^ . tbait the earthqixake waa* geaerai thvongh the eity^ 
i^ it 'wass^ afterwards. indeed .found to : have -been -througll 
ib^.islind^jdispdled.thDeir ielurs.. WicktifF wotild xrfted 
a»erriiyjsfieah of this accident ^^nd^wevrld call thiausuMd'^ 
biy. ibe'vCOiuiciliof. the>;faer3«dene; herydene b^ing the 
jrtd.Engbsbtwordibrjearttcp^ke.!? > -'-. • » •' ' 
In the Parliamentary Histoiy, ^me iiotfc<^ is tabto of 
tibe:«jieech.whichy aa^dtancelloY of Ekigland, CcKirtney 
pade at the opeoiag of . the parUanteat in 1S99; ' The 
9)jrords: which be took fbr^bis.theme^ wave r^jttfmvenit^JMi 
cttmUiymf and at ir.siad that be «iiade a aotaMe oratioif 
Hfipii it in English. He applied bia text to cfae good ImnI 
virtuous gofjaroiaeiit of the kingdom during bifr r^igfi. ' No 
'€igD> ..the. archbishop affinned, could 'long eiidul^, if^t# 
r^ it, to remedy which evil the psirliaaient wai^ caltedf 
tb^iaw^dthen in being not having been found effe^taalto 
tbatfiatposa? . . • «: 

i; ■' r. . ..■. - •' .'.'.. . . ' ' - iv  » - .V :: • ^. . . . . . - * .» •- .  „ 

 Biog. Brit.~Parker de Antiq. Brit Eccles.— Whartoa'i AngUa Sacn.-« 
Priiice;» ]^or|bi08 of jP«yoj^-^Gow|^> Sepalchral Moajijoten^ Jntrg^* tOf oi. Il» 

C O Ufi IN- 3TO 

' COURTOIS (Jamss and WiULiAM). Sde COATE8L 

COUSIN (GiLWERt), in Latiuy COaifi^Vfi^ « lesnled 
writer, of the sixteeath oeniurj, wasibornat No^eriet^ in 
Fraac)ie-Ooml!6y Jao^ ^ly .1506. Hitti&g a ttlfii for ttes 
lawy ineweiit tostiHlytat DoktD 152i6, but lil^t relishing it 
^^tfker six months application,: be entered up<>li a course of 
-dtvifi^y^ andkbd:ng introduced to Erasmos, was employed 
by him lis an amanu^sis or copyisti Sraamus also in- 
'^iriicted tbe learned languages' aad in polite litera-* 
•ture. In 1536 tbe prince of Orange conferred on him a 
canonry of St.: Antony at NoEeret^ in coBA^Uenee of wfaicfa 
preferment, he was. obliged to leairef:Edrasi9iU»| who es- 
prfesaed a very high regard for bioi in ae^efal of his letters. 
When establiahed at Nozeret, be appears to have tanght 
sebool. la 1558, he accompanied tbe archbishop of Be- 
Sanson on a tonr into Italy ; but bdng soon after suspected 
of heresy, be was arrested by order of pope Pius V. and 
thrown into prison, in died in 1567. It is gene« 
rally, agrei^d that; he inclined in some measure to the senti* 
ments of the reformers^ His works, of which a>collectioa 
was published in 1562, 3 vols, folio^ at Basle, consist df 
iranslatioBs firoin various authors^ a treatise on grammar, 
erroneously ascribed to.St. Baail ; Latin disserti^ims ;«leii« 
ters ; historical and critical treatises, &Ci Niceron has ati 
elaborate mrticle on tbaa author; and in 1775 was published 
at Altorf, ^VComanentatio de vita Gilberti CogiMi^ et 
CiMBimentatio d€i scripiis,-' by Schwartz 4co^ "^Cou^n^s 
notes upon. Lueian.arein JBourdelot'^ edition of that classic, 
1615, folio, but had been publisbed before by himself, .m 
an^itioin printed at;BMil,. 1563, and reprh^ted in 1^02, 
and 16)9, 4, vols. 8vo.* . 

COUSIN (James Aktony Josbph), an excellent French 
geometrician, a member of the old ^adei»y of sciences, 
and moiie' recently of .the coneterv^^ive aenate, , and tbe na- 
tional insti4ute^of Frsmce; was b^^rn atLParis^ Jan. 28, 17 SB^ 
and was early diatia^isbed for literary iad^stiy, and hablu 
of study and reflection, i^bicb were confined at la(st to the 
pursuit of mathemMical knowledge itnd natural philoso- 
phy. In 1766 he was appointed professor of the latter in 
the college of Franoe^ as coadjutor ^.L,e Monnier, which 
situation he filled for tbiKty*two yeiirs with .great reputation. 
In 1769 he vtras appointed professor of, mathematics in. the 

> Moreri.— Saxti Oaomast.-^ Jonin'i EfasnaL-^Niceron, v«l.X3tlV. 

Vol. X. B B 

470 C O UJBvl If. 

militiLry.flobool ; in il^Sbe ^as^aEdinfeled iate the acd<temy 

;jQf saittiieieaaiad)oiafr-gcota^ery ai|d iii'1797 heptlbKsAied 

.th^:6n^'4»iiUQrEi of >bis4esacmB oo the'^Caicfal difienmliei, 

4^ C^lcoli: ititcgntl,'^ ^ yob* ISn^iOj: icqsrintedf.iti 1796 and 

'}^.d7y4|i 2 vols.^lx)^^«viork whubmraifesM tfae4Ac^h'a^ 

.precbioii 4ifihi9;geoiMlricftI t^nowledge. ^ In 1787 he^ptAiK 

;li9bQd his ^^ inlyedtaeUDtt a«'l':etQde deVAwtumovM^fity-' 

-sique/' %70«;^4iad itt 17^9/ ^^ <::Efc9nieMu d*A%ebre,'* 8to. 

Tlteve aie.^lsDtiiwrioifir i^«iays^ byUm in tkfe Memoini'of'tb^ 

'Aoademy 'Of Scieoctts. In 1791 he ^vM appdtnu^d itwiilt* 

: cjpal offictttf of tfa«: eemiiKuie of Ptti^^ «nd his office being 

10 pro^^'tfatt m^tropelis with proi^isiotii at chut dtetrdot^eid 

paviddy he nuMt fa«(re executed its duties vmhno dotnaion 

pradence and skill to have gima satisfiicttiocir In 199^ hp 

resumed his profesaor^s chair in the college of iVanee^^tid 

in 1 799 was chosen a member : of: the eonsefrfati^e senate; 

His conduct m political life we are unacqusimed mA. Hef 

^led M Paris DeoeoihferSO^ lllMi ^ 

COUSIN (JoiiN)> an 'eminent Freneh attis^ a^d tte 

^eai^liest^ historical painrter Fmiice pvodtioed^ ^was bofn tft 

Sotici near Sens, iir 1530i and 4Stndied the ^fine ^ar^ sb 

s^enuonsly ' in bis yoi]^, v that, lie • beeante 'profoutifdly 

learned, espedatly^in the^mMbematlci^ . i^mting on^-glass 

being very mtich io^regneL in those day% • he apptied -him.. 

solf more to tiiat than to the idhMMring^picteros. Seyeral 

fine performances. of iiis are to be sem^ in'tire cbarcbes' of 

the neighbenrhoedof 4Sei)s, and.scHiein Paris ^ pariiMierly 

w St. Geryase'S' eherch, where^ • on 4he> : widdewf cif^ thJ& 

»ohoir^: he pointed die martyrdofD of ^t'lAUt^nee, the bH^ 

'toi^'of^ the ^QKsrilan' woman, ai»d that ef tli^paralyfie; 

There are iseyeral of his pictured in the' city- of' 8ensY 

aft also some portrtiits^ Btit the chief of his. i^oncis,' UhA that 

.iN^ii^ samosnesteeiMed) i^bis picttMe^^thet^flst Judgmont,' 

in the sacristy e